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Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology Chapter 1: Mechanics Professor Yasser M. Kadah Web: http://www.k-space.org/

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Textbook Russell K. Hobbie and Bradley J. Roth, Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology, 4 th ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, 2007. (Hardcopy) Textbook's official web site: http://www.oakland.edu/~roth/hobbie.htm http://www.oakland.edu/~roth/hobbie.htm

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Distances and Sizes Valuable skill in physics: ability to make order-of-magnitude estimates Example: calculate number of cells in body Simplify problem: assume simple shapes and use average sizes Cells ~ 10 m in size → volume ~ (10 m) 3 Adult ~ 2 m tall and 0.3 m wide → volume ~ 2 × 0.3 × 0.3 = 0.18 m 3 Assume body is made entirely of cells Estimated number of cells = 0.18/1e-15 ~ 2 × 10 14

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Forces and Translational Equilibrium Force defined by Newton’s second law Translational equilibrium: Apply to all 3 axes in a 3D problem Equilibrium: remains at rest move at constant speed

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Rotational Equilibrium Torques i is defined as Require a pivot point to measure r i from Rotational equilibrium if around any point in the body,

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Example: Achilles Tendon Apply both translational and rotational equilibrium conditions Rotational: Translational: Unknowns: F T, F B, and (1) Solve for F T (2) Solve for F B, and

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Example: Forces on the Hip

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Example: Use of a Cane Significantly less than 2.4W without a cane

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Work Work done by a force F x as it moves from x 1 to x 2 Area under curve Equal to increase in K.E.

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Stress and Strain Normal stress: tensile/compressive E: Young’s modulus

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Shear Force parallel to surface G: shear modulus

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Hydrostatics Equilibrium of a unit volume:

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Buoyancy Object immersed in fluid Example: Terrestrial animals Very small buoyancy because Example: Aquatic animals Very small F because “Weightless” in water

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Compressibility Pressure on a fluid Compressibility negligible in many cases (e.g., =5×10 -10 Pa -1 for water) Important for such phenomena as ultrasound transmission

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Laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid Shear forces between layers No mixing between adjacent layers Application: clean room isolation Viscosity

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Pressure-Volume Work Work done by a gas

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Example: Respiration Work

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Example: Heart

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Problem Assignment Posted on class web site Web: http://www.k-space.org

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The main distinction between fluids is according to their aggregate state : Liquids (possess the property of free surface) Gases (expand.

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