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AFRI-CAP Award No. 2011-69005-30515 Advisory Board Meeting September 9, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "AFRI-CAP Award No. 2011-69005-30515 Advisory Board Meeting September 9, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 AFRI-CAP Award No. 2011-69005-30515 Advisory Board Meeting September 9, 2013

2 Administrative UpdateCarlen Ensley Sweet Sorghum UpdateSonny Viator Energy Cane UpdatePaul White Overall Project UpdateDonal Day General Discussion

3 Project Director Transition Year 3 Reapplication Approved for full amount $3,489,667 Will be required to reapply every year

4 Sustainable Feedstock Production Systems Sweet Sorghum H.P. Viator, W. Alison, M. Blazier, K.J. Han, D. Harrell and H. Liechty

5 * Evaluate sweet sorghum hybrids for agronomic performance, inclusive of their ability to maintain juice quality into the fall season, produce commercial yields on marginal soil, respond to low-input sustainable production practices and deliver quantities of feedstock on a schedule that sustains the viability of the biorefinery.




9 TreatmentBiomass t/A Fermentable sugar t/A Conv. till No fert. 28.4 a2.7 a Conv. till + P and K 29.8 a2.9 a No till No fert. 23.5 b2.1 b No till + P and K 26.5 ab2.5 ab


11 * Fresh-weight biomass yield ranged from an average of 18 tons/A to an average of 43 tons/A last year. This year yields ranged from 9.1 to 26.8 tons/A ………. Considerably less than last year thus far, and may be due to N leaching.


13 Fan Speed 0Biomass > 37% Fan Speed 800 rpmBiomass > 24% Fan Speed 1100 rpmBiomass is least

14 Sucrose % Difference 14.34 24.57 10.95 29.52 12.40 18.92 19.80 26.73 20.94 29.42 28.67 27.29 47.08 33.80 33.38 37.25 Brix % Difference 8.54 11.06 15.99 16.58 9.48 14.61 11.51 19.18 13.17 18.26 11.92 15.62 29.35 21.61 19.91 19.18


16 An early planting date in March was accomplished this year An attempt will be made to ratoon the hybrids in the early planting date

17  Disappointed in performance of full-season hybrids; expected highest yields with later maturity  Yield potential of 90-day hybrids is relatively low, but offer early harvest  Soluble solids (Brix) readings appeared to be low relative to other studies (16.5 to 10.9 range). Investigating effects of ergot on Brix.  Unexpected overlap in maturity for medium and late hybrids, which caused gap in feedstock delivery

18 Sustainable Feedstock Production Systems Energy Cane Paul White

19 * Energycane plots were planted in July 2012 with several energycane varieties, predominately Ho 02-113. We also planted a small demonstration plot area for Dr. Kenneth Gravois containing Ho 02- 113, Ho 02-144, Ho 08-9076, Ho 01-07, Ho 06-9001, Ho 06-9002 and CoCP 04-838. For the ratooning test (Task 2.1), we covered the Ho 01-113 with three depths of packed soil: 2, 3, or 4 inches. We did this to determine if the cane needed extra insulation to survive the winter. We also planted a side by side compassion of Ho 02-113 and HoCP 04-838 to test the effects of growing in northern areas of Louisiana on sugar juice and syrup characteristics. All of the cane was sprayed with 3 lbs. of Senor as a preemergence herbicide. * In June, Dr. Richard Johnson went to Winnsboro to apply nitrogen (N) fertilizer to the fertility study (Task 2.2). The cane was already too tall for a regular height tractor so they had to put out the fertilizer by hand.

20 * For the ratooning study (Task 2.1), stand counts and cane heights were collected in July 2013. All stalks on a 10 foot section of row in each plot were counted and 10 randomly selected stalks were measured for height from the soil surface to the top dewlap. For counts, data indicated no differences in depth of cover at planting, with averages for 2, 3 and 4 inches of 87,100; 85,500, and 85,700 stalks/Acre, respectively. The p-value for the statistical test was 0.84. Stalk heights were the same for each depth of cover as well with an overall average of 69 inches. The p-value for the statistical test was 0.91. Simulated yields are scheduled for September 2013.

21 * The date of harvest test (Task 2.3) was planted in October 2012 at the Spanish Trail Farm in Schriever, La. The following varieties were planted: Ho 72-114, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, Ho 02-144, Ho 02-147, Ho 08-9076, Ho 01-07, Ho 06-9001, Ho 06-9002, Ho 00-961, HoCP 04-838 and HoCP 96-540. Four replicates of each variety were planted in 50 foot Rows. Sencor applications were used to control weeds. The cane was cultivated, fertilized and layed by in the spring of 2013. The first harvest was August 15, 2013.

