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Chapter 9 An emerging world power

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1 Chapter 9 An emerging world power

2 Section 1: The roots of Imperialism

3 The Causes of Imperialism
Imperialism – the policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories Why? Economic Benefits… Extractive Economies – the imperial country extracted, or removed, raw materials from the colony

4 Cont.… This was not the case for the resource
rich United States. Trade was our concern. We produced more goods than we could consume. Military Strength; the US need bases around the globe to refuel and maintain our growing fleet of naval vessels. Alfred T. Mahan – a military historian and an officer in the US Navy played a key role in transforming the US into a Naval Power. By 1900 the US had the third largest navy

5 Cont…. Imperialists believed in National Superiority and used the ideas of racial, national, and cultural superiority to justify imperialism Social Darwinism – the belief that life consists of competitive struggles in which only the fittest survive

6 Why did the US believe in Social Darwinism?
“Manifest Destiny” God had granted them the right and responsibility to settle the frontier. Frederick Jackson Turner – historian wrote The Significance of the Frontier in American History; (“safety valve,” against internal conflict)

7 America’s First Steps Toward World Power
The US power grows in the pacific by entering Japan. Matthew Perry – Commodore, sailed a fleet to Japan which to this point had been closed to the world. His ships “giant dragons puffing smoke” awed the Japanese emperor This opened the expansion to Midway islands and the the Hawaiian Islands

8 “Seward’s Folly” The purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 for $7.2 million (2 cents an acre) was dubbed “Seward’s Folly,” because many believed it was a vast tundra of snow and ice. The purchase almost doubled the country’s size, and it was a land of rich timber, oil, and many more natural resources

9 The United States Acquires Hawaii
The US had ties with the Hawaiian Islands since the 1790, ships stopped on their way east. Missionaries had established Christian churches and schools

10 Cont…. After the death of King Kalakaua (kah LAH kah oo ah) his sister Queen Liliuokalani (lih lee oo oh kah LAH nee) sought to regain power back and abolished the pro–white constitution The US forcefully regained power and annexed Hawaii into a US territory during the Spanish American War

11 Section 2: The Spanish-American War

12 Causes of the War Spain was an imperial nation in decline.
The US had invested $50 million in sugar cane plantations though the island was very unstable Jose’ Marti’ – launched a war for independence from Spain. Many Americans favored the Cubans struggle for freedom. They distained Spain’s brutality and worried about US economic interests

13 Cont…. Publishers like William Randolph Hearst, heightened the publics dislike or Spanish government Yellow Press – used a comic-strip character called the The Yellow Kid that sensationalized and exaggerated Spanish atrocities and compared Cuban rebels to the patriots of the A.M.R.

14 Cont…. Jingoism – aggressive nationalism, and inflamed relations with Spain The Maine blows up in Havana harbor, 266 of the 350 officers and crew died, a naval investigation concluded the cause was a mine. (later investigation raised doubts though)

15 American Troops Battle the Spanish
Americans responded enthusiastically, 200,000 men enlisted in the army George Dewey – Commodore, steamed his squadron into Manila Bay surprising the Spanish fleet destroying the Spanish killing 400 Spanish sailors. Emilio Aguinaldo (ahg eeNAHL doh) – Filipino nationalist who was defeating the Spanish army at the same time Dewey was defeating the navy

16 Cont…. US forces in Cuba were poorly trained and supplied. They were obsolete weapons and heavy wool uniforms Rough Riders – commanded by Theodore Roosevelt consisted of rugged westerners and upper-class easterners who relished the “strenuous life”

17 Cont…. Roosevelt and the Rough Riders gained fame for their role in the battle of San Juan hills. They fought along African American soldiers from the Ninth and Tenth Cavalries. (Primary Source pg. 260)

18 Effects of the War Treaty of Paris – officially ended the war, Spain gave up control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam and sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million Americans Debate Imperialism with the formation of the “Anti-Imperialist League,” calling imperialism a crime and disloyal to the distinctive principles of our government

19 Section 3: The United States and East Asia


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