Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Sugarcane production at Empangeni and Melmoth

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Sugarcane production at Empangeni and Melmoth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sugarcane production at Empangeni and Melmoth
Compiled and Presented by T.B Ngema 10790

2 Introduction Sugar cane is considered as a tropical plant but is a relatively hardy tropical and sub-tropical crop which has been adapted to grow both in high rainfall areas and in desert conditions in which it is entirely dependent on irrigation. It is a long duration crop and thus it encounters all the seasons' viz., rainy, winter and summer during its life cycle. It is also grown in the world from altitude 36.7° N and 31.0° S and from sea level to 1000m of altitude or little more. The plant thrives best in tropical hot sunny areas production of sugarcane at Empangeni and Melmoth. It also includes the soil requirement, climate data and access to the market, management, seasonal plan and financial plan of the production of sugarcane in these two places.

3 Skills needed when producing sugar cane
If someone intends to produce sugarcane these are some of the skills required which are: Cane management Variety selection Pest, diseases and weed control Climate analysis Irrigation system (depending on the production method)

4 Production requirements
Sugarcane production requirement Soil Climate Weeds, pests and diseases Controls Pest and diseases Labour Marketing

5 Soil requirement of Sugarcane
Sugarcane can be grown in a wide rage of soil from sandy loam to clay loam. However, it thrives best on well drained soils. It can also be raised successfully on lighter soils provided there is adequate irrigation facilities while on heavy clays with proper drainage and addition of organic matter. Saline, alkaline and acidic soils are not at all suitable for sugarcane. For cultivation of sugarcane, both physical and chemical properties of soil should be identified. Physical characteristics of soil determines the water holding capacity; draining capacity of soil, aeration, soil temperature, root growth, availability of nutrients, microbial growth etc.

6 Soil requirement cont’d
In light textured soils, the problem is poor water holding capacity and this can be improved by the addition of organic matter as well as soil amendments like tank silt. Very frequent irrigations are required. Sugarcane is not a suitable crop for light soils unless otherwise irrigation sources are available. Heavy soils’, though having very high water holding capacity, the problem is ill-drained conditions. These soils can be beating utilized by providing proper drainage.)

7 Climate requirement Sugarcane is a tropical plant. It grows more successfully in those regions where the climate is more or less tropical but it can grow in sub tropics too as in north India. Sugarcane yields is mostly affected by the climate in the country. These includes: Temperature Rainfall Sunshine Humidity Frost

8 Climate requirement Temperature
Optimum cane temperatures is between 24 and 30 °C. A temperature less than 5 °C is harmful even to resistant varieties. Temperatures above 38 °C increase rate respiration. During the active growth period, a minimum mean temperature of 20 °C is required. Fluctuations in temperature have profound influence on sucrose accumulation. A mean day temperature of 12 to 14 °C would be highly desirable for proper ripening.

9 Rainfall The crop can survive normal variation around a mean of 1200 mm. for obtaining higher yields, a rainfall of 2000 to 2500 mm per annum, evenly distributed is considered ideal. During the active growth period rainfall encourages rapid cane growth, cane elongation and internodes formation. But during ripening period, it is not desirable as it leads to poor juice quality, encourage vegetative growth, formation of water shoots and increase in the tissue moisture. It also hampers harvesting and transport operations.

10 Humidity The relative humidity does not have much influence, if water supply is not limiting. Moderate values of 45 to 65 percent coupled with limited water supply are favorable during the ripening phase. However, high humidity’s coupled with warm weather favor vegetative growth.

11 Sunshine Sugarcane is a sun loving plant.
Therefore, greater incident radiation (Sunshine) favours higher sugarcane and sugar yields. About 7 to 9 hours of bright sunshine is highly useful both for active growth and ripening.

