Presentation on theme: "The Past of Warmia The region of Warmia and Mazury is fascinating. This is land of plains, hills, forests, thousand lakes and numerous rivers. Long and."— Presentation transcript:
The Past of Warmia The region of Warmia and Mazury is fascinating. This is land of plains, hills, forests, thousand lakes and numerous rivers. Long and complicated history of this area left the large number of historical monuments. Many people associate Warmia and Mazury with the lakes and see it as a water sport paradise but you can also admire the monuments. There are buildings representing different styles of architecture, interesting urban complexes, a large number of churches and monasteries. Landscape, natural environment and historical monuments are not the only attractions of Warmia. Complicated history of this land brought together different ethnic groups who live side by side maintainingtheir own traditions and customs. Warmia German Ermland (Latin: Varmia; Polish: Warmia) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. It has also historically been known as Ermeland in English. Warmia has been under the rule of various rulers over its history, most notably the Teutonic Knights, Poland, and the Kingdom of Prusia. The history of the region is closely connected to that of the Archibishopric of Warmia. The area is associated with the Old Prussian tribe of Warming (a.k.a. Warms, Arms, Varmint, Warming, Varmints, Latvian: Vermeil) subdued by the Teutonic Knights. According to folk etymology, the names may come from a Prussian chief called Warm and his widow Erma. In the early Middle Ages the area was inhabited by various Old Prussian tribes after the 12th century they were attacked by the crusading Teutonic Order. In the Middle-ages the Prussians and Germans used to build gothic castles and churches, in the Baroque period, the Poles and Germans used to build beautiful houses of God. In the XIXth century, Gietrzwałd became the symbol of Catholic Warmia. After the divine appearance of Mother Mary in 1877, many pilgrims from Poland started to visit the holy place. Mazury's fate was different. The Teutonic country was well-organized, had a great army, but was unable to stop the joined armies of Poland and Lithuania, when in 1410 Urlich von Jungingen's Teutonic troops were beaten on the fields of Grunwald. This Polish-Lithuenian victory eventually led to the downfall of Teutonic rule on that land. After the wars an insurgence of settlers poured into Prussian land creating a new society. Nonetheless, Warmia was still Catholic. The beginning of the XIXth century brought war and changes upon East Prussia. Due to low standard of living and outbreaks of fatal diseases, many inhabitants left their homeland and traveled to distant countries like Brazil, the USA, or in the late XIXth century, to Germany. After 1870, many things have changed. The state started to build railway, canals joining the lakes of Warmia and Mazury; lots of hotels and inns appeared just to serve the growing number of tourists. The population has
increased, e.g. Olsztyn, which had only 5,000 citizens in the middle of XIXth century, had grown into a city of 20,000 in the beginning of XXth century. Olsztyn became the second, after Królewiec, city of East Prussia. The people of south Warmia and Mazury started to build their national awareness. Polish masses were held in churches, Polish newspapers, schools, and leaders appeared. First World War brought new damages and changes to the country. After the conflict a poll was commenced among the inhabitants of Warmia and Mazury, for them to decide, whether they wanted to join the newly formed state of Poland or if they wanted to stay within the structure of Germany. In July 1920, most voted for Germany. The German state saw the inhabitants of Mazury as a tiny part of a greater whole, yet they despised the Mazurian language. Under Hitler's rule, East Prussia's development was thriving as more buildings were being built, the unemployment rate went down. Generally, life was easier until 1945, when the Red Army entered the country. Thousands of people were killed by bullets or by cold. After the war, the Russians decided that south East Prussia and whole Warmia would become a part of Poland. At the same time, the victorious states decided to move the Germans out from East Prussia, so that the new inhabitants from Poland would settle. Nowadays, the state of Warmia and Mazury has 24,203 km2 (7.7% of the total area of Poland), and is the fourth biggest region of the country. It is inhabited by 1,460,000 people, out of which 60% live in cities and towns. The population density is 60people per km2, and is two times lower than the average in Poland. Warmia and Mazury5 s inheritance is based on many various elements like culture. The different culture and history decided that the neighboring lands have distinct shape. Polish ethnic groups, who from centuries had lived side by side with the Germans, are Warmiacy and Mazurzy. In this album we show different forms of material and spiritual life of former inhabitants of our region. We are the successors of those who lived here for centuries before us and left the culture and history for us to learn. We want to be sensitive to the need of protecting the values and tradition. If we know the places we live in, it will be easier to learn about the distant lands.
Conat of arms of Warmia
Chest painted in white and pink flowers used to stand in the big chamber. Sometimes they were beautifully flitted and with a lock. Inside the chest there was bed linen, overalls, scarf’s, aprons, handkerchiefs. In summer petals were placed in the chest for beautiful smell as well as wormwood in order to keep away clothes moths.
A dish of timber to knead dough.
Żarna - a wooden device to grind seed into flour.
A cottage of Warmia - built of the materials that could be found nearby: wood, stones, gravel, cane, straw. Multi - generation families used to live in such cottage.