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© 2010 Cengage Learning 1 Organizational Communication.

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1 © 2010 Cengage Learning 1 Organizational Communication

2 © 2010 Cengage Learning 2 Exercise 11.1 Think of a situation in which you and another person did not communicate effectively. Describe what happened. Why you think the miscommunication took place?

3 © 2010 Cengage Learning 3 Types of Organizational Communication Upward Downward Business Informal Interpersonal

4 © 2010 Cengage Learning 4 Organizational Communication Upward Communication Serial communication –MUM effect –open-door policy Attitude surveys Focus groups Exit interviews Suggestion boxes Third party facilitators –Liaison –Ombudsperson

5 © 2010 Cengage Learning 5 Organizational Communication Downward Communication Bulletin boards Policy manuals Newsletters Intranets

6 © 2010 Cengage Learning 6 Organizational Communication Business Communication Memos Telephone calls Email Voice mail Business meetings

7 © 2010 Cengage Learning 7 Email Etiquette Include a greeting Included a detailed subject line Don’t write in all caps Delete unnecessary information when forwarding email Avoid grammar and spelling mistakes Don’t spend company time on personal email Allow ample time for a person to respond

8 © 2010 Cengage Learning 8 Voice Mail Etiquette Speak slowly Give your name at the beginning of the message and then repeat it at the end Spell your name Leave your phone number Indicate good times for the person to return your call Don’t ramble Don’t include information you don’t want others to hear

9 © 2010 Cengage Learning 9 Office Design Designs –Open (landscaped) offices bullpen design uniform design –Cubicles –Private offices Research on open designs –decreased satisfaction –increased socialization –decreased costs

10 © 2010 Cengage Learning 10 Office Layout Furniture type Desk placement Neatness/clutter Artifacts Windows

11 © 2010 Cengage Learning 11 Organizational Communication Informal Communication Grapevine –single-strand pattern –gossip pattern –probability pattern –cluster pattern Gossip Rumor

12 © 2010 Cengage Learning 12 Single Strand Jones Smith Brown Tinker Evers Grapevine Patterns Gossip Tinker Brown EversFrey Smith ChanceMartin Austin Jones

13 © 2010 Cengage Learning 13 Probability Brown Alston Evers Chance Frey Martin Smith Jones Tinker Cluster Brown Smith Frey Alston Martin Tinker Evers Chance Jones

14 © 2010 Cengage Learning 14 Informal Communication Exercise 11.2

15 © 2010 Cengage Learning 15 Interpersonal Communication The exchange of a message across a communication channel from one person to another Three problem areas –Intended message versus message sent –Message sent versus message received –Message received versus message interpreted

16 © 2010 Cengage Learning 16 Encodes Message Sends Message Receives Message Decodes Message Sender Receiver What I want to say What I say I hear her say I think she means

17 © 2010 Cengage Learning 17 Problem Area I: Intended Message Versus Message Sent Think about what you want to communicate Practice what you want to communicate Learn better communication skills

18 © 2010 Cengage Learning 18 Problem Area II: Message Sent Versus Message Received Actual words used Communication channel Noise Nonverbal cues Paralanguage Artifacts Amount of information

19 © 2010 Cengage Learning 19 Actual Words Used The word “fine” –to describe jewelry –to describe the weather –to describe food or sex The applicant was a: –female –girl –babe –woman

20 © 2010 Cengage Learning 20 Use concrete words and ask how the other person might interpret your message Avoid such words as: –as soon as possible –I’ll be back soon –I’ll be out for a while Why not be specific? –Avoid confrontation –“test the water” –Avoid being the bad guy (MUM effect)

21 © 2010 Cengage Learning 21 Gender Differences in Communication (Tannen, 1986 & 1990) Men –Talk about major events –Tell the main point –Are more direct –Use “uh-huh” to agree –Are comfortable with silence –Concentrate on the words spoken –Sidetrack unpleasant topics Women –Talk about daily life –Provide details –Are more indirect –Use “uh-huh” to listen –Are less comfortable with silence –Concentrate on nonverbal cues and paralanguage –Focus on unpleasant topics

22 © 2010 Cengage Learning 22 Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus

23 © 2010 Cengage Learning 23 Communication Channels Oral –in-person –word-of-mouth –answering machine Nonverbal Written –personal letter/memo –general letter/memo –email

24 © 2010 Cengage Learning 24 Noise Actual noise Appropriateness of the channel Bias Feelings about the person communicating Mood Perceived motives

25 © 2010 Cengage Learning 25 Nonverbal Cues Are ambiguous Those that aren’t, are called emblems Gender and cultural differences are common Nonverbal cues are thought to be 80% of the message received

