Essential KnowledgeEssential Knowledge 2.a.1 – All living systems require constant input of free energy (55.2 & 55.3). 2.d.1 – All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy (55.1 – 55.4) 4.a.6 – Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy (55.1, 55.3, 55.4, 55.5).
Ecosystem All the organisms and abiotic factors in a community.
Ecosystem StudiesEcosystem Studies 1. Energy Flow – the movement of energy through trophic levels. 2. Chemical Cycling – the movement of matter from one part of the ecosystem to another.
Trophic LevelsTrophic Levels Division of an ecosystem based on the source of nutrition (energy).
Question What would a numbers pyramid look like in an Indiana forest? Inverted pyramid. Few producers (trees) and many primary consumers. What would a Biomass pyramid look like in an Indiana forest? Pyramidal in shape.
Chemical CyclingChemical Cycling Matter is recycled through ecosystems. Ex: Biogeochemical Cycles
Carbon Dioxide LevelsCarbon Dioxide Levels Prior 1850 - 274 ppm 1958 - 316 ppm 1992 - 351 ppm Point: the levels of CO 2 are rising. Cause? Probably due to humans.
Human CO 2 Increase CausesHuman CO 2 Increase Causes Industrialization. Burning of fossil fuels. Loss of forests.
Result Earth will heat up. Ice caps melt and sea levels will rise. Climate shifts. Increased Ps (?)
Exotic SpeciesExotic Species When transplanted species are too successful and upset the ecosystem in new areas. Ex: Starlings Fire Ants Carp Invasive species website
Australia Has had many problems with transplanted species Ex: Rabbits Cacti Foxes Cane toads Cane Toad National Geographic Video
Summary Identify the trophic levels of ecosystems. Recognize the flow of energy through food chains and food webs. Recognize the calculations used in measuring productivity. Recognize how productivity and energy transfers can be diagramed in pyramid form. Recognize that matter cycles in ecosystems. Identify the concept of Biological Magnification. Recognize several current environmental concerns.