Presentation on theme: "Sugarcane production at Empangeni and Melmoth"— Presentation transcript:
1Sugarcane production at Empangeni and Melmoth Compiled and Presented byT.B Ngema 10790
2IntroductionSugar cane is considered as a tropical plant but is a relatively hardy tropical and sub-tropical crop which has been adapted to grow both in high rainfall areas and in desert conditions in which it is entirely dependent on irrigation. It is a long duration crop and thus it encounters all the seasons' viz., rainy, winter and summer during its life cycle. It is also grown in the world from altitude 36.7° N and 31.0° S and from sea level to 1000m of altitude or little more. The plant thrives best in tropical hot sunny areas production of sugarcane at Empangeni and Melmoth. It also includes the soil requirement, climate data and access to the market, management, seasonal plan and financial plan of the production of sugarcane in these two places.
3Skills needed when producing sugar cane If someone intends to produce sugarcane these are some of the skills required which are:Cane managementVariety selectionPest, diseases and weed controlClimate analysisIrrigation system (depending on the production method)
4Production requirements Sugarcane production requirementSoilClimateWeeds, pests and diseases ControlsPest and diseasesLabourMarketing
5Soil requirement of Sugarcane Sugarcane can be grown in a wide rage of soil from sandy loam to clay loam. However, it thrives best on well drained soils. It can also be raised successfully on lighter soils provided there is adequate irrigation facilities while on heavy clays with proper drainage and addition of organic matter. Saline, alkaline and acidic soils are not at all suitable for sugarcane. For cultivation of sugarcane, both physical and chemical properties of soil should be identified. Physical characteristics of soil determines the water holding capacity; draining capacity of soil, aeration, soil temperature, root growth, availability of nutrients, microbial growth etc.
6Soil requirement cont’d In light textured soils, the problem is poor water holding capacity and this can be improved by the addition of organic matter as well as soil amendments like tank silt. Very frequent irrigations are required. Sugarcane is not a suitable crop for light soils unless otherwise irrigation sources are available. Heavy soils’, though having very high water holding capacity, the problem is ill-drained conditions. These soils can be beating utilized by providing proper drainage.)
7Climate requirementSugarcane is a tropical plant. It grows more successfully in those regions where the climate is more or less tropical but it can grow in sub tropics too as in north India.Sugarcane yields is mostly affected by the climate in the country. These includes:TemperatureRainfallSunshineHumidityFrost
8Climate requirement Temperature Optimum cane temperatures is between 24 and 30 °C.A temperature less than 5 °C is harmful even to resistant varieties.Temperatures above 38 °C increase rate respiration.During the active growth period, a minimum mean temperature of 20 °C is required.Fluctuations in temperature have profound influence on sucrose accumulation.A mean day temperature of 12 to 14 °C would be highly desirable for proper ripening.
9RainfallThe crop can survive normal variation around a mean of 1200 mm. for obtaining higher yields, a rainfall of 2000 to 2500 mm per annum, evenly distributed is considered ideal.During the active growth period rainfall encourages rapid cane growth, cane elongation and internodes formation.But during ripening period, it is not desirable as it leads to poor juice quality, encourage vegetative growth, formation of water shoots and increase in the tissue moisture.It also hampers harvesting and transport operations.
10HumidityThe relative humidity does not have much influence, if water supply is not limiting.Moderate values of 45 to 65 percent coupled with limited water supply are favorable during the ripening phase.However, high humidity’s coupled with warm weather favor vegetative growth.
11Sunshine Sugarcane is a sun loving plant. Therefore, greater incident radiation (Sunshine) favours higher sugarcane and sugar yields.About 7 to 9 hours of bright sunshine is highly useful both for active growth and ripening.