26 © 2010 Cengage Learning 26 Nonverbal Cues Include Eye contact Expressions Micro-expressions Posture Arm and leg use Motion Touching

27 © 2010 Cengage Learning 27 Nonverbal Cues Exercise 11.3

28 © 2010 Cengage Learning 28 Use of Space Intimacy zone –0 to 18 inches –close relationships Personal distance zone –18 inches to 4 feet –friends and acquaintances Social distance zone –4 to 12 feet –business contacts and strangers Public distance zone –12 to 25 feet

29 © 2010 Cengage Learning 29 Use of Time Being late Leaving a meeting early Setting aside time for a meeting Multi-tasking (working while talking)

30 © 2010 Cengage Learning 30 Basic Assumptions About Nonverbal Cues & Paralanguage People are different in their use of nonverbal cues and paralanguage Standard differences among people reveal information about the person Changes in a person’s style reveal new messages

31 © 2010 Cengage Learning 31 Paralanguage Rate of speech Loudness Intonation Amount of talking Voice pitch Pauses

32 © 2010 Cengage Learning 32 The Importance of Inflection I did not say Bill stole your car. I did not say Bill store your car. I did not say Bill stole your car.

33 © 2010 Cengage Learning 33 Artifacts Our office –décor –desk placement What we wear –clothing –accessories –hair styles –tattoos The car we drive The house we live in

34 © 2010 Cengage Learning 34 Office Space Clip (DVD Scene 2)

35 © 2010 Cengage Learning 35

36 © 2010 Cengage Learning 36 The Amount of Information When we have too much information, we tend to: Assimilate Sharpen Level

37 © 2010 Cengage Learning 37 The Amount of Information Reactions to Information Overload Omission Error Queuing Escape Use of a gatekeeper Use of multiple channels

38 © 2010 Cengage Learning 38 Exercise 11.4 Communication Overload

39 © 2010 Cengage Learning 39 Problem Area III: Message Received Versus Message Interpreted Listening Skills Listening Style Emotional State Cognitive Ability Bias

40 © 2010 Cengage Learning 40 The Importance of Listening 70% of a manager’s job is spent communicating Of that time –9% is spent writing –16% is spent reading –30% is spent speaking –45% is spent listening

41 © 2010 Cengage Learning 41 Listening Skills Stop talking and listen Show the speaker you want to listen Empathize with the speaker Don’t ask excessive questions Remove distractions Keep an open mind Use appropriate nonverbal cues Let the other person finish speaking Try to understand what the other person means

42 © 2010 Cengage Learning 42 Listening Styles (Geier & Downey, 1980) Leisure Inclusive Stylistic Technical Empathic Nonconforming

43 © 2010 Cengage Learning 43 What is Your Listening Style? Exercise 11.5

44 © 2010 Cengage Learning 44 Exercise 11.6 Dealing with Different Listening Styles

45 © 2010 Cengage Learning 45 How Good Are Your Listening Skills? Exercise 11.7

46 © 2010 Cengage Learning 46 Other Factors Emotional State –Anger –Fear –Anxiety –Excitement –Love Bias Cognitive Ability Drugs and Alcohol

47 © 2010 Cengage Learning 47 Writing is easiest to read when it: has short sentences uses simple rather than complicated words uses common rather than unusual words

48 © 2010 Cengage Learning 48 Comparison of Readability Scales Readability Index MethodFryFleschFOGDale-Chall Average number of syllables per word XX Average sentence lengthXX Average number of words per sentence X Average number of 3- syllable words X Number of unusual wordsX

49 © 2010 Cengage Learning 49 Determining Readability Exercise 11.8

50 © 2010 Cengage Learning 50 Answer to Exercise 11-5 FactorAnswer Number of total words124 Number of sentences7 Number of syllables208 Sentences per 100 words5.65 = (7 ÷ 124) * 100 Syllables per 100 words167.74 = (208 ÷ 124) * 100 Readability level11 th or 12 th (borderline)

51 © 2010 Cengage Learning 51 Applied Case Study: Reducing Order Errors At Hardees and McDonalds

52 © 2010 Cengage Learning 52 Focus on Ethics Ethical Communication

53 © 2010 Cengage Learning 53 What Do You Think? Do you agree that companies should communicate any and all information that may pertain to employees? Would there ever be a time where it would be more ethical to hold back information from employees? If you were an employee in the insurance company, what would you consider to be the ethical step to take: inform employees of the possibilities of layoffs or keep that information confidential until the company is absolutely sure layoffs might happen? What would be the best, most ethical, channel to use when communicating bad news such as layoffs? Do you think it is unethical not to tell your boss that you are looking for another job? What are the situations in which employees have an ethical obligation to provide this information to their managers or supervisors?

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