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生物膜之 基礎與應用 : 生物膜應用 III :固態醱酵 黃慶璨 副教授 辦公室 : 農藝館 111 室 電話 : (02) 33664454 電子郵件 :

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Presentation on theme: "生物膜之 基礎與應用 : 生物膜應用 III :固態醱酵 黃慶璨 副教授 辦公室 : 農藝館 111 室 電話 : (02) 33664454 電子郵件 :"— Presentation transcript:

1 生物膜之 基礎與應用 : 生物膜應用 III :固態醱酵 黃慶璨 副教授 辦公室 : 農藝館 111 室 電話 : (02) 33664454 電子郵件 :

2 Introduction Definition those in which microbial growth and product formation occur on the surface of solid substrates Biofilm formation and SSF Solid substrates serve as substratum Less liquid movement

3 Introduction Solar energy was not efficiently utilized.  Solar radiation striking the earth is equivalent to 178,000 terawatts per year (15,000 times of global consumption)  Only light within the wavelength range of 400 to 700 nm (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) can be utilized by plants (45%)  Only 25% of the PAR absorbed by the photosynthetic system  Theoretical maximum efficiency 11%, in fact, 3-6% of total solar radiation

4 Biomass resource of the world Biomass Crops Starch sugar crops Grains (rice, wheat) Sugar cane Corn Potatoes Aquatic plants See weeds Water-hyacinth, Chlorella Rubber plants Para rubber tree Guayule rubber tree Oil plants Palms, etc. Petroleum plants Heliopora, Yukar Woods Unused resources Agricultural wastes Rice straw, chaff, wheat straw Sugarcane bagasse Corn, stover Forestal wastes Sawdust Pulp waste Thinned woods Municipal wastes, industrial wastes Livestock wastes Excreta of livestock

5 Biomass resource utilization Fuel alcohol production from cellulosic biomass Improved methane fermentation from industrial and agricultural residues Biological H 2 production from water and various wastes Oil production through thermochemical liquefaction of microalgal biomass

6 Cellulose  Plant cell walls  Universal and the most abundant and renewable source of carbon and energy in nature  2x10 11 tons per year from photosynthesis Hemicellusoe  Composed of 5 and 6-C ring sugar  Supportive matrix for the cellulose Lignin  Hold fibers and cellulose  Amorphous Cellulosic wastes

7 Constitution Cellulosic biomass CelluloseHemicelluloseLigninAsh Bagasse4124182 Rice straw35 68 Wood40-5520-3525-300.2-2 CelluloseHemicelluloseLignin Chain form linearlinear or baranched complex, cross- linked Chain length ~10,00050-300varies widely Chain unit  -D glycopyranose  1, 4 glycans phenylpropane Bond type 1-4 glycosidic  1-4 : xylans glucomannans various types Structure

8 Structure of plant cell walls

9 Structure of cellulose

10 Structure of hemicellulose

11 Cellulose-degrading enzyme system figure%2010.05.jpg Endo-  -1,4-glucanase (EC Exo-  -1,4-glucanase (EC  -glucosidase (EC

12 Xylan-degrading enzyme system The backbone enzymes  endo-β-1,4-xylanase (EC  β-D-xylosidase (EC Ref. Sunna, A., and G. Antrankian. 1997. Side chain-debranching enzymes  α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC  α-glucuronidase (EC  acetylxylan esterase (EC

13 Textile industry Cellulase Xylanase Food industry Feed Additives Cellulose reuse Household industry Pulp and Paper Application of cellulase Ref:

14 Characteristics of Solid Substrates Traditional Agricultural products, such as rice, wheat, millet, barley, corn and soybeans Non-Traditional Agricultural, forest, animal and food-processing wastes, such as sweet potato residues, rice bran, animal discharge … Solid substrates can be viewed as gas-liquid-solid mixtures Water content varied in solid substrates tightly bound, less tightly bound, free state in capillary region Most are in complex polymeric forms requiring enzymatic hydrolysis

15 Occur at or near the substrate surface with low moisture Able to provide a selective environment at low moisture for mycelial organisms that produce a variety of extracellular enzymes, surface bound or free grow at high nutrient concentration near solid surfaces Organisms include a large number of filamentous fungi and a few bacteria, such as the actinomycetes, one strain of Bacillus Favor extracellular enzyme synthesis in growth-associated metabolism Microbial physiology is modified by chemical composition and physical structure of substrates by local variation in temp, pH, nutrients, dissolved-gas concentration Characteristics of Solid State Fermentation

16 Classification of Solid State Fermentation According to physical state of substrate Without agitation: tempeh, natto With occasional agitation: miso, soy sauce With continuous agitation: aflatoxin Suspended solids in packed columns through which liquid is circulated: rice wine, beer According to the nutrient state Solid is the major nutrition source Solid is nutritionally inert (uncommon) &more

17 CountryNameIngredientsShapeMicroorganism China Korea Japan Indonesia Malaysia Phillipines Thailand India Chu Nuruk Meju Koji Ragi Ragi Bubod Loopang Marchaa Wheat, barley, millet, rice (whole grain, grits or flour) Wheat,rice, barley (whole grain, grits or flour) soybean (whole seed) wheat, rice(whole grain, grits or flour) rice (flour) rice (flour) rice, glutinous rice (flour) bran rice granular or cake large cake large ball granular small cake small cake small cake powder flat cake Rhizopus Amylomyces Aspergillus Rhizopus yeasts Aspergillus Bacillus Aspergillus Amylomyces Endomycopsis Mucor, Rhizopus Saccharomyces Amylomyces Aspergillus Hansenula anomala Mucor fragilis Rhizopus arrhizus

18 Advantages of Solid state fermentation Minimal nutrient supplementation Fermentation vessel is small relative to product yield Low moisture reduces the problem of contamination Agitation inhibits mold sporulation Minimal product purification Product yields may be much higher than liquid state

19 Disadvantages of Solid state fermentation High power required if continuous agitation involved The addition of water in early stage  Risk of bacterial contamination Spore inocula may be quite large  Need harvest aspetically Considerable development required to make process feasible at a large scale

20 Solid-State Fermentation Processes Traditional Foods Oriental foods Soy source, Miso, Hamanatto, Chinese Cheese Water content (WC) Cooked soybean  60% WC (ideal for bacterial growth)  mixed with roasted wheat  45% WC (adequate for fungal growth) Acid treatment pH 3.5-4.5 inhibit the growth of undesirable organism Two major processing stages: Koji phase: an aerobic solid state fermentation by one or more fungal species Moromi: an anaerobic submerged culture fermentation with mixed population

21 WT Solid-State Fermentation Processes Enzymes cellulase, amylase, pectinase, protease, lipase Primary metabolites Citric acid and gluconic acid Secondary metabolites Antibacterial agents: Mycotoxin, Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin Lignocellulosic wastes Ethanol production Detoxification of cassava

22 Solid-State Fermentation Processes Rice wine Rice koji used as starter culture Brown rice  Milled and polish  Washed and steeped  Solublize nutrients and swell the grains  Steamed 30- 60 min  30-35% WC Inoculated with spores of A. oryzae at 30 o C and 80-90% RH Fermentation time 44-48 h

23 Rice wine producing procedure

24 Sorghum liquor producing procedure more about wine: classification, production, drunk1, 2classificationproductiondrunk12

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