Presentation on theme: "Domestic Violence and the risk it poses for children and young people"— Presentation transcript:
1 Domestic Violence and the risk it poses for children and young people Increase knowledge regarding identification, assessment and disclosureDomestic Violence Risk Assessment Model (DVRAM) which incorporates Risk Identification Matrix (DVRIM) implemented within London Safeguarding Board’s procedure- ‘Safeguarding Children Abused through Domestic Violence’ Maddie Bell Domestic Violence Consultant e mail:
2 Barnardo’s Domestic Violence Risk Assessment Model (DVRAM) which has developed DVRIM - Domestic Violence Risk Identification MatrixBackground:Adapted from a manual produced by the Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services in CanadaPiloted with Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland over a 5 year period supported by the Domestic Violence Regional Steering Group-Support for Children’s Evaluated by Martin Calder (London and NI.)
3 Barnardo’s Domestic Violence Risk Assessment Model which has developed DVRIM Principles of the Model:Protecting children is the first priorityProtecting the non-abusing parent usually the mother helpsprotect the childProviding supportive resourcesPerpetrators are responsible for their abusive behaviourRespecting the non-abusing parents’ right to direct their lifewithout placing children at increase risk of further abuse.
4 London Safeguarding Board Policy: ‘Safeguarding Children Abused Through Domestic Violence’ London Safeguarding Board in it’s policy document ‘Safeguarding Children Abused through Domestic Violence’. Barnardo’s Domestic Violence Risk Identification Matrix is a key multi-agency assessment tool in assessing the level of risk to children who experience domestic violence.The Matrix has been designed to work in conjunction with CAF, SPECSS, MARAC, CAADA and MASRAM.
5 What was the family’s experience of domestic violence What was the family’s experience of domestic violence? – London Serious Case ReviewsMother was suffering or had suffered domestic violence (56%)The percentage of child protection cases involving domestic violence: 52%Nearly 75% of children on the CPR live in households where domestic violence occurs
6 Shaken BabiesShaken baby cases where domestic violence was present: 66%In the remaining 33% of cases there was no information to indicate whether or not domestic violence was presentIn the cases where the child was scalded by the mother, there was significant domestic violence
7 Serious case review research PHYSICAL ASSAULT AND HEAD INJURIES IN BABIES Factors linked to the child’s fatherThere was domestic violence in most of the households where children were living (see environmental features) and this was most often linked directly to the child’s father (or their mother’s partner) who often had a history of living in a violent household as a child.Where information was recorded about fathers or father figures, behavioural problems in childhood were common. Current links with probation and mental health agencies were more frequent than links with children’s social care.For some fathers there was a past history of contact with children’s social care.
8 Serious case review research PHYSICAL ASSAULT AND HEAD INJURIES IN BABIES Factors linked to the child’s motherA history of witnessing domestic violence in childhood, sometimes, but not always, linked to parental separation.Current or recent domestic violence, including domestic violence during pregnancy, sometimes requiring hospital admission.The effects of domestic violence on the child were minimised by the mother.Significant maternal illness during pregnancy, including illness requiring hospital admission, sometimes including discharging self against medical advice.For some a history of mental health difficulties. Past but rarely current involvement with children’s social care, CAMHS, or other mental health services.A minority had a known history of sexual abuse.Some had learning difficulties or SEN statements when at school, and some were aggressive/violent at school and/or at home.Some young mothers were described as “immature”, in comparison with other young mothers, with many having “poor temper control”.Concerted efforts to conceal identity and whereabouts, for example moving frequently and changing name several times.Partner or father is an adult who poses a risk to a child (known as schedule 1 offender).
9 Serious Case Review Research Eco-Transactional Factors Understanding Interaction of risk factors is ‘Key’This is difficult for the medical and health care staff as there will be patchy information about parents and environmental factors.
