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IMPERIALISM “THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA…AND BEYOND” “The direct takeover of a weaker nation by a stronger nation”

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Presentation on theme: "IMPERIALISM “THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA…AND BEYOND” “The direct takeover of a weaker nation by a stronger nation”"— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPERIALISM “THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA…AND BEYOND” “The direct takeover of a weaker nation by a stronger nation”


3 WHY AND HOW? EUROPEAN BELIEFS ABOUT AFRICA Three centuries of the slave trade had taught Europeans that Africans were inferior, and that helped to justify imperialism in the minds of many Europeans. Even slave abolitionists contributed to this by arguing that Africans had to be "protected" from slavers; i.e. they couldn't take care of themselves. The limited information brought back to Europe by explorers like Mungo Park and Henry Morton Stanley made Africans appear warlike and/or childlike, and they wrote books and gave lectures that popularized the notion of Africa as "the dark continent." For example, this relatively favorable quotation from a first-time visitor to Africa illustrates the prevailing beliefs among Europeans: "As we steamed into the estuary of Sierra Leone on November 18th [1889], we found Africa exactly as books of travel had led us to anticipate--a land of excessive heat, lofty palm-trees, gigantic baobabs, and naked savages. At five o'clock we dropped anchor at Free Town, called, on account of its deadly fevers, the `white man's grave.' Immediately, our vessel was surrounded by boats filled with men and women, shouting, jabbering, laughing, quarrelling, and even fighting.... Without exception it was the most confusedly excited and noisy lot of humanity I have ever seen." Victorian philosophers even had an explanation for African backwardness. According to late 19th century science, human development took place in three stages: savagery, marked by hunting and gathering; barbarism accompanied by the beginning of settled agriculture; and civilization, which required the development of commerce. European scientists believed that Africa were stuck in the stage of barbarism because they lived in a place with such good soil and climate that it provided "tropical abundance." The ease of life in Africa made Africans fat and lazy. For proof, Europeans relied on data about the work habits of African-American slaves (who had their own reasons for working "slow"), and ignored how seasons determined the rhythm of work for African farmers.

4 WAS EUROPE THE ONLY CONTINENT INVOLVED? NO! The United States had their hat in the ring too. Hawaii- 1898 Cuba- 1903 Puerto Rico- 1899 Philippines- 1899

5 UNITED STATES AND AFRICA IMPERIALISM MAP Complete the map and fill out the chart provided on the worksheet using the text book pages 365-376 Color code and label the blank map of Africa according to the European countries that conquered them- create a key/legend with each European country representing a color

6 SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Cuba belonged to Spain and the United States had an interest in Cuba Spain and Cuba fought in a war for independence, Cuba lost, but abolished slavery on the island After the abolition of slavery, the United States invested in Cuba’s sugar cane plantations The US got rid of the tax on Cuban sugar, thus the production skyrocketed in Cuba. 10 years later, the US placed a high tax back on Cuban sugar, and it destroyed the Cuban economy VS

7 A second attempt to gain independence from Spain was launched by Cuba with the help from the United States A Spanish general was sent in and put over 300,000 Cubans from central and western Cuba in concentration camps…thousands died from hunger and disease United States reporters William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) exaggerated stories of children being poisoned and thrown to sharks to deepen the American public sympathy. This came to be known as “Yellow Journalism” “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war” -WRH YELLOW JOURNALISM Grocery Store Line

8 USS MAINE EXPLODES The USS Maine was ordered to Cuba to protect American lives and property by President McKinley. On February 15, 1898, the USS Maine exploded and sank. No one knew the cause of the explosion. Later it was determined and internal explosion caused the ammunition to cause the disaster. Hearst reported “THE WARSHIP MAINE WAS SPLIT IN TWO BY AN ENEMY’S SECRET INFERNAL MACHINE.” The newspaper offered a $50,000 reward to the Spaniards who did this NOT THIS MAINE

9 “REMEMBER THE MAINE!” On April 20, the United States declared war on Spain. The first battle happen in the Philippine Islands, on the other side of the world. Admiral Dewey sent a fleet over and quickly defeated the Spanish…giving Filipinos the freedom they wanted since 1896. The US invades Cuba, fighting the Spanish. A volunteer cavalry “Rough Riders” under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt helped conquer San Juan Hill. Newspapers declared Roosevelt the hero despite having a small influence.

10 TREATY OF PARIS The US and Spain signed an armistice (peace agreement) after only 16 weeks of war. This treaty had three main agreements. 1- Cuba would become independent 2- Spain would give Puerto Rico and the Pacific Island of Guam to the US 3- The US would pay Spain $20 million for the annexation of the Philippine Islands BUT I THOUGHT THE PHILIPPINES WERE FREE NOW? WRONG… THE UNITED STATES USED IMPERIALISM AS THEIR EXCUSE TO BUILD THEIR EMPIRE ?

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