Presentation on theme: "Stick ’ n to the Goal v.2.0 Jodi Sticken, COMS Jenna Sticken, COMS"— Presentation transcript:
Stick ’ n to the Goal v.2.0 Jodi Sticken, COMS email@example.com Jenna Sticken, COMS firstname.lastname@example.org
# 1 Rule: DO NOT STRESS OUT OVER GOAL WRITING! It ’ s not really difficult if you apply a “ formula ” and approach the task systematically… …this way, you will avoid confusion…
Well-written goals are necessary to meet the spirit as well as letter of the law (IDEA)… they are NOT a form of torture developed by wicked administrators!
Think of goals (and objectives or benchmarks) as maps… …powerful tools to provide guidance for instructional planning…
Instead of stressing… Take action! Apply a simple formula! Change the way you THINK about this task…
Goals and Objectives/Benchmarks Should describe outcomes, and must be observable and measurable Must contain the following 4 components:
1. Condition The situation under which the student will perform the skill or behavior (materials, assistance, directions) Answers the question: When/where/under what conditions?
2. Learner Name of the student (frustrating as this is, and in spite of the potential benefit, we can’t write goals for parents or teachers!) Answers the question: Who?
3. Behavior Describe exactly, in measurable terms, the behavior you ’ re looking for Answers the question: What?
4. Criterion The level of performance indicating mastery Answers 2 questions: How well or how much? For how long? Sometimes will include a schedule for evaluation
So far, so good… When/where/under what conditions? Who? What? How well or how much, and for how long?
Be sure that all 4 components are included in any goal/benchmark! Here ’ s the test: Have you answered all the questions? (when/where/who/what/how well/how much/how long) Can you count the number of times the behavior occurs or count the time it takes to perform the behavior? Would a stranger know exactly what to look for? Can you see or hear the behavior or product? Did you use observable verbs? Note, you really can ’ t observe “ increase ” or “ improve ”
Here ’ s the formula: Condition: Given weekly opportunities during public transportation lessons, Learner: Eric Behavior: will confirm bus routes with drivers before boarding, and ask drivers to announce his stop Criterion: with no prompts, 5 out of 5 trials for 2 weeks.
The stick ’ n points seem to be related to difficulties with: Defining the behavior in specific, measurable terms – Be sure the description would be understood by anyone observing – Avoid use of vague terms such as “ improve ”, “ increase ”, or “ appropriate ” And applying appropriate criterion – Know the intent of your goal; match this to the criterion – It must make sense; consider the following different types of criteria:
Accuracy/percentage: Number or percent of correct responses Latency: Length of time which elapses before the student begins performing the behavior Frequency/Rate- Number of times within a given time frame Duration- the length of a behavior within a specified time period Task Analysis measurement- number of steps completed within a task analysis
Let ’ s practice…what ’ s wrong with these goals? Eric will travel safely in all environments. Neil will use his cane appropriately. Jenna will increase her independent travel skills. All students receiving mobility services will successfully cross the street 4 out of 5 times.
Just when you think you ’ ve got it figured out, another hurdle gets in your way… What about those annoying Illinois Learning Standards?
Illinois Learning Standards http://www.isbe.net/ILS/default.htm define what all students in all Illinois public schools should know and be able to do in the eight core areas as a result of their elementary and secondary schooling – English Language Arts – Fine Arts – Foreign Languages – Physical Development & Health – Mathematics – Science – Social Emotional Learning – Social Science
Let ’ s see how we can apply the ILS to our dissected goal: Given weekly opportunities during public transportation lessons, Eric will confirm bus routes with drivers before boarding, and ask drivers to announce his stop with no prompts, 5 out of 5 trials for 2 weeks.
First, let ’ s look at the benchmark as a step toward a goal related to soliciting assistance and using maps and schedules.
Somewhat arbitrarily, I ’ ve perused the “ English Language Arts Performance Indicators ” and found this statement under “ Vision for Performance ” : “ …ability to read effectively includes the ability to use tables, graphs, and maps as well as text to acquire information and to evaluate arguments ”
English Language Arts Performance Indicators Goal 4 – Listen and speak effectively in a variety of situations. ( “ …develop through a progression of increasing sophistication in students' ability to sort, organize, evaluate, and present information. ” )
4-A Students who meet the standard can listen effectively in formal and informal situations. Stage I: Ask probing, idea-generating questions and make appropriate statements to clarify and add to meaning Soliciting Assistance
4-B Students who meet the standard can speak effectively using language appropriate to the situation and audience. Stage I: Rehearse presentations to overcome communication anxiety and apprehension Soliciting Assistance
English Language Arts Performance Indicators Goal 5 – Use the language arts to acquire, assess, and communicate information. ( “ …learning progresses from learning to plan and complete relatively simple research projects to developing skills needed for planning more complex research projects, for gathering, analyzing, and synthesizing information from several sources… ” )
5-A Students who meet the standard can locate, organize, and use information from various sources to answer questions, solve problems, and communicate ideas. Stage I: Distinguish among kinds of information needed to solve a problem, present possible solutions, or extend information about a topic or problem. Route or Trip Planning (determine sources of reliable information, e.g., maps, schedules)
5-B Students who meet the standard can analyze and evaluate information acquired from various sources Stage I: Analyze and evaluate information Route or Trip Planning (use information gathered from maps, schedules, interviews)
Any of these ILS goals can be applied to this O&M benchmark! You can find all the ILS goals and performance indicators for Grades 1-5 and for Grades 6-12 at this website: http://www.isbe.net/ILS/html/descriptors.htm
The following areas have components that can be easily applied to O&M: English Language Arts Mathematics Physical Development & Health Social Emotional Learning Social Science
And now…the dreaded… COMMON CORE
Here’s the thing: The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) DO NOT lend themselves to O&M O&M is a distinct knowledge and skill set, an important component of the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) for students who have visual disabilities… And a RELATED SERVICE within IDEA…
…whereas the Common Core State Standards establish clear expectations for what students should be learning in English language arts and mathematics at every grade level from pre- kindergarten through 12th grade
CCSS clearly applies to the academic standards and expectations for ALL children, including those who have disabilities… …while the ECC applies very specifically to children who have VISUAL DISABILITIES
There are some general principles within the CCSS that DO lend themselves to O&M: emphasis on critical thinking and concept mastery using evidence to back claims expanding academic vocabulary applying and demonstrating knowledge in real-world settings
So…if forced, in spite of the futility and wasted effort of the exercise (this is the presenter’s opinion, not the opinion of management)… …it IS possible to find a CCSS to apply to many O&M goals.
