Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Travis Gallo The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at the University of Texas at Austin.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Travis Gallo The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at the University of Texas at Austin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Travis Gallo The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at the University of Texas at Austin

2 What is an invasive species?  An invasive species is defined as a species that is non- native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. (Executive Order 13112). Carduus nutans Nodding Thistle Arundo donax Giant Reed Lonicera japonica Japanese Honeysuckle Ailanthus altissima Tree of Heaven

3 Why should we care? 1. Invasive species threaten native plants and native plant communities. 2. After habitat destruction, invasive species are the single largest cause of native plant extinction. 3. The rate at which new, potentially invasive, species are being introduced is exponentially increasing. 4. The U.S. spends approximately $135 billion on the control and management of invasive species Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) Melia azedarach (Chinaberry Tree)

4 Ecosystem Impacts FIRE REGIMES HYDROLOGY EROSION AQUATIC NUTRIENTS

5 Are all exotics invasive? The lag effect

6 Invasive Species Texas Rauschuber C List Appendix to Invasive Species - Texas.  How many invasives are in Texas?  67 terrestrial plants  12 aquatic/wetland plants  10 mammals  4 birds  7 fishes  11 insects  11 mollusks and crustaceans  Worst of the Worst  Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.)  Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)  Giant Salvinia (Salvinia molesta)  Nutria (Myocaster coypus)  Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)  Channeled Applesnail (Pomacea canaliculata)

7

8 TITLE 4.AGRICULTURE. Part 1. TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Chapter 19. QUARANTINES AND NOXIOUS PLANTS § Noxious Plant List. Botanical Name - Common Name Orobanche ramosa - broomrape Alhagi camelorum - camelthorn Triadica sebiferum - Chinese tallow tree Cyperus entrerianus - deeprooted sedge Carthamus lanatus - distaff thistle Myriophyllum spicatum - Eurasian watermilfoil Spirodela oligorrhiza - giant duckweed Arundo donax - giant reed Calystegia sepium - hedge bindweed Hydrilla verticillata - hydrilla Rottboellia cochinchinensis - itchgrass Cuscuta japonica - Japanese dodder Botanical Name - Common Name Pueraria montana var. lobata - kudzu Lagarosiphon major - lagarosiphon Melaleuca quinquenervia - paperbark Lythrum salicaria - purple loosestrife Eichhornia azurea - rooted waterhyacinth Tamarix spp. - Saltcedar Salvinia spp. - Salvinia Nassella trichotoma - Serrated tussock Panicum repens - Torpedograss Solanum viarum - Tropical soda apple Ipomoea aquatica - water spinach Cryptocoryne beckettii - water trumpet Eichhornia crassipes - waterhyacinth Pistia stratiotes - waterlettuce Alternanthera philoxeroides - alligatorweed Cardiospermum halicacabum - balloonvine Schinus terebinthifolius - Brazilian peppertree Texas Department of Agriculture

9 Texas Challenges 1. A need for a definitive source for IS information in Texas. 2. A need for more communication among the state’s IS stakeholders 3. A coordinated response to address IS on a statewide level has yet to materialize. 4. There is a gap in our knowledge about the distribution and biology of IS.

10 Addressing the Issues  How can we meet challenges? Help define the problem through information sharing and research  Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Conference, TIPPC, Universities, AgriLife, etc. Raise public awareness through education and outreach  The Wildflower Center, AgriLife, TPWD, & You Take hands-on action to stop the spread of invasive species  You! Pennisetum ciliare - BuffelgrassWisteria sinensis - Chinese wisteria

11 What you can do…

12 Some common Invaders: 1. Ligustrum spp. (5) 2. Chinaberry 3. Nandina 4. Tree-of-Heaven 5. Elephant Ear 6. Johnson grass 7. Lilac Chaste-tree 8. Japanese honeysuckle 9. English Ivy 10. Bamboos 11. Giant Reed* 12. Chinese Tallow* * Not in trade but still spreading

13 Ligustrum spp.  Two groups Big leaf: L. lucidum, L. japonicum Small leaf: L. sinense, L. quihoui, L. vulgare  All evergreen  Spread by birds and other berry eating animals  Impact: Can replace forest with a mono- culture and quickly dominate an area  Native Alternative: Yaupons, Coma, Possomhaw, Cherry laurel

14 L. vulgare (European privet)L. quihoui (wax-leaf privet) L. sinense (Chinese privet) Small-leaf Privets

15 Big-leaf Privets L. japonicum (Japanese Privet)L. lucidum (Glossy privet)

16 Chinaberry (Melia azerdarach)  Extremely common  Spread by berries and root sprouts  Impact: very fast growing, drought tolerant, and insect resistant, therefore can outcompetes native vegetation  Native Alternative: Western Soapberry

17 Nandina (Nandina domestica)  Evergreen shrub with red berries  Spread by root sprouts and berries  Impact: displaces native vegetation in shaded forest  Native Alternative: Yaupon, Possomhaw, TX Persimmon

