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Greater Antilles Haiti: three names Hispaniola (Spanish) Saint Domingue (French) Haiti (independent)

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Presentation on theme: "Greater Antilles Haiti: three names Hispaniola (Spanish) Saint Domingue (French) Haiti (independent)"— Presentation transcript:

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3 Greater Antilles

4 Haiti: three names Hispaniola (Spanish) Saint Domingue (French) Haiti (independent)

5 Hispaniola Columbus 1492: Bahamas  Cuba  Isla Espanola (Hispaniola)  first settlement Navidad (Santa Maria is grounded on Christmas day and destroyed. Eventually his brother is in charge as Adelantado 1496: Santo Domingo is founded and remains administrative capital of the Spanish Empire until 1526 Natural destination for ships from Europe Encomienda system set up by crown

6 Natural destination

7 Settlement of Hispaniola Military/monastic types sent as governors Bobadilla and Ovando Bobadilla ( ) Sets up the monopoly trade system that would eventually impoverish Hispaniola Arrested Columbus brothers, sent back to Spain in chains Ovando (1502: severe and repressive rule) Euro population soars—10,000 Natives die off Bartolome de las Casas comes with Ovando: reports that there were up to 4 million natives there in Founds 15 cities Eventually mines fail and Hispaniola becomes a way station

8 Highs and Lows for Hispaniola Audencia of Santo Domingo:1511 Highest court, legislative body At first, governs all of the Americas Second audencia in Mexico City in 1528 SD audencia retains jurisdiction over Caribbean islands, Florida, Northern Venezuela Convoy System depresses the Caribbean Monopoly system Controlled by merchant guilds in Spain, Mexico and Lima Less and less room for cargoes to or from the Antilles Even sugar disappears from the Spanish islands!! Islands are ignored, become self sufficient Only ended under Bourbons after 1765 with freer trade

9 Hispaniola deteriorates Late 16 th C.: Havana gains prominence in protecting treasure fleets Cortes orders different route through Bahama Channel instead of Windward Passage More interesting relative to the conquest of Florida and North America Second half of 17 th C.: The buccaneers and Hispaniola Inter-island trade almost disappears from Hispaniola Santo Domingo: “city of lawyers” Lots of smuggling: governor orders burns towns and orders people to move to SD: Cattle run wild  vast herds proliferate Buccaneers invade east part and barbecue the cows Haitian bucs are linked to the Buccaneer Kingdom of Tortuga

10 Havana usurps key role

11 W. Hispaniola  Saint Domingue 1665: French control by D’Ogeron Governor for the French West India Company By 1681: 4000 settlers Tobacco Sugar after 1697 BOOM!!! Louis XIV permits licensing of pirates Source of wealth protection

12 Sugar! Mid 18 th C. Richest sugar producer along with Jamaica Two stages Cane estates along coast Irrigation system in central provinces Also coffee, indigo, cotton By 1789, Saint Domingue is the most valuable colony in the world 40% of the world’s sugar 50% of the world’s coffee 40% of France’s foreign trade

13 European revolution, war, and independence French revolution 1789 Civil war in Saint Domingue Abolishment of slavery in 1793 Fifth Caribbean war between France and Great Britain (on many islands) Toussaint Louverture helps French defeat Brits on Saint Domingue (assisted by slave rebellions on other islands, disease) Toussaint becomes a dictator with another problem: Napoleon Bonaparte. Authoritarian state based economy is his solution to garner funds needed to defeat Napoleon Sets up centralized authoritarian system that would influence history to this day Napoleon invades in 1801 Eventually captures and deposes TL, but yellow fever and fierce resistance overcome him

14 Haiti: The land of the mountains” the 19 th Century State socialism continues under new rulers until the division of Haiti into the Kingdom and the Republic (1818) Boyer reunites and extends rule to all of Hispaniola No investment in infrastructure or education Increasingly 2 castes: coloured elites and black peasants 70 years of political instability-becomes normal Santo Domingo declines 1882: Heureaux in power: classic kleptocrat investors come 1895: Santo Domingo Improvement Company (US) Purchases debt in exchange for receipts Defacto situation: No government Roosevelt steps in to administer until 1940 Worried about the Panama canal

15 Haiti in the 20 th century Haiti stagnates Neighboring Dominican Republic Trujillo: dictator from Flourishes as producer of tropical products Many Haitians go there for work Conflicts between them Woodrow Wilson sends in Marines DR from Haiti from “Papa Doc” Duvalier won election in 1957, but became dictatorial “Baby Doc” another kleptocrat 1986—forced into exile 1991: Aristide wins and is overthrown (popular priest) Reinstated in 1994 with the help of the US US and UN stay until 1997


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