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Chapter 9 Stoichiometry

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**CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry**

Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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**CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry**

Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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**CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry**

The branch of chemistry that deals with the mass relationships of elements in compounds and the mass relationships between reactants and products in a reaction is called Stoichiometry. Reaction Stoichiometry involves the mass relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Composition Stoichiometry involves the mass relationships of elements in compounds. N2O5

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**Applications of Stoichiometry**

CHEMICAL BONDING Applications of Stoichiometry Chemical Industry Pharmacology Pharmacy

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**Reaction Stoichiometry Problems**

CHEMICAL BONDING Reactants Products P4 (s) Cl2 (g) PCl3 (s) 1 molecule molecules molecules 1 mole moles moles 124 g g g (= 124 g + 425g)

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**CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry**

Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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CHEMICAL BONDING Mole-Mass Problems A B Moles A Moles B Mass B (grams)

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Mass-Mole Problems CHEMICAL BONDING A B Mass A (grams) Moles A Moles B

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**CHEMICAL BONDING Mass-Mass Problems A B Mass A (grams) Moles A Moles B**

Mass B (grams)

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**Molar mass is the mass, in grams, of one mole of substance**

CHEMICAL BONDING Molar mass is the mass, in grams, of one mole of substance 2 Al2O3 (l) Al (s) + 3O2 (g) 102 g Al2O3 1 mol Al2O3 27.0 g Al 1 mol Al 1 mole Al 1 mol O2 32.0 g O2 OR

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**substances involved in a chemical reaction**

CHEMICAL BONDING Mole Ratio Mole ratio is a conversion factor that relates the number of moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction 2 mol Al2O3 4 mol Al OR 2 Al2O3 (l) Al (s) + 3O2 (g) 3 mol O2

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**Reaction Stoichiometry Problems**

CHEMICAL BONDING Reaction Stoichiometry Problems Mass A (grams) Moles A Moles B Mole Ratio X x 1 molar mass of A Moles B Mass B (grams) molar mass of B x

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Mole-Mole Problems CHEMICAL BONDING A B Moles A Moles B

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**CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry**

Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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**Limiting Reactants 3 Groups of Reactants 3 hamburger patties**

6 hamburger buns 3 hamburger patties 12 slices of cheese

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**Limiting Reactants Extra Reagents Products 3 hamburger buns**

6 slices of cheese

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**CHEMICAL BONDING Percent Yield Actual Yield Percent Yield = X 100**

Theoretical Yield: is the maxi- mum amount that can be produced from a given amount of reactants. Actual Yield: is the measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction. Percent Yield = X 100 Actual Yield Theoretical Yield

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SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY

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**Solution Concentration**

6 M HCl 12 M H2SO4 3 M HNO3 1 M NaOH What is M means ???????

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**Molarity is a way to represent the concentration of solutions**

Moles of Solute Volume of Solution Molarity = M = moles / Liter

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Concentration of Ions Ionic compounds break into ions in the aqueous solution NaCl Na Cl- 6 M M M K2CO K CO32- 6 M x 6 M M Al2(SO4) Al SO42- 6 M x 6 M x 6 M

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**Extensive use in Laboratory**

Molarity by Dilution Extensive use in Laboratory We have 12M HCl solution, we need to make 500 mL of 3 M HCl solution. How do we make it????? M1 . V1 = M2 . V2 12M . V1 = 3 M mL V1 = mL

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Stoichiometry. What Is It? Branch of chemistry that shows the relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction Equations must be balanced.

Stoichiometry. What Is It? Branch of chemistry that shows the relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction Equations must be balanced.

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