12FrostSevere cold weather inhibits bud sprouting in ratoons and arrests cane growth.At temperature -10 to 20 C the cane leaves and meristem tissues are killed
13Weeds, pests and diseases Controls Weeds, pests and diseases they all need to be controlled for best sugarcane production but care is needed when controlling these three in odder to do profit. Weed control involves a mixture of cultivation and herbicide application. In pest and diseases monitoring, timely control of pests and diseases is essential even with resistant cane varieties. This can be done by being hygiene, biological controls and use of chemicals
14Pest and diseasesThe most common pest and diseases for sugar cane in South Africa are: Brown, spot Eye spot, Mosaic, Eldana borer, Pokkah boeng, Ratoon stunting diseases (RSD), Rust Leaf scald, Smut, Gumming, Mites, Red rot, Brown stripe streak, Chlorolic streak, Red stripe and Yellow leaf syndrome. Some of these diseases can cause significant damage or yield losses, which are South African major pests and diseases see the highlighted ones.
15Labour requirementSugarcane farm permanent labours will depending on the size of the farm. Other labour can be highered temporally e.g. during the harvesting time and for spraying of herbicides or pesticides
16MarketingSugarcane is usually not marketed; when it is ready usually it’s taken to the mills
17Empangeni and Melmoth Humidity or Moisture content Soil type and topographyAccess to the marketclimate data
18Empangeni and Melmoth Humidity or Moisture content The two types of moisture are:Air humidity or moisture this varies with temperature. For instance when the temperature is too high the humidity will be low and when it’s too low the humidity will be high.Soil moisture this will depend on the soil water holding capacity, (WHC), soil type, air field pore space (AFP), and etc. Empangeni have moderate soil moisture content because it has well drained soils.
19Empangeni Soil type and topography Empangeni has rolling terrain, it has the altitude range (m) of 32 to 198 m , the slope is steep to moderate, the extent of cultivation is widespread and potential soil erosion hazard rating is high risk (4.6). It has good soils of duplex and moderate to poor drainage.
20Access to the marketThe cane will be transported by the tractor(s) to the nearest mill. The nearest mill is Mfolozi and Pongola (but this one is a bit far). The cost will be detected by the track owner or dealer. E.g. the longer the distance the higher costs. Mpangeni is next to the most mills therefore it is easily accessible to the market. The cost will be not that high.
21Table 2: Empangeni climate data Temperature – PrecipitationJanFebMarAprMayJuneJulyAugSepOctNovDecYearHighest recorded temperature (°C)4139373531404243Average daily maximum temperature (°C)292725232426Average daily minimum temperature (°C)212018151214161719Lowest recorded temperature (°C)11138764510Average monthly precipitation (mm)17216710710957606577105114861027Average number of rain days (>= 1 mm)9113(Camp 1995)Annual RainfallMinimum annual rainfall is 1007mmAverage annual rainfall is 1027mmMaximum annual rainfall is 1453mmWhere CV= 18.3%
22Melmoth Soil type and topography Melmoth have the rolling terrain, the altitude ranges from 535 to 1118 m, the slope is steep to moderate, the extent of cultivation is moderate and the potential soil erosion hazard rating is very high risk. It has shallow soils and poor drainage which increase an erosion hazard.
23Access to the marketThe cane will be transported by the tractor(s) to the nearest mill. The nearest mill is Matigulu and Ntumeni (but this one is closed). The cost will be detected by the truck owner or dealer. E.g. the longer the distance the higher costs. Melmoth is not next to the mills therefore it is not easily accessible to the market cost will be higher at Melmoth when transporting the cane to the mill.
24Table 3: Melmoth climate data (Camp 1995)Temperature – Precipitation°C | °FJanFebMarAprMayJuneJulyAugSepOctNovDecAverage high in °C2726232224Average low in °C1716141291113Av. precipitation - mm113115954635184893103112Annual RainfallMinimum annual rainfall is 634mmAverage annual rainfall is 817mmMaximum annual rainfall is 1000mmWhere CV=22%
25Management plan Production requirement Farm lay outWeed, pest and diseasesFarm operationTransporting and marketing
26Lay outThe proposed farm land is about 35 ha, and the farmer have R20 million as the startup capital. In these 35 hatters 30 hatters is for the plantation of sugarcane and 5 hatters is for the farm operations. The farm operation is will be divided as follows 0.5 hatters is for farm homestead, 2.5 hectors is for labour homestead, 0.5 hectors is for the storage of chemicals like herbicides and pesticides and 1.5 hectors is for farm workshop.