12 Frost Severe cold weather inhibits bud sprouting in ratoons and arrests cane growth. At temperature -10 to 20 C the cane leaves and meristem tissues are killed

13 Weeds, pests and diseases Controls
Weeds, pests and diseases they all need to be controlled for best sugarcane production but care is needed when controlling these three in odder to do profit. Weed control involves a mixture of cultivation and herbicide application. In pest and diseases monitoring, timely control of pests and diseases is essential even with resistant cane varieties. This can be done by being hygiene, biological controls and use of chemicals

14 Pest and diseases The most common pest and diseases for sugar cane in South Africa are: Brown, spot Eye spot, Mosaic, Eldana borer, Pokkah boeng, Ratoon stunting diseases (RSD), Rust Leaf scald, Smut, Gumming, Mites, Red rot, Brown stripe streak, Chlorolic streak, Red stripe and Yellow leaf syndrome. Some of these diseases can cause significant damage or yield losses, which are South African major pests and diseases see the highlighted ones.

15 Labour requirement Sugarcane farm permanent labours will depending on the size of the farm. Other labour can be highered temporally e.g. during the harvesting time and for spraying of herbicides or pesticides

16 Marketing Sugarcane is usually not marketed; when it is ready usually it’s taken to the mills

17 Empangeni and Melmoth Humidity or Moisture content
Soil type and topography Access to the market climate data

18 Empangeni and Melmoth Humidity or Moisture content
The two types of moisture are: Air humidity or moisture this varies with temperature. For instance when the temperature is too high the humidity will be low and when it’s too low the humidity will be high. Soil moisture this will depend on the soil water holding capacity, (WHC), soil type, air field pore space (AFP), and etc. Empangeni have moderate soil moisture content because it has well drained soils.

19 Empangeni Soil type and topography
Empangeni has rolling terrain, it has the altitude range (m) of 32 to 198 m , the slope is steep to moderate, the extent of cultivation is widespread and potential soil erosion hazard rating is high risk (4.6). It has good soils of duplex and moderate to poor drainage.

20 Access to the market The cane will be transported by the tractor(s) to the nearest mill. The nearest mill is Mfolozi and Pongola (but this one is a bit far). The cost will be detected by the track owner or dealer. E.g. the longer the distance the higher costs. Mpangeni is next to the most mills therefore it is easily accessible to the market. The cost will be not that high.

21 Table 2: Empangeni climate data
Temperature – Precipitation Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Highest recorded temperature (°C) 41 39 37 35 31 40 42 43 Average daily maximum temperature (°C) 29 27 25 23 24 26 Average daily minimum temperature (°C) 21 20 18 15 12 14 16 17 19 Lowest recorded temperature (°C) 11 13 8 7 6 4 5 10 Average monthly precipitation (mm) 172 167 107 109 57 60 65 77 105 114 86 1027 Average number of rain days (>= 1 mm) 9 113 (Camp 1995)Annual Rainfall Minimum annual rainfall is 1007mm Average annual rainfall is 1027mm Maximum annual rainfall is 1453mm Where CV= 18.3%

22 Melmoth Soil type and topography
Melmoth have the rolling terrain, the altitude ranges from 535 to 1118 m, the slope is steep to moderate, the extent of cultivation is moderate and the potential soil erosion hazard rating is very high risk. It has shallow soils and poor drainage which increase an erosion hazard.

23 Access to the market The cane will be transported by the tractor(s) to the nearest mill. The nearest mill is Matigulu and Ntumeni (but this one is closed). The cost will be detected by the truck owner or dealer. E.g. the longer the distance the higher costs. Melmoth is not next to the mills therefore it is not easily accessible to the market cost will be higher at Melmoth when transporting the cane to the mill.

24 Table 3: Melmoth climate data
(Camp 1995) Temperature – Precipitation °C | °F Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average high in °C 27 26 23 22 24 Average low in °C 17 16 14 12 9 11 13 Av. precipitation - mm 113 115 95 46 35 18 48 93 103 112 Annual Rainfall Minimum annual rainfall is 634mm Average annual rainfall is 817mm Maximum annual rainfall is 1000mm Where CV=22%

25 Management plan Production requirement
Farm lay out Weed, pest and diseases Farm operation Transporting and marketing

26 Lay out The proposed farm land is about 35 ha, and the farmer have R20 million as the startup capital. In these 35 hatters 30 hatters is for the plantation of sugarcane and 5 hatters is for the farm operations. The farm operation is will be divided as follows 0.5 hatters is for farm homestead, 2.5 hectors is for labour homestead, 0.5 hectors is for the storage of chemicals like herbicides and pesticides and 1.5 hectors is for farm workshop.