10 Interacting risk factors: an Ecological-transactional perspective Importance of understanding parental psychologyImportance of historical context and a dynamic, analytical assessment (not incident driven)Consider dynamics of engagement with professionals (resistance, uncooperative)
11 Barnardo’s Domestic Violence Risk Assessment Model (DVRAM)- Incorporates Four Tools Multi-agency Domestic Violence Risk Identification Matrix in the format of 4 threshold scales (DVRIM) – links to CAF and MARAC assessment processesSocial Care Initial Assessment (DVRAM) –Sect. 17 & 47 to include Children's Safety Assessment (to be piloted in NI in 2009/10)Social Care Core Assessment (DVRAM)- Sect.47Safety intervention with children and mothersMentoring support group work programme for social care staff to support implementation of model’s tools – six months duration
12 London Safeguarding Domestic Violence policy implementing Barnardo’s Domestic violence multi-agency Risk Assessment MatrixObjectives of DVRIMTo assist multi-agency and social care staff to identify risks tochildren from domestic violenceTo assist multi-agency and social care staff in decisionswhether a case presents as in need of a safeguarding responseor family supportTo help staff to make appropriate interventions for children,non-abusing parent and perpetratorsTo provide a specific domestic violence risk assessmentformat within initial and core assessments within social careTo provide a model of safety intervention work for womenand children
13 Child in Need Child’s Developmental Needs Parenting Capacity Identifying Children in Need using CAF–Domestic Violence impacts on at least 80 % of assessment areas in child’s developmental needs, parenting capacity and family and environmental factorsBasic careHealthEducationEnsuring SafetyBehavioural needsEmotional &Emotional WarmthChild in NeedSafeguardingandPromoting TheirWelfareIdentityChild’s Developmental NeedsParenting CapacityFamily & SocialRelationshipsStimulationPresentationSocialGuidance &BoundariesSelf CareSkillsStabilityFamily & Environmental FactorsCommunityResourcesIncomeFamily’s SocialIntegrationWider FamilyFamily History &FunctioningEmploymentHousing
15 High risk factors within the Matrix are built on:- References/Influential Research Practice & Consultancy - Victim Focussed Risk Factors:Guidance on Investigating Domestic Violence 2005 –produced on behalf of the Association of Chief PoliceOfficers by the National Centre for Police ExcellenceMPS – Metropolitan Police Service Risk Assessment Model forDomestic ViolenceThese factors are based on research and analysis conductedby the Understanding and Responding to Hate Crime Team,2001 and on SARA (Spousal Assault Risk Assessment)SARA (Spousal Assault Risk Assessment ) developed byR.KroppCAADA and MARAC ( former Cardiff police Domestic Abuse Report) – Initial Risk Assessment- SPECSS, CUSSCAAM
16 High risk factors within the Matrix are built on:- Child Focussed Risk FactorsEvidence based practice – NI and London ( Barnet)-application of risk assessment threshold scales to over 250social work cases.Serious Case Review Research UK June 2007-M. Brandon andLondon Serious Case Reviews 2007M. Calder: Consultancy on domestic violence risk factorswithin ethnic minority groupsC. Bell: Towards an empirical basis for Domestic ViolenceRisk Assessment. In Assessment in Kinship Care, by Talbot, C& Calder, M (2006)CAF – common assessment framework
17 Barnardo's Multi-Agency Domestic Violence Risk Identification Matrix (DVRIM): within the new London procedures-Safeguarding Children Abused Through Domestic ViolenceA multi-agency assessment framework which assesses thelevel of risk to a child/young person who is experiencingdomestic violence in their family using a four levels thresholdscale matrix (section 9.2 of London procedures)It also assesses the level of risk to the mother- incorporatingadult focussed risk factors from SPECSS and MARAC(section 9)It identifies the nature and level of the perpetrator's violenceand abuse (supports Section 9-1-4)It indicates the level of intervention required to support andsafeguard children and in doing so also can be used to protectmother ( section 9.2)It begins to examine the impact of the domestic violence onthe child and mother( section 8 and 9)
18 Responding to Domestic Violence where there are no children in the household: Establish if woman is a vulnerable adult –refer to POVAproceduresUse risk identification matrix to assess the level of risk ofharm to womanRefer the woman to local DV agency – if risk of harm is atthreshold 3 consider making a referral into the MARACprocess and threshold 4 –make referral to MARAC
19 London Safeguarding Procedures for Multi-Agency Risk Identification Matrix (DVRIM): Each threshold scale has categories to assist the professionalto think through what the information they have is aboutEvidence of domestic violence-this is the most significantdeterminate of the scales – attention to severity, frequency,pattern and duration of domestic violence incidentCharacteristics of the child or situation which are additionalrisk factors/potential vulnerabilities: these are factors that mayincrease the risk to childrenCharacteristics of the child or situation which are protectivefactors. Professionals should keep in mind that protectivefactors may help to mitigate risk factors and potentialvulnerabilitiesThe matrix also identifies the risks to mothers and enhances the use of SPECCS, MARAC and MASRAM processes
20 London Safeguarding Procedures for Multi-Agency Risk Identification Matrix (DVRIM): The younger the child(ren) the higher the risk to their safety. Any child aged under 7 or child with special needs in the family can raise the threshold to scale 3/4 as child(ren) may be potentially at risk of significant harm and referral into Social Care – for section 17 or section 47 – WHY?Young children have no or extremely limited self-protection strategies and they seek out mother’s comfort when anxious/upset-they are often ‘caught up’ or ‘come down’ into the DV incident.Older children can develop short-term coping strategies that may keep them safe in the ‘short term’ but all children suffer from ‘potential or actual ‘emotional abuse.All children who experience DV in their families are exposed to hostile/tense family environments, AND they can directly witness, intervene or be directly physically abused or sexually abusedChild who ‘summons help’ are at increased risk as they may be ‘punished’ by abuser for ‘calling in’ professional help.