22 VarietyPopluation Stalks/A Yield Tons/A Brix % Fiber % Dry Matter Tons/A L 79-1002100,200304.1228 Ho 72-11483,900384.82411 Ho 00-96166,100375.42210 Ho 01-0783,900454.91710 Ho 02-11384,200425.72111 Ho 02-14485,700244.9237 Ho 02-14776,800345.6198 Ho 06-900179,700234.8236 Ho 06-900279,300264.6237 Ho 08-907664,800355.12611 HoCp 04-83850,500406.7169 HoCp 96-54051,700376.5168 Avg. ECane80,460335229 Avg. Sugarcane51,100397169

23 Overall Project Update Donal Day

24 * Feedstock Development * Sustainable Production * Logistics and processing * Conversion and Refining * Economics, Markets and Distribution * Education * Extension Expand the Southern Regional Agricultural Sector by utilizing sweet sorghum and energy cane for production of butanol, gasoline, bioplastics, isoprene and by-product chemicals. Dollars per acre to be sustainably earned by a farmer for each feedstock ? Dollars per gallon of fuel (or per pound of chemical) paid by the consumer ?

25 Sweet Sorghum July - September Energy Cane October - March Bagasse, syrup, woodchips, molasses, etc. April - June Agricultural Model Staggered Harvest, Complementary Crops, producing fermentable sugars and biomass.

26 Industrial Model Primary processing plants supplying centralized biorefineries Storable syrups as feedstocks Primary plants drawing on local acreage

27 * Energy cane- seven molecular markers have been found, four for leaf greenness and three for regrowth damage. Genetic variability was created by cross hybridization between a set of distinct species * Cross pollination between sugarcane and miscanthus, F 1 in field tests across Louisiana * Cold tolerance testing of Energy cane in North Louisiana location * Low input testing in North Louisiana

28 * Plots established * Cold tolerance trials ongoing * No herbicide testing * No diseases detected Energy cane grows faster than sugar cane

29 * Biomass yield not affected by N&P supplementation * Legume addition 99 lb N/acre * Yield average 34-38 ton/acre wet wgt * No till trials on –going * C capture by soil –on-going

30 * Calibration constructed for sweet sorghum using 218 samples of varying maturity and strains * Calibration being constructed for energy cane * NIR being used for screening breeding samples of sweet sorghum and sugarcane NIR spectra of full stalk sweet sorghum. Calibration Components Brix, Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, and Ash in Juice Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, and Ash in Fiber Starch in Sweet Sorghum % Fiber and % Juice in Stalk

31 Preliminary Sorghum NIR Calibration Models ComponentCellulose % FiberHemicellulose % Fiber Acid Soluble Lignin % Fiber Acid Insoluble Lignin % Fiber Data SetCalibrationValidationCalibrationValidationCalibrationValidationCalibrationValidation No. of Samples3020302030203020 R2R2 84.3275.3576.1340.7264.2577.2554.1064.52 RMSEE1.481.150.2721.04 RMSEP1.281.50.2040.875 RPD2.532.162.051.351.672.151.481.69 Bias0.460-0.3950.04530.119 Only data for 50 samples used in these models. Need to add more samples to the model to increase predictive ability.

32 Overview of Sorghum NIR Calibration Model ComponentBrix in JuiceSucrose % JuiceGlucose % JuiceFructose % JuiceJuice % stalkFiber % Stalk Data SetValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternal No. of Samples481344134413441344134313 R2R2 96.3493.0694.7994.1484.185.01 RMSEP0.5120.3640.8790.480.450.4090.4260.3392.111.872.071.53 RPD5.238.883.846.154.484.964.145.542.583.012.693.65 Bias0.0294-0.04820.125-0.2540.09240.1860.0310.128-0.4930.5230.572-0.388 Correlation Coefficient 0.99430.98710.97970.98360.94380.9617 Samples included leaf, stalk and seed heads This calibration currently being used in breeding program

33 Overview of Energy Cane NIR Calibration Models ComponentBrix in JuiceSucrose % Juice Glucose + Fructose % Juice Ash % JuiceJuice % stalkFiber % Stalk Test SetValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternalValidationExternal No. of Samples381738173817381738173817 R2R2 95.6292.9178.8290.4991.6193.21 RMSEP0.3740.7820.6670.7880.2510.340.09020.0991.261.681.121.73 RPD5.132.393.763.272.181.653. Bias-0.1350.1830.02590.0358-0.01750.1070.00261-0.00291-0.2150.5270.132-0.609 Correlation Coefficient 0.9130.95410.80360.94860.92620.9256

34 Bagasse storage & fluidization * Pile storage best for short-term biomass storage * Bagasse can be fluidized for drying Harvesting Harvesting trials with John Deere for sweet sorghum begin in August

35 * Sweet Sorghum Weight loss- 6-7% over 72 hr period on harvesting 3 trials, one acre lots (about 18 rows) 8 inch billets, 3 different fan speeds evaluated For 2 lots all material, leaves, seed heads delivered to ASI mill, for one lot clean billets only delivered Analysis of results in progress * Energy Cane * 7-9% weight loss over a 72 hr period * Harvesting starts in October

36 Plant operational- initial process run (sweet sorghum) July 2013 Flexible Pilot Plant Education, Extension and Training Facility

37 * Three runs with 5 ton lots of sweet sorghum( 8 inch billets) conducted. For two runs the whole plant was harvested, for one the seed heads and leaves were removed. Feed rate ¼ to ½ T/hr. It was not possible to mill the clean billets because of choking (not enough fiber). A diffuser would be better for sweet sorghum.

