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Stoichiometry Chapter 9

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CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry The branch of chemistry that deals with the mass relationships of elements in compounds and the mass relationships between reactants and products in a reaction is called Stoichiometry. Composition Stoichiometry involves the mass relationships of elements in compounds. N 2 O 5 Reaction Stoichiometry involves the mass relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

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CHEMICAL BONDING Applications of Stoichiometry Pharmacology Pharmacy Chemical Industry

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CHEMICAL BONDING Reaction Stoichiometry Problems ReactantsProducts P 4 (s) + 6 Cl 2 (g) 4 PCl 3 (s) 1 molecule 6 molecules 4 molecules 1 mole 6.00 moles 4.00 moles 124 g 425 g 549 g (= 124 g + 425g)

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CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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CHEMICAL BONDING Mole-Mass Problems Moles AMoles BMass B (grams) A B

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CHEMICAL BONDING Mass-Mole Problems A B Mass A (grams) Moles AMoles B

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CHEMICAL BONDING Mass-Mass Problems A B Mass A (grams) Moles AMoles BMass B (grams)

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CHEMICAL BONDING Molar Mass Molar mass is the mass, in grams, of one mole of substance 2 Al 2 O 3 (l) 4 Al (s) + 3O 2 (g) 102 g Al 2 O 3 1 mol Al 2 O g Al 1 mol Al 1 mole Al 27.0 g Al 1 mol O g O 2 1 mol O 2 1 mol Al 2 O g Al 2 O 3 OR

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CHEMICAL BONDING Mole Ratio 2 mol Al 2 O 3 4 mol Al 2 mol Al 2 O 3 OR 2 Al 2 O 3 (l) 4 Al (s) + 3O 2 (g) 3 mol O 2 2 mol Al 2 O 3 3 mol O 2 4 mol Al 3 mol O 2 Mole ratio is a conversion factor that relates the number of moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction

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CHEMICAL BONDING Reaction Stoichiometry Problems Mass B (grams) Moles B Mass A (grams) Moles A Moles B Mole Ratio Moles A X x 1 molar mass of A molar mass of B x

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CHEMICAL BONDING Mole-Mole Problems A B Moles AMoles B

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CHEMICAL BONDING Stoichiometry Introduction to Stoichiometry Applications of Stoichiometry Reaction-Stoichiometry Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Mole-Mole Calculations Mole-Mass Calculations Mass-Mole Calculations Mass-Mass Calculations Limiting Reactants and Percent Yield Limiting Reactants Percent Yield

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3 hamburger patties 12 slices of cheese 6 hamburger buns 3 Groups of Reactants Limiting Reactants

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Extra Reagents 3 hamburger buns 6 slices of cheese Products Limiting Reactants

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CHEMICAL BONDING Percent Yield Theoretical Yield: is the maxi- mum amount that can be produced from a given amount of reactants. Actual Yield: is the measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction. Percent Yield = X 100 Actual Yield Theoretical Yield

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SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY

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Solution Concentration 6 M HCl 12 M H 2 SO 4 3 M HNO 3 1 M NaOH What is M means ???????

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MOLARITY Molarity is a way to represent the concentration of solutions Molarity = Moles of Solute Volume of Solution M = moles / Liter

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Concentration of Ions Ionic compounds break into ions in the aqueous solution NaCl Na + Cl - 6 M 6 M 6 M K 2 CO 3 2 K + CO M 2 x 6 M 6 M Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 2 Al 3+ 3 SO M 2 x 6 M 3 x 6 M

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Molarity by Dilution Extensive use in Laboratory We have 12M HCl solution, we need to make 500 mL of 3 M HCl solution. How do we make it????? M 1. V 1 = M 2. V 2 12M. V 1 = 3 M. 500 mL V 1 = 125 mL

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