27 Lay out cont’d The farm operations must be located at the canter of the farm, it must be easily accessible to the following, road, water, power electricity and other things (schools shops etc). The farm must have at least 10 permanent labours so that every thing in the farm will go well depending on the size of the farm. This farm will have 12 labours they will be divided as follows two tractor drivers, three people on weed control, three in pest and diseases and four people in marketing and harvesting. This farm will be under dry land.

28 Farm operation The farm will have the following things so that it can operate well, this include the good labour system (labours should be well skilled and hard workers), up-to-date equipment (if all the equipment are up-to-date every thing will be done on time) and time table (this will help the farm to do and prepare things on time). Note that the farm operations will not be the same for these two places due to their soil form, terrains, altitude and climatic conditions which are not similar.

29 Weeds, pests and diseases Controls
There are several basic types of herbicides, each targeting certain plant pests (weeds, grasses.)  Pre-emergent herbicides are used to stop the germination of plant seeds.  Post emergent herbicides can be selective or non-selective.  Products such as Roundup can be considered total vegetation, non selective and post emergent.  Total vegetation products Examples of different herbicide types which are Surflan A.S, Atrazine 4 L, Trimec Lawn Weed Killer, Roundup Pro Dry and Glyphosate. Weed is the major problem at Melmoth than at Empangeni because Melmoth has both broad leaf and grass weed and the control is much differs in Melmoth due to the slope and wind. See the table bellow

30 Melmoth Empangeni Table 1: Types of weed at Empangeni and Melmoth
Broad leaf weed 45% 39% Grass weed 55% 41% Control effectiveness 89% 36%

31 Pest and diseases Pest and diseases that are expected for sugar cane in South Africa are: Some of these diseases can cause significant damage or yield losses, which are South African major pests and diseases see the highlighted ones. See table below

32 Diseases Pests Eldona borer Brown spot Gumming Eye spot Mites Mosaic
Pest and diseases Table2: Pest and diseases Pests Diseases Eldona borer Brown spot Gumming Eye spot Mites Mosaic streak Red rot Pokkah boeng Rust Brown stripe Ratoon stunting diseases (RSD) Red stripe Smut Chlorolic streak Leaf scald Yellow leaf syndrome

33 Transporting and marketing
The cane will be transported by the tractor(s) the cost will be higher at Melmoth than at Empangeni because the mills are not near than the Melmoth as comparing to Empangeni. In terms of marketing cane is in higher demand the will be no any problems.

34 Recommendation Empangeni will be the best place to produce sugarcane then Melmoth, because of the following leason: it has most suitable climate for producing sugarcane because it has the mostly similar climate with that required by the sugar cane plant. Empangeni is also the best area for this production because it have good soils of duplex and moderate to poor drainage it climate is favourable for wide range of crops for good yield throughout the year it is frost free, and Melmoth is not because it have shallow soils and poor drainage which increase an erosion hazard and it has low temperatures and frost.

35 Recommendation cont,d The cane will be transported by the tractor's the cost will be higher at Melmoth than at Empangeni because the mills are not near than the Melmoth as comparing to Empangeni. In terms of marketing cane is in higher demand the will be no any problems

36 Conclusion The productivity levels are much less in sub-tropics. Sugarcane can be grown in wide range of soils from sandy loam to clay loam. However, it thrives best on well drained soils. It can also can be raised successfully on lighter soils provided there is adequate irrigation facilities. It grows more successfully in those regions where the climate is more or less tropical but it can grow in sub tropics too as in north India. Empangeni is the best area for this production because it have good soils of moderate to poor drainage it climate is favourable for wide range of crops for good yield throughout the year it is frost free, and Melmoth will not be suitable because it have shallow soils and poor drainage which increase an erosion hazard and it has low temperatures and frost.

37 Siyabonga sesihembe Thank you !!!!!!!!!!!

38 Back


Download ppt "Sugarcane production at Empangeni and Melmoth"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google