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© Intercultural Studies Group Universitat Rovira i Virgili Plaça Imperial Tàrraco Tarragona Fax: (++ 34) What happened to equivalence? Anthony Pym
© Intercultural Studies Group Basic equivalence? 1 yard = meters 1 RMB = euros
© Intercultural Studies Group Basic equivalence?
© Intercultural Studies Group Basic equivalence 2 Natural equivalence vs. Directional equivalence
© Intercultural Studies Group Types of directional equivalence Formal vs. Dynamic (Nida) Semantic vs. Communicative (Newmark) Anti-illusory vs. Illusory (Levy) Overt vs. Covert (House) Adequate vs. Acceptable (Toury) Documental vs. Instrumental (Nord) Resistant vs. Transparent (Venuti) Ut interpres vs. Ut orator (Cicero)
© Intercultural Studies Group A necessarily binary theory? Yes, because theories of equivalence always oppose function to form.
© Intercultural Studies Group A non-binary theory? Werner Koller (1979): Five frames for these equivalence relations: denotative (based on extra-linguistic factors), connotative (based on way the source text is verbalized) text-normative (textual and linguistic norms), pragmatic (with respect to the receiver of the target text) formal (the formal-aesthetic qualities of the source text).
© Intercultural Studies Group Equivalence defines translation? We know we have translation when: There are problems with footing: “Mum says…” The “alien I” There are pseudotranslations
© Intercultural Studies Group Another non-binary theory Otto Kade (1968): One-to-one equivalence One-to-many equivalence One-to-none equivalence
© Intercultural Studies Group A historical theory? Equivalence presupposes languages with equal capacity to perform functions. Medieval theory does not presuppose equivalence. Nor does postmodern theory?
© Intercultural Studies Group Please translate… Welcome to Dragon NaturallySpeaking, Canada’s most acclaimed large-vocabulary continuous-speech dictation system. With Dragon NaturallySpeaking you can compose messages, create reports, draft letters, edit proposals, create reports, and more, all by speaking to your computer instead of typing.
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Glossary – key terms Text – an example of spoken or written language for analysis Classification – identifying types of items based on similarities Mode.
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