Presentation on theme: "Lesson Three Context of Situation. Scripts, etc. Scripts Frames Mental Models “the interpretation of discourse is based to a large extent on a simple."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Three Context of Situation
Scripts, etc. Scripts Frames Mental Models “the interpretation of discourse is based to a large extent on a simple principle of analogy with what we have experienced in the past. As adults we are liable to possess quite substantial amounts of background experience and knowledge.” (Brown and Yule)
Scripts, etc. The plane carrying much needed food crashed. The pilot was unhurt but captured by… (context)
Scripts, etc. Mary got some beer out of the car. The beer was warm. Mary got some picnic things out of the car. The beer was warm.
Context of Situation FIELD TENOR MODE
FIELD The nature of the social action. What is happening. Who is doing what to whom, when, where how and why.
MODE How the language is organised. Channel – spoken, written, phoned, faxed, …
Five Minute’s Peace The children were having breakfast. This was not a pleasant sight. Mrs Large took a tray from the cupboard: She set it with a teapot, a milk jug, her favourite cup and saucer, a plate of marmalade and toast and a leftover cake from yesterday.She stuffed the morning paper into her pocket and sneaked off towards the door. “Where are you going with that tray, Mum? asked Laura. “To the bethroom” said Mrs Large. “Why” asked the other two children. “Because I want five minute’s peace from you lot”, said Mrs. Large. “That’s why.”
Five Minute’s Peace (cont.) “Can we come?” asked Lester as they trailed up the stairs behind her. “No” said Mrs. Large, “you can’t”. “What shall we do the”, asked Laura. “You can play” said Mrs. Large. “Downstairs, by yourselves. And keep an eye on the baby.” “I’m not a baby,” muttered the little one. Mrs. Large ran a deep, hot bath. She emptied half a bottle of bath-foam into the water, out on her bath-hat and got in. She poured herself a cup of tea and lay back with her eyes closed. It was heaven.
Five Minute’s Peace (cont.) “Can I play my tune?” asked Lester. Mrs. Large opened one eye. “Must you?” she asked. “I’ve been practising,” said Lester. “You told me to. Can I? Please, just for one minute.” “Go on then,” sighed Mrs. Large. So Lester played. He played ‘Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star’ three and a half times. In came Laura. “Can I read you a page from my reading book?” she asked. “No, Laura,” said Mrs. Large. “Go on, all of you, off downsatairs.” “You let Lester play his tune,” said Laura. “I heard. You like him better than me. It’s not fair.” “Oh, don’t be silly, Laura, “ said Mrs. Large. “Go on then. Just one page.” So Laura read. She read four and a half pages of ‘Little Red Riding Hood’. In came the little one with a trunkful of toys. “For you,” he smiled, throwing them all into the bath water. “Thank you dear,” said Mrs. Large weakly.
Five Minute’s Peace (cont.) “Can I see the cartoons in the paper?” asked Laura. “Can I have the cake?” asked Lester. “Can I get in with you?” asked the little one. Mrs. Large groaned. In the end they all got in. The little one was in such a hurry that he forgot to take off his pyjamas. Mrs. Large got out. “Where are you going now, Mum?” asked Laura. “To the kitchen,” said Mrs. Large. “Why?” asked Lester. “Because I want five minutes peace from you lot”, said Mrs. Large. “That’s why.”
Five Minutes Peace (end) And off she went downstairs, where she had three minutes and forty-five seconds of peace before they all came to join her.
Example: Five Minute’s Peace Field: –a picture book story for children about an elephant family. It describes Mrs. Large trying to get ‘five minute’s peace’ but is really about normal, happy family life; –lexical items familiar to children; –short clauses and simple (repeated) structures; – cohesion with pictures
Example: Five Minute’s Peace Tenor: –standard English, conversational; –gently humourous portrayal of family life, with obvious author empathy; –author- reader: on a par with parents and children; –author-characters: understanding –mother-children: kindly indulgent
Example: Five Minute’s Peace Mode: –written to be read aloud as if not written; –frequent ellipsis, etc. to emulate spontaneous conversation; –italics proved phonological feature: –direct speech
Functions of Language Ideational function Interpersonal function Textual function
Ideational function Language functions to encode and transmit information between members of society. It uses transitivity structures: John plays football. (material process) He thinks he is very good (mental process) He is good (relational process)
Interpersonal function Language functions to establish and maintain relations between members of society. We use the declarative, interrogative and imperative modes, and appraisal lexis Bill: Hey, you kicked me! John: I’m sorry, really, but it was your fault. Bill: What do you mean, it was my fault???!!!
Textual Function Language functions to organise messages. Theme/rheme Given/New Bill: John saw Bill briefly yesterday He said hello Yesterday John saw Bill briefly It was then that he said hello.
Register Affect Status Contact
Register 2 Happy Birthday to an OLD friend!
Register 3 To Mr. Reginald Smith The management wish to extend their sincere good wishes on the occasion of your birthday.
Register 4 Oh, it’s your birthday, is it? Well, many happy returns, mate.
Register 5 Roses are red Violets are blue Here are my birthday wishes to you. Happy birthday, darling. xxxxxxxx
Register 6 And funeral condolences…?
REFERENCE referent – reference – referring expression Anyone who has breakfasted around Europe will know that ‘bread’ has more than one referent.
Context! (across languages words do not match easily) Cf. habit = a, b, c, …. niente = a, b, c, ….
Humpty Dumpty When I use a word, it means what I choose it to mean – neither more nor less.
Connotation/denotation “He ate my bacon sandwich!” –connotation/denotation “Mi ha mangiato il panino!” ‘Semantic prosody’ integrates term with a co-text.
Connotation/denotation Real names Speedy Gonzales Mr. Plod Alice in Wonderland/The Mock Turtle