Here are a few examples Due to **’s visual impairment, an O&M evaluation was completed in April 2013; ** began receiving orientation and mobility instruction following the evaluation. ** continues to learn about environmental signs in and around ** community; however, ** requires prompting and instruction to safely travel through ** environment. While traveling, ** needs prompts to scan ** environment and remain aware as ** navigates.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.5 – Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. By March 2015, in order to preview and increase awareness of her environments, ** will build ** mapping skills by developing or reading a map of a room (including important environmental features), and read/follow an ‘L’ shaped route pattern in a familiar environment in 2 out of 2 trials with no more than 3 prompts per trial.
By June 2014, in order to preview and increase awareness of ** environments, ** will develop accurate maps of a familiar environment (room) including important environmental features with no more than 5 prompts per trial in 2 out of 2 trials. By October 2014, in order to preview and increase awareness of her environments, ** will develop accurate maps of a familiar environment (room) including important environmental features with no more than 4 prompts per trial in 2 out of 2 trials. By January 2015, in order to preview and increase awareness of ** environments, ** will accurately read/follow a map of a familiar environment in a ‘L’ shaped pattern in 2 out of 2 trials with no more than 4 prompts per trial.
Due to **’s visual diagnosis, an Orientation and Mobility evaluation was completed and O&M services were added to **’s IEP. He has made a smooth transition to ** ** high school and is able to located pertinent areas of ** school and classes. In large crowds, crowded hallways, and unfamiliar areas, ** has a difficult time traveling around the school. To compensate ** will travel near the right wall of the hall, walk with someone on ** right side for protection and sometimes place ** hand on ** Dad's shoulder for guidance. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.8: Research to build and present knowledge
By September 2015, ** will research, explore, and be able to list resources related to at least 4 different topics regarding Orientation and Mobility services during lessons with the O&M specialist as evidenced by a written resource list. By January 2015, ** will research, explore, and be able to list resources related to at least 1 different topic regarding Orientation and Mobility services during lessons with the O&M specialist as evidenced by a written resource list. By March 2015, ** will research, explore, and be able to list resources related to at least 2 different topics regarding Orientation and Mobility services during lessons with the O&M specialist as evidenced by a written resource list.
By June 2015, ** will research, explore, and be able to list resources related to at least 3 different topics regarding Orientation and Mobility services during lessons with the O&M specialist as evidenced by a written resource list. *Dog Guide Travel *Cane Travel (including how to purchase a cane) *Travel Technology (apps, computer programs, stand- alone devices) *Paratransit & Reduced Fare *Daily Living Skills Resources
Due to ** visual diagnosis, ** receives orientation and mobility instruction. At this time, ** does not meet the visual criteria to drive in the state of Illinois; because of this ** is learning to travel via public transportation. ** has researched and completed taxi lessons, public bus lessons, acquired ** state ID, reduced fare, and paratransit cards/eligibility. ** plans to attend a 4-year university upon graduation of high school in the spring 2015.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.11-12.6: Use technology, including the internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information. By June 2015, ** will research 4 potential universities and develop a spreadsheet of services and accessibility features they provide to a person with a visual impairment, in addition to their local public transportation options with no more than 1 prompt per university.
By January 2015, **will research 2 potential universities and develop a spreadsheet of services and accessibility features they provide to a person with a visual impairment, in addition to their local public transportation options with no more than 1 prompt per university. By March 2015, ** will research 1 additional potential university and develop a spreadsheet of services and accessibility features they provide to a person with a visual impairment, in addition to their local public transportation options with no more than 1 prompt per university.
Resources This one is primo: http://www.perkinselearning.org/ccss Perkins Training and Educational Resources Training Program is in Year II of Accelerating the Common Core, a project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The primary goal of the project is to create a ‘community of teachers’ (in this case-TVIs) related to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). During Year I the focus was on identification of standards that may be a challenge to students with visual impairments, as well as the development of a website, Paths to Common Core, which was launched this past summer. Note that this is geared for TVIs, not O&Ms, but…still an excellent resource!