21 Factors that increase vulnerability/ level of risk to child: Duration of the domestic violence incidentSeverity of the domestic violence and abuseAge of children and age range of children within the family:Children under 12 months including an unborn child-even ifthe child was not present, any single incident of DV will fallwithin scale 4-Section 47 enquiry - referral to LA children’ssocial careChildren or a mother with special needs- (mother may be avulnerable adult - consult POVA)Interlinking risk factors/cluster effect: substance misuse,mental health issues, neglect/parenting issues, age and agedisparities of mother/father/father figure/adult learning difficultiesVulnerable history of both women and abuserChild/ren or mothers from a BMER communityChild/ren being physically and sexually abusedChild/ren may be perpetrating abuse towards other family members
22 Risk Identification Matrix Threshold scales 1 and 2 assess the domestic abuse as moderate and family support is deemed the supportive intervention. An assessment may be completed one each child in family/household.Scale 2 has a specific risk factor regarding the age ofchildren living in the family – the age of the childincreases the level of risk and can raise the thresholdscale for the family to scale 3.
23 Risk Identification Matrix Scales 3 and 4 assesses the severity of domestic violence as serious and severe with increasing concern regarding children’s well being due to additional contributory risk factorsAn assessment is required-Level 3 –section and level 4 Section 47At level 3 safeguarding procedures may be initiated
24 DVRAM Tool Two: Social Care Domestic Violence Initial Assessment tool Area ASSESS THE NATURE OF THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCEGuidance Triggers:Severity of the incidents - Pattern, frequency and duration/process of domestic violence-not isolate incidentPerpetrator’s level of dangerous –weapons, criminal history ( refer to threshold scales)Is mother pregnant?Escalation of abuse-separation violence, stalking/harassment and use of isolation.Is there protracted custody and contact disputesPrior evidence of victim or perpetrator being in an abusive relationshipUse of separation violence/retaliation abusive/threatening behaviour of perpetratorCo-existence of child abuse, child sexual abuse, parental mental health problems, substance misuseParental learning difficulties
25 DVRAM Tool Two: Social Care Domestic Violence Initial Assessment tool Area 2 ASSESS RISKS TO CHILDREN/YOUNG PEOPLEGuidance Triggers:Age range of children under 7 yrs (young children/children with special needs increases risk) How where children caught up in the abuse, directly witnessed, intervened, coerced into abuse of mother, summoned help?- children who summons help are at an increased risk of further abuse from perpetrator/mother.Child’s demeanour’s i.e.. duration of incident, child’s actions during incident, impact on child (aftermath of incident-days following)Evidence of child being exposed to domestic violence:-changes in child’s demeanour/behaviour: self harm, exhibiting distracted behaviours (lack of concentration), aggressive, concerning behaviour, young carer responsibilities ,child neglect, bulling or being bullied, over-eager to be and remain in schoolBMER ( black,minority,ethnic,refugee) issues causing concern in child’s current family circumstances
26 DVRAM Tool Two: Social Care Domestic Violence Initial Assessment tool Area 3 ASSESS PROTECTIVE FACTORSGuidance Triggers:Woman’s acknowledges risks to self and childrenWoman is receptive to supportive services –is risk level is high woman will separate and go to safe accommodationSignificant ‘safe other’/positive family supportPerpetrator has made “initial attempts” to be accountable for his abusive behaviour – compliant, unsure of motivation to seek appropriate helpProtective orders in place/being sought – but recent separation does not guarantee safety – risk of separation violence, retaliation violence or reconciliationRisk matrix scale level and summary of risk factors identified in family
27 DVRAM Tool Three : Domestic Violence Core Assessment Tool for social care staff undertaking section 17 and section 47 Enquires
28 Domestic Violence Core Assessment –Nine assessment areas Assess the nature of the violenceAssess risks to the children posed by the perpetratorAssess the risk of life-threatening abuseAssess the perpetrator’s pattern of assault and coercive behaviours.Assess the impact of the violence on the childrenAssess the impact of the abuse on the womanAssess the impact of the abuse on parenting rolesAssess protective factorsAssess the outcome of the woman’s past help seekingEach of these areas is broken down further into what we call ‘ Trigger areas’ – these provide a structure to enable sw to collect specific detailed information or identify where there are gaps in information. I will now go through ? areas
29 Mentoring Programme for DVRAM Mentoring programme for DVRAM provided input on:Engaging with perpetrator-guidance for social care staff undertaking an initial interview with an abuserChildren’s resilience-guidance on variation of impact on child/ren and possible resilient factorsA framework for assessing female use of violence within an intimate adult relationship.Parenting style of an abuser –an assessment of an abuser’s parenting roleThese additional frameworks need to be developed as appendixes to the DVRAM core assessment tool
30 DVRAM’s Tool Four: Safety Interventions with Women and Children/Young People-a Parallel Intervention
31 Safety Planning- steps with women 1. Personnel safety when he is threatening or being violent.2. Personnel safety when preparing to leave.3. Personnel safety when you are no longer living with with your abusive partner.4. Personnel safety and your emotional health.
