ECOLOGY The study of the relationships among organisms in an environment. The study of the relationships among organisms in an environment. Parasitism Parasitism Mutualism Mutualism Commensalism Commensalism
Symbioses (relationships among living things) 1. Parasitism – relationship in which an organism lives in or on another organism and causes harm Ectoparasite Ectoparasite Endoparasite Endoparasite
2. Mutualism A relationship where both organisms benefit
Mutualism Clown Fish / Anemone Clown Fish / Anemone The anemone gets food particles from the fish leftovers The anemone gets food particles from the fish leftovers The fish receives protection from the anemone’s tentacles The fish receives protection from the anemone’s tentacles The clown fish is unharmed by the toxins in the stinger The clown fish is unharmed by the toxins in the stinger Insects / Flowers The insects receive nectar from the flower The flower uses the insects to carry pollen to other flowers for reproduction
3. Commensalism A relationship where one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
Commensalism The whale species / barnacle The whale species / barnacle The whale is neither helped or harmed The whale is neither helped or harmed The sedentary barnacle has a place to live and get a variety of food The sedentary barnacle has a place to live and get a variety of food Tropical Birds/ Army ants Ant are unaffected by birds following them as they look for food Other insects that flee from the army ants are quickly eaten by the birds.
Feeding relationships among producers, consumers and decomposers
Producers are the foundation Primary, secondary and tertiary consumers are the body Decomposers break down organisms that have died.
BIOMASS Amount of energy that can be passed along among organisms in an ecosystem Amount of energy that can be passed along among organisms in an ecosystem Highest with producers, lowest at the top with carnivores Highest with producers, lowest at the top with carnivores http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TE6wqG4nb3M&feature=related
Invasive Species “non – native” Describes a species that has been introduced into an area that does not belong there !!
Invasive Species : Upset the balance of the food web in an eco – system Upset the balance of the food web in an eco – system Can cause extinctions of “keystone species” Can cause extinctions of “keystone species” Result in collapse of food web – destruction of an ecosystem. Result in collapse of food web – destruction of an ecosystem.
Zebra Mussel Damage Water treatment out flow Water treatment out flow Boat engines Boat engines Locks / dams Locks / dams Mussel filter water, no food for smaller plankton Mussel filter water, no food for smaller plankton
Zebras and Goby Fish in Lake Erie http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qxxgflwX2Fg
The Bullfrog !! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YwEL3fwsvIA&feature=related
Other Common Invasives Northern Snakehead Northern Snakehead Asian Carp Asian Carp
Last but not least… The most invasive of all… The Cane Toad
Invasive Species Questions 1. How does the Ash borer larvae affect the Ash tree? 2. Why is firewood a concern in preventing the spread of the Ash Borer? 3. How did the zebra mussel arrive in the US? 4. Describe the destructive relationship between the Zebra mussel and Goby fish in Lake Erie. 5. List some of the negative health affects that result from lake fish consumption.
6. How could the spread of the Northern Snakehead result in ecological destruction of fresh water ecosystems? 7. Explain 2 negative affects of the Asian Carp on the Illinois River. 8. How did the bullfrogs in France affect local ponds? 9. Why was the Cane toad brought to Queensland AUS? 10. Describe some of the negative affects observed by the cane toad in AUS?
As a result of illegal importing, a cane toad was brought into swpa. The toad escaped into the stream at Richardson Park. Compose a 2 paragraph essay explaining: 1.How the introduction of the cane toad will affect the local ecosystem? 2.How could the invasive toad population be controlled?