27Lay out cont’dThe farm operations must be located at the canter of the farm, it must be easily accessible to the following, road, water, power electricity and other things (schools shops etc). The farm must have at least 10 permanent labours so that every thing in the farm will go well depending on the size of the farm. This farm will have 12 labours they will be divided as follows two tractor drivers, three people on weed control, three in pest and diseases and four people in marketing and harvesting. This farm will be under dry land.
28Farm operationThe farm will have the following things so that it can operate well, this include the good labour system (labours should be well skilled and hard workers), up-to-date equipment (if all the equipment are up-to-date every thing will be done on time) and time table (this will help the farm to do and prepare things on time). Note that the farm operations will not be the same for these two places due to their soil form, terrains, altitude and climatic conditions which are not similar.
29Weeds, pests and diseases Controls There are several basic types of herbicides, each targeting certain plant pests (weeds, grasses.) Pre-emergent herbicides are used to stop the germination of plant seeds. Post emergent herbicides can be selective or non-selective. Products such as Roundup can be considered total vegetation, non selective and post emergent. Total vegetation products Examples of different herbicide types which are Surflan A.S, Atrazine 4 L, Trimec Lawn Weed Killer, Roundup Pro Dry and Glyphosate. Weed is the major problem at Melmoth than at Empangeni because Melmoth has both broad leaf and grass weed and the control is much differs in Melmoth due to the slope and wind. See the table bellow
30Melmoth Empangeni Table 1: Types of weed at Empangeni and Melmoth Broad leaf weed45%39%Grass weed55%41%Control effectiveness89%36%
31Pest and diseasesPest and diseases that are expected for sugar cane in South Africa are:Some of these diseases can cause significant damage or yield losses, which are South African major pests and diseases see the highlighted ones. See table below
32Diseases Pests Eldona borer Brown spot Gumming Eye spot Mites Mosaic Pest and diseasesTable2: Pest and diseasesPestsDiseasesEldona borerBrown spotGummingEye spotMitesMosaicstreakRed rotPokkah boengRustBrown stripeRatoon stunting diseases (RSD)Red stripeSmutChlorolic streakLeaf scaldYellow leaf syndrome
33Transporting and marketing The cane will be transported by the tractor(s) the cost will be higher at Melmoth than at Empangeni because the mills are not near than the Melmoth as comparing to Empangeni. In terms of marketing cane is in higher demand the will be no any problems.
34RecommendationEmpangeni will be the best place to produce sugarcane then Melmoth, because of the following leason: it has most suitable climate for producing sugarcane because it has the mostly similar climate with that required by the sugar cane plant. Empangeni is also the best area for this production because it have good soils of duplex and moderate to poor drainage it climate is favourable for wide range of crops for good yield throughout the year it is frost free, and Melmoth is not because it have shallow soils and poor drainage which increase an erosion hazard and it has low temperatures and frost.
35Recommendation cont,dThe cane will be transported by the tractor's the cost will be higher at Melmoth than at Empangeni because the mills are not near than the Melmoth as comparing to Empangeni. In terms of marketing cane is in higher demand the will be no any problems
36ConclusionThe productivity levels are much less in sub-tropics. Sugarcane can be grown in wide range of soils from sandy loam to clay loam. However, it thrives best on well drained soils. It can also can be raised successfully on lighter soils provided there is adequate irrigation facilities. It grows more successfully in those regions where the climate is more or less tropical but it can grow in sub tropics too as in north India. Empangeni is the best area for this production because it have good soils of moderate to poor drainage it climate is favourable for wide range of crops for good yield throughout the year it is frost free, and Melmoth will not be suitable because it have shallow soils and poor drainage which increase an erosion hazard and it has low temperatures and frost.