32 Safety Steps 5. Personnel safety when you are working/in public. 6. Personnel safety when you are using alcohol/drugs.7. Personnel safety with orders of protection.8. Personnel safety and my children.
33 Safety Planning with Children 5yrs to 12 yrs –using talking pictures-for both front line staff and supportive DV services
34 Children’s Safety Steps Sometimes things are OKin my family but sometimesmy parents fight and my dadhurts my mum.
35 Children’s Safety Steps I can keep ‘myself safe’ when dad hurts mum by staying in my bedroom
36 Children’s Safety Steps Keeping myself safe bystaying ‘out of dad andmum’s fights
37 Key Safety Messages to Children Child is not to blame when dad hits mumDomestic violence is not children’s fault. It is an adult problem. Child need to go to a safe place when dad is hurting mumMum wants you to go to your safe placeStay out of the fights as dad could hurt you tooChildren who summons help; use of mobile phone-Professionals be aware that child can be ‘punished’ for summoning help by parents so must seek mother’s consent to teach child how to use 999 in their safety planChildren don’t have to keep secrets when they are being hurt and abusedChildren don’t have to keep secrets when they are feeling scaredJust because mum argues with dad or dad feels angry with mum,doesn’t make it OK for him to hit her.
38 Barnardo's DVRIM with London procedures and DVRAM within Social Care-Benefits Increased staff awareness and understanding of the dynamics of DV and the risks it poses for children, young people and victimsAn improvement in social workers ability to respond more effectively to domestic violence and assess risks to children and young peopleIncreased safety measures for children and young people in families where domestic violence occursNon-abusing parent will be more aware of the risks posed by domestic violence which can enable the non-abusing parent to keep themselves and their children safer.More accurate risk assessments within core and initial assessment processesMore children will be identified requiring support.Children/ YP and the non-abusive parent will learn skills to keep themselves safeParallel domestic violence risk assessment process alongside adult risk assessment– model matches up with MARAC SPECCS and CAADA assessmentIt is an holistic assessment modelUsers perspective on the impact of the assessment tool would be beneficial
39 Barnardo's DVRIM with London procedures and DVRAM within Social Care-Benefits More comprehensive assessment of familiesProvides a consistent framework to assessing level of riskIncrease safeguarding of children with greater informeddecision making.Greater focus on the needs of children and victimsOffers holistic support to familiesGreater support to staff dealing with domestic violence casesIt enhances the assessment process within CAF as a specificrisk assessment tool for domestic violenceIt supports the five outcomes within Every Child MattersMaintains the focus of domestic violence as a main concernwithin the assessment framework without marginalising anyother significant concern
40 New Risk Factors identified in DVRIM this year in NI as it develops and is implemented within social care assessment processes:Child who summons help – use of 999 AND Child who discloses domestic violence may be at risk of adverse reaction (be punished) by abusive father/father figureand also mother for summoning help - needs a section 47 response from Social CareUse of social care complaints procedures to obstruct social care assessment and monitoring work- is a another contributing risk factor to Agency Assessment Paralysis – a risk factor identified in serious case review research.
41 Specific risk considerations to be developed as appendix to DVRIM • Risk factors associated with ‘Female use ofphysical violence’• Risk factors associated with female perpetrators ofDomestic violence abuse• Risk factors associated with same-sex domestic violence• Risk factors associated with young people perpetratorsof domestic violence• Risk factors associated with domestic violence andcontact considerations• Risk factors associate with domestic violence in pre-birth risk assessments