18 Tree-of-Heaven ( Alianthus altissima )  Prolific grower  Impacts: Tree-of-heaven is a prolific seed producer, grows rapidly, and can overrun native vegetation. Once established, it can quickly take over a site and form an impenetrable thicket. Ailanthus trees also produces toxins that prevent the establishment of other plant species. The root system is aggressive enough to cause damage to sewers and foundations  Native Alternative: Pecan, Flame-leaf Sumac

19 Elephant Ear ( Colocasia esculenta )  Invading most riparian habitat and river edges (Town Lake)  Impacts: Reduces native species along water’s edge. Can “drain” small wet depressions.

20 Chinese Pistache ( Pistacia chinensis)  Very common for fall color  Invading urban preserves in Austin  Impacts: Displaces native trees and can shade understory. Birds spread seeds far distances  Native Alternative: TX Pistache, Flame- leaf sumac, big- toothed maple, TX oak

21 Lilac Chaste-tree  Reduces native plant populations.  Invades riparian and upland habitats (Lake Travis, BCP)  Impact: Pushes out native brush species  Native Alternative: Red Buckeye

22 Japanese honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica ) & English Ivy ( Hedera helix )  Both climbing vines  Both evergreen  Impacts: Both can kill trees by strangling and shading Both also grow along ground creating a ground cover shading out all understory growth  Native Alternative: Coral honeysuckle, Caroline jessaman, Virginia creeper, 7 leaf Virginia creeper

23 Golden bamboo ( Phyllostachys aurea )  Very prolific grower  Reproduces from rhizomes  Impacts: Creates a complete monoculture Non-food source for wildlife Prolific spreader Attracts roaches in urban setting  Native Alternative: Yaupons, Wax myrtle, native cane (Arundinaria)

24 Giant Reed (Arundo donax)  One of the worst in the state  Illegal to sell, trade or traffic  Reproduces vegetatively  Impacts: destroys complete ecosystems and habitats Creates a monoculture Non-food source for wildlife

25 Arundo Impacts…

26 Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera)  Also illegal to sell, traffic or trade  30% of Houston’s urban forest canopy  Impacts: Turns areas into monocultures if not managed Leafs are toxic to other plants Creates a monotypic forest shading all undergrowth

27 Management Taking action!  Five laws of Management and Control Cultural Preventative Mechanical Chemical Biocontrol

28 Cultural and Preventative  Cultural Small scale-food crops ○ Water spinach Grower’s growing cycles ○ 7 years out Education ○ Nandina, bermudagrass, Ligustrums, etc.  Preventative DON’T PLANT! Remove them when they show up

29 Mechanical  Hand pulling To a certain size  Weed wrenching Very effective Best method for avoiding herbicides  Grazing  Prescribed Fire

30 Chemical  Follow all labels and directions  Do not over use  Only use when needed  BE SELECTIVE  USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

31 Direct Foliar Spray  Most cost effective  Usually done with a backpack sprayer  Use foliar active herbicides  Use proper nozzle for job and spray shield to avoid over drift  Mid-summer to fall is best, but…

32 Stem Injection/”Hack-n-squirt”  Very selective – GOOD  Good for controlling larger trees where situation does not allow for full removal  Applying water-based herbicide to downward cuts circling the base of the trunk  Best in late winter through fall  Be careful of root graphs and rain events

33 Cut and Treat  All around most effective (my opinion)  For larger trees that can not be weed wrenched  Cut at base and apply herbicide around edges of stump, very selective, very easy

34 Basal Sprays  Herbicide-oil mix sprayed or daubed to the lower portion of trunk  Must apply to bottom 12-14” all the way around  Apply before bark becomes corky and rough  Very selective

35 Selecting Effective Herbicides  Folilar active (mostly) Glyphosate Garlon 3A (triclopyr) Garlon 4A (triclopyr) Krenite S (fosamine) Pathfinder II (triclopyr) Milestone VM (aminopyralid)  Foliar and soil-active Arsenal AC (imazapyr) Escort XP (mesulfuron) Pathway (2, 4-D + picloram) Plateau (imazapic) Tordon 101 (2, 4-D + picloram) Tordon K (picloram)

36 The most important step!!  The Rehabilitation Phase  You can’t just cut down trees! Replanting and reseeding native species is vital to keep down re-sprouting invasives and hold soil

37 Resources Educate yourself, educate others!  texasinvasives.org texasinvasives.org Descriptions for 140 species Control methods for most Publications and links  Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native plants Suppliers list

38 Resources  Plantwise Invasive to Native Translator Gardening tips to avoid invasives

39 Resources   Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forest. By James H. Miller  Invasive Plants. By Kaufman and Kaufman

40 Partners


Download ppt "Travis Gallo The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at the University of Texas at Austin."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google