38 8-7-2013% Brix70.3 sucrose14.3 glucose27.5 fructose22.7 fermentables64.5 ash (cond)13.5 8-19-2013% Brix72.9 sucrose68.6 glucose13.2 fructose11.2 fermentables93 Ash (cond)8.4

39 CropSimple sugars (dry lbs) Fiber (dry lbs) Sweet Sorghum184275 Energy Cane103474 Sugarcane Bagasse0980 Sugar and Fiber Yields per wet ton of crop How much is available for fuel conversion if some of the fiber is used to fuel the plant?

40 Mill tandemDiffuser ABAB Bagasse for power and steam (%) 10044.810054.5 Bagasse for LC sugars (%)-24.3-19.0 Bagasse to storage (%)-29.9-27.5 Sugars produced in primary plant (ton/h) 33.8 34.9 LC sugars produced (ton/h) -9.0-6.9 Excess power (MW)96.717.7101.825.7 Modeled on a 420 t/hr processing plant Partition will be driven by economics

41 * Pretreatment Options Under Investigation * High Temperature- water, ammonium hydroxide * Intermediate Temperature- lime * Low Temperature –oxidizers * Enzyme conversion partner (Genencor)

42 A similar pattern is observed for both crops and all alkaline pretreatments

43 * Ammonia- 150 C * The use of ammonium hydroxide as catalyst for biomass pretreatment. An improved recovery of ammonia of up to 70% of recoverable ammonia with sugar yields of at least 75%.

44 * Chemical loading: 0.2 g of Lime /1.0 g of dry solid bagasse Temp. & Time: 120 ˚C, 1 hr * Total weight : 72 kg * Total solid : 17.6 % (w/w) 43 hr from start, beginning fermentation, 30 C, 8 rpm

45 * Dry ground bagasse were treated with solutions of peroxy- hypochlorite (OxB) or bleach for 30 min, at a pH of 8.

46 PretreatmentScaleTemp o CGlucose Yield %, on enzyme treatment Prime Roadblocks WaterLab130-220NA AmmoniaPilot115-17575-85Reagent loss LimePilot12090effluent OxidizersLab2595cost

47 CompanyFeedstockProcessProduct VirentsugarsProprietaryfuel Optinolglucosefermentationbutanol DuPontsugarsProprietaryplastics ASI/LSUAconitic acidchemicalplastics

48 Batch Fermentation with 4% glucose Continuous Culture (0.6 ml/min) with 4% glucose 0.42% butanol0.61% butanol 0.60% Optinol TM 0.99% Optinol TM Anoxic conditions neededAnoxic conditions maintained 1.5 L media used (5 days)4.32 L media used (5 days) 3 L reaction vessel400 ml reaction vessel 0.6 g solvents/L/day21.384 g solvents/L/day

49 50% glycerol, 48% aconitic acid, and 2% cinnamic acid. Blue dot is a piece of silicone mat the polymer is cured on. Bubbles form through the polymer when cured on silicone.

50 * Initial estimates of production cost for energy cane through second stubble are complete * Energy cane establishment costs being estimated * Developing a biomass production feasibility index

51 Courses are being offered starting with ‘Essentials of Chemical Engineering for Non-Chemical Engineers” and introductory biology for chemical process operators. These courses will be electronically captured and archived for general, on demand availability through the internet. Two further courses are planned and /or scheduled: “Sustaining the Earth: An Engineering Approach” “Bioreactors and Bioprocessing” Bioenergy Workshop and Bioenergy Symposia was conducted for K-12 teachers from surrounding areas. A summer sustainability camp (3 rd -5 th grade) was conducted as part of the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies (CEES). Four laboratory experiments have been designed and incorporated into the chemical engineering program that will utilized the Audubon Pilot Facility.

52 * Effluent water reuse for growing algae was demonstrated. * Updated LCA model on revised milling model. * Calculated GHG for gasoline, jet fuel and diesel. * Set up data collection plan for energy cane milling.

53 * Field Days were used to highlight both energy cane and sweet sorghum crops as feedstocks for biofuels. * A Producer Survey was completed to gauge attitudes regarding developing feedstocks for a biofuels industry. * Sugarcane/Energy cane Variety Identification Guide was updated and published. Presentations were given at annual meetings of the Louisiana Soil and Water. * Conservation Districts and the Louisiana Agriculture Technology and Management Association. An article was written in the Crops Newsletter trade journal.

54 It has been established that sweet sorghum and energy cane are suitable crops for the production of biofuel and biobased chemicals in the Southeastern Region, and that the approach of using crops with staggered harvest times is feasible. The pilot plant facility has been constructed and is ready on schedule. Plant breeding programs have made a number of successful energy cane crosses which are being evaluated for cold tolerance and range of cultivation. Preliminary economic analysis has been conducted on the proposed crops. An extension program has been established to familiarize farmers with these crops and an education program is being established for training people for work in the biofuels industry.

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