Presentation on theme: "APES Chapter 8 Notes Community Ecology: Structure, Species Interactions, Succession, and Sustainability."— Presentation transcript:
1APES Chapter 8 NotesCommunity Ecology: Structure, Species Interactions, Succession, and Sustainability
2General Types of Species Native species—species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystemNon-native, exotic or alien species— species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem humans.Ex: Africanized Bees, Zebra Mussels, Cane Toad, Kudzo.
3General Types of Species Indicator species—species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being damaged.Birds are excellent indicators because they are found almost everywhere and respond very quickly to environmental change.Some amphibians are also classified as indicator species.
4General Types of Species Keystone species—species whose roles in an ecosystem are much more important than their abundance or biomass would suggest. They play pivotal roles in the structure, function, and integrity of an ecosystem.Ex: sea otters, wolves, elephants, great white shark, all pollinators.
5Species Interactions: Competition and Predation Members of species may be harmed by, benefit from , or by unaffected by the interaction.
6CompetitionCompetition—Two organisms compete to obtain the same limited resource.Intraspecific—Members of same species competing for resources.Interspecific—Members of different species competing for resources.The more similar the competing species, the more intense the competition.
7Species compete in two ways: Interference—one species limits another’s access to some resource by direct contact, such as establishing a territory and defending it.Exploitation—occurs indirectly. Competing species have equal access to a specific resource but differ in how fast or efficiently they exploit it.
8CompetitionCompetitive Exclusion Principle—No two species can occupy the same ecological niche in the same place at the same time.Less fit species may die out or evolve into a slightly different niche.
10Resource Partitioning Adaptations evolved to reduce or avoid competition.In Resource Partitioning species with similar needs use similar resources:1. at different times (hunting: hawks-day, owls-night)2. in different ways3. in different places
11Resource Partitioning Overlapping Niche of2 species createscompetitionOver time, speciesevolve and becomespecializedFig. 8-9 p. 175; Refer to Fig p. 152 & Fig p. 175
13PredationOne species (predator) feeds directly on another species (prey).
14Predation Predators increase their chances by: Running fast Keen eyesightHunting in packsCamouflageHumans have invented tools (weapons and traps)
15Predation Prey defend themselves against predators by: Run, swim or fly fastKeen eyesight or sense of smellLive in herdsProtective shells or spinesCamouflageThick barkThorns
16Predation Chemicals-poisonous, irritating, foul smelling, bad tasting Warning coloration-so predators know they are poisonous or bad tastingMimicry-taking on the appearance of another organism that may be very poisonous
17Symbiotic Relationships Symbiosis—Close, physical relationship between two different species. At least one species derives benefit from the interaction.Parasitism—One organism (parasite) living in or on another organism (host), from which it derives nourishment. Parasite benefits and host is harmed.Ectoparasites—Live on host’s surface.FleasEndoparasites—Live inside host.Tapeworms
18Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism—One organism benefits, while the other is unaffected.Remoras and SharksMutualism—Both species benefit. Obligatory in many cases as neither can exist without the other.Mycorrhizae
22Community Structure 4 Characteristics: 1. Physical appearance: size, stratification, and distribution of populations.2. Species diversity or richness: number of different species.3. Species abundance: number of individuals of each species.4. Niche structure: number of ecological niches.
23Community Structure: Appearance and Species Diversity StratificationFig. 8-2 p. 166Species diversityNiche structureEdge effects
24Three Factors Affecting Biodiversity Latitude(terrestial)- the closer to the equator, the higher the biodiversityHighest species diversity in tropics; lowest in polar regionsDepth(aquatic)- biodiversity increases with depth to about 2000 m then begins its decreasePollution- as levels increase, biodiversity decreasesSpecies diversity2520155102,0004,0006,000Depth (meters)CoastDeep SeaSnailsTube wormsFig. 8-3 p. 167AntsBirds
26Communities in Transition Ecological Succession—the gradual and fairly predictable change in species composition of a given area over a period of time.Climax community—Stable, long- lasting community, primarily determined by climate.
27SuccessionPrimary Succession—Begins with bare mineral surfaces or water and total lack of organisms.Secondary Succession—Begins with disturbance of an existing ecosystem.Much more commonly observed.
28Primary Succession Terrestrial Primary Succession Pioneer Community: Collection of organisms able to colonize bare rock(i.e. lichens, mosses).Lichens help break down rock, and accumulate debris helping to form a thin soil layer.Soil layer begins to support small life forms.
30Aquatic Primary Succession Except for oceans, most aquatic systems are considered temporary.All aquatic systems receive inputs of soil particles and organic matter from surrounding land.Gradual filling of shallow bodies of water.Roots and stems below water accumulate more material.Wet soil established.
32Secondary SuccessionOccurs when an existing community is disturbed or destroyed.With most disturbances, most of the soil remains, and many nutrients necessary for plant growth may be available for reestablishment of the previous ecosystem.Nearby undamaged communities can serve as sources of seeds and animals.Tends to be more rapid than primary growth.
35Modern Concepts of Succession and Climax As settlers changed “original” ecosystems to agriculture, climax communities were destroyed.Many farms were abandoned, and land began to experience succession.Ecologists began to recognize there was not a fixed, pre-determined community.Only thing differentiating climax community from successional community is time scale.