Presentation on theme: "Rhino Horn Trade – EU Measures and proposals. Rhino Populations 18,790 Southern White rhino Possibly 4 Northern White rhino 4,840 Black rhino Largest."— Presentation transcript:
Rhino Populations 18,790 Southern White rhino Possibly 4 Northern White rhino 4,840 Black rhino Largest populations in South Africa with significant numbers in Namibia, Kenya and Zimbabwe. 2,800 Greater one horned rhino and small numbers of Sumatran and Lesser one horned rhino.
Recent Trends in the UK, notable increase in rhino horn re- export applications antique horn increasingly offered for sale in auction houses and commanding ever higher prices
Prices realised for rhino horn 2010 a single mounted horn - £14,000 pair of horns on mount - £65,000 taxidermied head with 2 horns - £155,000 2011 ten cylindrical jars (largest 13cms, smallest 2.5cms) - £3,800 19 th century cane - £7,000 knobkerry (club) - £8,000 18 th century libation cup - £300,000
prices for mounted horn appear linked to weight following sale, re-export applications made to export either to China, Hong Kong or Australia
Road to Australia......... in 2010 a Chinese buyer made 11 separate applications to re-export mounted rhino horns from the UK to Australia on leaving the UK the exporter was found to have removed 2 of the horns from their mounts re-export permits were thus invalidated (specimens no longer fitted the description on the permit) and horns confiscated by Customs This case instrumental in alerting UK to increasing magnitude and trends of rhino horn trade.
Rise in rhino horn thefts across the world All within the last 4 months – Belgium - attempted theft of rhino head from Zoological Museum, Liège; theft of rhino head from Natural History Museum, Brussels Germany - rhino horns stolen from museums in Bamberg, Oerrel, and Hamburg Italy - 3 rhino horns stolen from Museum of Natural History, Florence UK - rhino head stolen from Haslemere Museum and rhino horn stolen from Ipswich Museum
..... in the USA 2 Irish citizens sentenced to prison after pleading guilty to rhino horn smuggling charges. Also originating in Ireland........ an organised crime gang masterminding illegal trade in rhino horns around the world, targeting auction rooms, galleries, museums, zoos and private collections
Link between increase in demand and illegal killing of rhino since 2008, significant increase in demand for rhino horn products has been mirrored by increase in illegal killing of rhinos
data from 2006 to 2010 finds a correlation coefficient of +0.99; this indicates a strong positive relationship between rhino horn re-export applications and illegal killing of rhinos Correlation between rhino horn re-export applications from EU Member States and illegal killing of rhinos in South Africa
EU measures EU now applies strict criteria when considering re-export applications: –Item is of such artistic value that it exceeds its potential value on illegal medicine market –Item is part of genuine exchange of cultural goods between museums etc –Item has not been sold and is moving as part of a family relocation or bequest –Item is part of a verifiable research project
For rhino horn in intra-EU trade EU advises Member States on strict interpretation of derogation in Council Regulation 338/97 for “worked” pre-1947 items: –definition of “worked” should be interpreted narrowly; rhino horn mounted on a shield should not be considered “worked” –artistic nature of any alteration (for “jewellery, art, adornment, utility or musical instrument”) should be given strict and thorough consideration –where rhino horn has been imported as personal effects/hunting trophy, no certificate for commercial use will subsequently be granted
Need for uniform approach by all CITES Parties To ensure effective action against increasing trade / threats to wild rhinos, important to take uniform approach Need all Parties to urgently adopt precautionary measures to more strictly control import, export and re-export of all rhino horn specimens
EU and Member States also urge Establishment of Working Group to build on work of Rhino Enforcement Task Force, identifying measures CITES Parties can take to: –reduce impact of illegal trade on rhino conservation –enhance existing controls on trade in rhino horn products Parties provide information on trade in rhinos, their parts and derivatives Appropriately targeted educational campaigns
Parties urged to support stronger action now Immediate and rising threats to rhinos from increased trade and illegal activities Need concerted action now to halt this before too late