Presentation on theme: "Chapter 55/56 Notes. Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 55/56 Notes
Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology
Essential KnowledgeEssential Knowledge 2.a.1 – All living systems require constant input of free energy (55.2 & 55.3). 2.d.1 – All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy (55.1 – 55.4) 4.a.6 – Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy (55.1, 55.3, 55.4, 55.5).
Ecosystem All the organisms and abiotic factors in a community.
Ecosystem StudiesEcosystem Studies 1. Energy Flow – the movement of energy through trophic levels. 2. Chemical Cycling – the movement of matter from one part of the ecosystem to another.
Trophic LevelsTrophic Levels Division of an ecosystem based on the source of nutrition (energy).
Available EnergyAvailable Energy Daily - 10 22 joules of solar radiation. 1% - captured by Ps. About 170 billion tons of organic matter is created each year.
Primary ProducersPrimary Producers 50 - 90% of GPP is lost to Rs by the primary producers. NPP = 10 - 50% Animals - use only NPP, which limits the food webs.
Limiting FactorsLimiting Factors Material or nutrient that is not present in sufficient quantity for the primary producers. Ex: N, P, K, Mg Light, CO 2
Energy TransfersEnergy Transfers Not 100% efficient. Averages 10% with each tropic level change Why? Second law of thermodynamics. Waste. Materials that can’t be digested etc.
Question ?Question ? Why do most ecosystems have only 3 - 4 trophic levels? There isn’t enough energy passed up through the food web to support more levels.
Implications There has to be fewer high level consumers in a food web. The higher level consumers usually need a large geographical area.
Pyramids Graphical representation of relationships in ecosystems. Ex: 1. Productivity 2. Biomass 3. Numbers
Question What would a numbers pyramid look like in an Indiana forest? Inverted pyramid. Few producers (trees) and many primary consumers. What would a Biomass pyramid look like in an Indiana forest? Pyramidal in shape.
Chemical CyclingChemical Cycling Matter is recycled through ecosystems. Ex: Biogeochemical Cycles
Representative Biogechemical Cycles Water Carbon Nitrogen Know one or more of these cycles for various multiple choice questions and possibly a short answer question
Water cycleWater cycle
Energy vs MatterEnergy vs Matter Energy - flows through ecosystems and is mostly lost as heat. Matter - cycles in ecosystems.
Chapter 56: Conservation Biology and Global Change
Question ?Question ? What is Man's influence on Ecosystems ? Humans have had many negative impacts.
Biological MagnificationBiological Magnification The concentration of toxins in successive levels of a food web. Ex: DDT Heavy metals -Hg, Cd, Pb
Causes Not broken down by digestion/decomposition. Lipophilic. Concentrates and effects the upper levels of the food web.
DDT ExampleDDT Example
Greenhouse EffectsGreenhouse Effects The trapping of heat by the Earth's atmosphere. (CO 2, H 2 O etc.). Causes: Warms Earth’s temperatures Global warming
Carbon Dioxide LevelsCarbon Dioxide Levels Prior 1850 - 274 ppm 1958 - 316 ppm 1992 - 351 ppm Point: the levels of CO 2 are rising. Cause? Probably due to humans.
Human CO 2 Increase CausesHuman CO 2 Increase Causes Industrialization. Burning of fossil fuels. Loss of forests.
Result Earth will heat up. Ice caps melt and sea levels will rise. Climate shifts. Increased Ps (?)
Exotic SpeciesExotic Species When transplanted species are too successful and upset the ecosystem in new areas. Ex: Starlings Fire Ants Carp Invasive species website
Australia Has had many problems with transplanted species Ex: Rabbits Cacti Foxes Cane toads Cane Toad National Geographic Video
Summary Identify the trophic levels of ecosystems. Recognize the flow of energy through food chains and food webs. Recognize the calculations used in measuring productivity. Recognize how productivity and energy transfers can be diagramed in pyramid form. Recognize that matter cycles in ecosystems. Identify the concept of Biological Magnification. Recognize several current environmental concerns.