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The Age of Exploration Collision, Colonization, and Exchange.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Exploration Collision, Colonization, and Exchange."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Exploration Collision, Colonization, and Exchange

2 European Claims in America c. 1700

3 Learning Objectives List the motivations for exploration of the New World Identify the technologies that made European exploration possible Describe the voyages of Columbus and his contemporaries Describe the Spanish conquests of the Aztecs and Incas Identify the effects of Spanish colonization on the Americas Summarize competing claims in North and South America Compare and contrast English colonial activities in North America with that of the Spanish Describe the indigenous population’s response to land claims made by Europeans Summarize the Columbian Exchange Explain the relationship between Colonization and Mercantilism

4 Part 1: Spain, Portugal, and the motivations for exploration

5 Motivations for Exploration Dependence on spices from Asia and India and desire to establish a profitable trade w/ Asia. −Spices, preservatives, break Italian and Muslim monopoly. −Italy and the Arabs controlled the spice trade Halt the spread of Islam and spread Christianity. Renaissance ideas of discovery and exploration. New technology for open water sailing.

6 New Technologies Compass: instrument used for determining direction. Astrolabe: measures latitude north and south Maps/Cartography: creation of grid system by Ptolemy (Egyptian Cartographer) Ship construction −Multiple masts, triangle shaped sails, tacking −Rear rudders Caravel: new ship

7 Mariner’s Compass Astrolabe

8 Caravel

9 Map of the World c. 1571

10 Portugal leads the Way Portugal’s Goals: a dominant spice trade to Asia and Africa 1.Prince Henry the Navigator 2.Bartholomew Dias- first to reach the Cape of Good Hope 1488 3.Vasco da Gama- 1 st person to sail to India (1497); 60 fold profit from items brought back 4.Pedro Alvarez Cabral- claims Brazil for Portugal

11 Early Exploration: Spain vs. Portugal Voyage of Columbus for Spain sets off fierce competition Two sides in bitter, often violent competition for resources Resolved by Pope Alexander VI dividing the world between the two −Line of Demarcation −Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

12 Spain Builds an Empire Goals of Spanish Exploration: To exploit the wealth and convert the natives of the Americas and the West Indies to Christianity The Voyage of Columbus −Planned to reach India by sailing West −Reached Bahamas in 1492, 4 total trips −Impact: Columbus launched the Westward exploration Columbus Landing in New World

13 Ferdinand Magellan In 1522, first person to circumnavigate the globe Impact: proved world was round, oceans were connected, Columbus didn’t reach Asia

14 The Conquistadors Herman Cortes conquers the Aztecs −In 1519 Cortes went to Mexico in search of Gold −Cortes and 600 men marched to Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan −Met by Aztec emperor Montezuma −1520: Aztecs drive out Cortes −1521 Cortes returns and conquer Aztecs Able to do so because of weapons, native assistance, and disease

15 Francisco Pizarro conquers the Incas (modern day Peru) −Pizarro and 200 men met Incan emperor Atahualpa Spanish ambushed much larger force, kidnapped Atahualpa Held Atahualpa for ransom Executed Atahualpa even after getting ransom −Incan resistance crumbled after death of leader; captured capital of Cuzco without struggle −Pizarro established Lima and encouraged Spanish settlement

16 Effects of Disease on Native Populations MEASLES MUMPS SMALLPOX TYPHUS

17 Spanish Pattern of Conquest Conquest based largely on techniques used during Reconquista Spanish settlers known as peninsulares, mostly men Relationships between Spanish men and native women common, offspring known as mestizos Established forced labor system known as the Encomienda – forced labor for farming, ranching, and mining in return for “fair treatment and care” (Encmienda system abolished in 1542, replaced with African slave labor)

18 Conquistadors push North Spanish push north into the southwestern United States Herman de Soto and Ponce de Leon laid claim to the Mississippi River and Florida Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores much of present day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas Because Coronado found little gold, catholic priests assigned to further exploration of the future US


20 Portuguese in Brazil No gold or silver found in Brazil High demand for sugar in Europe and Brazil ideal climate to grow sugar cane Colonists cleared more and more land to farm sugar cane As native population died off, African slaves brought in to work sugar cane plantations

