Presentation on theme: "Mitigation Measures: the Case of Brazil Haroldo Machado Filho CGE Member."— Presentation transcript:
Mitigation Measures: the Case of Brazil Haroldo Machado Filho CGE Member
* Country Context and Status of the National Communication – 1 slide Programs Containing Measures to Mitigate Climate Change – 11 slides Institutional Arrangements – 2 slides Barriers and Constrains – 1 slide Key Lessons Learnt – 1 slide Brazilian Climate Change Website – 1 slide Outline of the Presentation
Criteria199420002005 2008 Population (million on inhabitants) 153.0 1 169.8 2 179.9 3 186.0 3 Correspondance surface (km 2 ) 8,514,876.6 8,514,876.6 GDP (billion US$ 2007/ano) 4 920.71062.01218.3 1406.5 GDP per capita (thousand US$2007/inhab.) 4 5.896.206.64 7.42 Participação da indústria no PIB (%) 4 26.126.929.3 28.8 (2006) Participação dos serviços no PIB (%) 4 67.368.065.0 65.8 (2006) Participação da agricultura no PIB (%) 4 220.127.116.11 5.5 (2006) Urban population as a % of total population 77.381.283.3 84.4 Brazil submitted its second NC on 29 th Nov. 2011 Country Context
Programs and Actions related to Sustainable Development: Ethanol of Sugar-Cane in Brazil Brazilian Program on Biofuels - Pro-biodiesel Programs of Energy Conservation Contribution of Hydroelectric Generation to the Reduction of GHG Situaton and Perspective on New Renewable Sources of Energy in Brazil Nacional Program on the Universal Electric Energy Access and Use – “Luz for All” Program Program on Hydrogen Transportation Recycling Industry using Charcoal from Planted Forests Programs Containing Measures to Mitigate Climate Change (1)
Evolution of the Production of Ethanol (million of liters) – 1970 to 2006
Avoided CO 2 emission in the generation of hydroelectric power
Programs Containing Measures to Mitigate Climate Change (2) Programs and Actions that contain measures that contribute towards the mitigation of climate change and its adverse effects: Perspectives of Natural Gas in Brazil and its Role in Emissions of GHGs Programs to Reduce Emissions from Urban Trasnposrtation Sector The Role of Nuclear Energy in Brazil
Avoided Emissions Avoided Emissions of CO 2 from the use of ethanol in the transportation sector – average annual contribution of around 13 million tons of CO 2 since 1990; Nuclear Energy – would have avoided the emission of 127 million tons of CO 2 (assuming the hypothesis of using coal in the absence of this option), which corresponds to 37% of total emissions in 2009, by the use of energy.
Programs Containing Measures to Mitigate Climate Change (3) Integration of Climate Change Issues to Mid- and Long- Term Planning: The Brazilian Environmental Legislation; Brazilian Agenda 21; National Plan on Climate Change; National Policy on Climate Change; Program on Meteorology and Climate Change under the Pluriannual Plan (2008-2011) of the Federal Government
Programs Containing Measures to Mitigate Climate Change (3) Integration of Climate Change Issues to Mid- and Long- Term Planning: National Program on Air Quality – PRONAR Program on Polution Control by Vehicles – PROCONVE National Plan on Logistics and Transportation – PNLT Measures to Combat Deforestation in the Amazon Region Amazon Monitoring Program by Remote Sensing National System of Protected Areas – SNUC Prevention of Fires and Burning Cities for Climate Protection Financial and Fiscal Measures
Programs Containing Measures to Mitigate Climate Change (4) Project Activities under the Clean Development Mechanism: Brazil is ranked third in terms of number of project activities with 479 projects (7%); 8,084 million tCO2e reduced emission on the first commitment period; 50.7% of projects are renewable energy projects; In August 2010, the potential of annual GHG emission reduction from 460 CDM project activities in Brazil under validation or in a subsequent phase in the CDM pipeline represented 8% of emissions from sectors other than LULUCF.
Contribution from: –600 Institutions –1,200 Experts Sectoral Coordinating Entities General Coordination: CGMC/MCT Quality Control and Quality Assurance Procedures –Verification of adequacy of the methodology –Transparent background reports –Review by experts not involved in inventory development –Public consultation through MCT's website (Apr-Sep 2010) Institutional Arrangements
Energy Agriculture Land Use Waste Industrialprocesses E&E and MME EMBRAPA FUNCATE / INPE CETESB ABIQUIM, ABAL SNIC, IABr, etc. ANEEL (SF 6 ) The National Inventory: Coordinating Institutions
Difficulty in covering many areas and sectors; Lack of information; Too much information - difficulty in compiling relevant information; Information is not centralized and is kept as confidential; Lack of knowledge by stakeholders; Lack of human resources; Lack of local GHG emission factors; Difficulties in identifying the best methodology to quantify emission reduction; Costs involved in producing and reviewing the report. Barriers and Constraints
Key Lessons Learnt Involve as many stakeholders as possible; Disclosure of information is important in all the phases; Identify and count on coordinators in key technical areas; Process must be transparent and inclusive (process of peer and open review has been extremely helpful); There are different methodologies. You need to choose one, justify your choice and provide all the information to support this choice (emission factors).