21 Part 2: Europeans in North America The English, Spanish, Dutch and French in the North America and the Caribbean

22 The Big Question Why did France, England, and the Netherlands colonize North America and the Caribbean?

23 The Dutch Goal of Dutch Exploration: in1500’s Dutch win independence from Spain. Dutch have limited resources and need trade for survival. −In 1609 Henry Hudson looking for Northwest Passage explores Hudson River and Bay −Establish trading posts to trade with Iroquois Indians −In 1621, Dutch government creates Dutch West Indies Company −Found New Amsterdam- Manhattan, NY −All Dutch holdings become New Netherland

24 Looking for the Northwest Passage

25 The French Goal of French Exploration: quick profits through fur trade rather than permanent settlement French Explorers −Giovanni da Varrazano was hired by Francis I to find a Northwest Passage. −Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River in 1534. −Samuel de Champlain explored the St. Lawrence River and founded Quebec in 1608. −Marquette and Joliet explore the Mississippi River valley. −LaSalle claims Louisiana in 1682.


27 The English Goal of English Exploration: settlement; long term investment in farming and raw materials Henry Cabot- English “sea dog” who reached the east coast of North America in 1497 English Settlements in the New World Roanoke Island- failed colony (1585) “Croatan” Jamestown Plymouth

28 Jamestown- 1 st Permanent English settlement in N. America In 1606, King James I gives charter for a colony in the New World 3 ships and 100 settlers reach present day Virginia in 1607 Name settlement Jamestown in honor of King Disease, hunger, fights with Native Americans, and gold lust spelled doom for colonists

29 Jamestown cont. Conditions improved with discovery of tobacco Indentured servants used for planting/harvesting of tobacco Due to profitability of tobacco, King sends troops to Jamestown to protect against Native Americans King makes Virginia a Royal colony

30 Puritans create a “New England” Puritans- English protestants who sought religious freedom from Anglican church Long term settlement was goal; families made trip together −Established Plymouth in 1620 −Massachusetts Bay was founded by the Puritans in 1629

31 Colonizing the Caribbean French- Haiti, Martinique English- Barbados and Jamaica Dutch- Aruba, Antilles Spain, Cuba, Puerto Rico Built large cotton and sugar plantations. Demand for labor force led to introduction of African slave trade to the colonies


33 The Struggle for North America The English oust the Dutch −Charles II gives his brother the Duke of York permission to drive Dutch from New Netherland −Fleet arrives 1664, Dutch surrender without firing a shot −Duke renames colony New York −With Dutch gone, settlement begins of entire Atlantic coast

34 The Struggle for North America England vs. France −English land desire collides with French holdings −French and Indian War (1754)- war between French and British forces in N. America English defeat French in 1763 Part of larger Seven Years War for control of Europe, India, N. America, and the Caribbean Treaty of Paris (1763)- French surrender −With French surrender, England gains eastern ½ of N. America


36 The Columbian Exchange The transfer of foods, plants, and animals that occurred during the colonization of the Americas is known as the Columbian Exchange Items brought back such as turkeys, tobacco, tomatoes, cacao beans (chocolate) −Most important foods would be corn and potatoes Items brought to new world included Horses, pigs, cows, sheep, bananas, wheat, rice, and oats Disease also part of exchange- influenza, smallpox. Typhus, measles and others


38 Results of Exploration/Colonization Colonial Empires led to Economic Revolution in Europe: Global Trade: New wealth and an abundance of resources led to a dramatic increase in global trade Rise of Capitalism: −Capitalism: the economic system based on private ownership of property and the investment of resources for profit −Merchants/investors made huge fortunes. Government no longer sole owners of great wealth

39 Mercantilism Nations in Europe develop policy of Mercantilism- theory that a country’s power depends mainly on its wealth −Thus, the goal of every nation = amassing wealth Two ways to attain wealth 1.Obtain as much gold and silver as possible 2.Establish a favorable balance of trade- selling more goods than you buy Ultimate goal of Mercantilism- to become self-sufficient Colonies played key role in Mercantilism: extension of home country, providing both resources and a market for finished goods

40 Atlantic Slave Trade Emerges Demand for more production leads to demand for more labor Loss of indigenous (native) population leads European colonists to look elsewhere Africa provides access to abundant numbers of potential slaves with agricultural experience Triangle Trade Route begin between Europe, Africa, and the New World

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