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By: Caroline Lugli, Ali Knoll, and Rachel Barnette BRAZILIAN REVOLUTIONS.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Caroline Lugli, Ali Knoll, and Rachel Barnette BRAZILIAN REVOLUTIONS."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Caroline Lugli, Ali Knoll, and Rachel Barnette BRAZILIAN REVOLUTIONS

2 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) CAUSES In 1785 Dona Maria, the queen of Portugal, forbade any industrial development in Brazil, oppressing the citizens of Brazil in an attempt to prevent an event like the French Revolution which, ironically, had the opposite effect The 18th century gold rush had declined, causing economic problems for the people of Minas Gerais, leaving the people unhappy and eager for change Government put heavy taxes on the gold mining region, adding to the original economic problem The leader of the mining industry in this area was Intendente dos Diamantes, who ruled absolutely over his industry, leading to Mineiros (citizens of Minas Gerais) to loathe his administration, which gave them more reason to revolt The influence of French philosophers and the American Revolution inspired the conspirators; the success of another country’s minority revolting against authority gave them hope that they could overthrow the Portuguese governments The growing taxation and oppression imposed on the citizens of Brazil by the Portuguese government led to growing dissatisfaction among the people and, added to the influence of other successful government overthrows, like the American Revolution, inevitably led to the revolt called the Inconfidencia Mineira

3 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) P.I.R.A.T.E.S Inconfidencia Mineira Revolution (1792) P.I.R.A.T.E.S. Political Portuguese government became more limiting on industrial rights and kept an eye out for anymore brewing revolutions. No change in government structure, however, since the revolution was more of a theory than an actual event. Intellectual French philosophy and the American Revolution became even more inspiring to the people of Brazil after this revolution attempt failed. Religion No impact on religion- Brazil remained Roman Catholic, though Jose de la Silva Xavier, also known as Tiradentes, was seen as a martyr after his execution that occurred three years after the conspirators’ capture. Art and Architecture Since Tiradentes was seen as a national hero in Brazil after he was drawn and quartered there are many paintings and depictions of him still existing today. A museum was also dedicated to his memory in Ouro Preto, Brazil. Technology The Revolution Inconfidencia Mineira had no effect on technology in Brazil. Economy After the attempted revolt the economy was still troubled due to the decline in gold production, and though taxes were one of the causes of the revolt, they did not change after the conspirators were arrested. Society The execution of Tiradentes motivated and inspired Brazilians to take action in more movements against the Portuguese government. He became a symbol of Brazilian Independence, even though his actions directly did nothing to free the Brazilians from under the command of the Portuguese.

4 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) CHRONOLOGY Early 1700s- Brazil becomes largest gold producer in the world due to the gold rush where two million slaves were imported in Brazil and a large population of settlers arrive to mine. 1750- Gold rush begins to decline- general population moves to coasts, settlers move to Rio de Janeiro, and economy begins to decline. 1750- Treaty of Madrid is signed by Spain and Portugal, stating that Portugal will give Spain all of the land on the western shore of Rio de la Plata, and Spain will give Portugal the Amazon, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Rio Grande de la Sol in order to solve border disputes. 1762- The Secretary of the Portugeuse Crown, Marques de Pombal, moves the capital of Brazil from Salvador to Rio de Janerio, while promoting urban development, border patrols, increased agriculture production, and control over trade routes. 1785- Dona Maria, the queen of Portugal, removes Marques de Pombal from office and forbids any industrial development from carrying on in Brazil because she is afraid that her subjects will attempt to overthrow her, like the Americans did to the British only 8 years previously. 1789- The Inconfidencia Mineira is formed by Jose de la Silva Xavier (Tiradentes) and 11 other members in an effort to regain independence from Portugal. 1792- All members of the conspiracy are arrested and the leader Tiradentes is hung, drawn and quartered in Rio de Janeiro. His corpse is presented around the city in an effort to scare others off from beginning another revolt. His body ends up inspiring them to act against the government.

5 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) IMAGES Area of Brazil belonging to Portugal under the Treaty of Madrid. Where the revolution was planned to take place is the lowest bright blue spot, and where Teradentes was executed is the orange slice underneath that. Quartered body of Teradentes, done by a Brazilian painter in 1893.

6 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) IMAGES CONTINUED A letter from Tiradentes to one of his fellow conspirators, dated the 4th of march 1789. Since there were only 11 members of his conspiracy against Portuguese government, Tiradentes did not need to call large assemblies or pass secret messges; he sent out letters to those who had to same standpoint on the Portuguese government has he did. This letter is now located in the Brazilian National Library located in Rio de Janeiro.

7 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) IMAGES CONTINUED Dona Maria, Queen of Portugal during this time Tiradente’s proposed flag- on it reads “Freedom is necessary although it is late”.

8 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) COMPARISONS The government today in Brazil, shown here, is similiar to the government during the Inconfiencia Mineiria, except what is the president of the republic today would have been the Queen of Portugal then.

9 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) COMPARISONS Heavy taxes Poor Economy Ruling Queen Government run by Portugal Oppressed Brazilians No Industrial Development Declining Gold Industry Before Heavy taxes Poor Economy Ruling Queen Government run by Portugal Oppressed Brazilians No Industrial Development Declining Gold Industry Hope for the people and encouragement to protest against the government After

10 INCONFIDENCIA MINEIRA (1792) COMPARISONS The revolt was more of a theory than it was an actual plan- it was never carried. The conspirators and their leader, Tiradentes, were arrested after a unknown source betrayed them. However, though they did not overthrow oppressive Portuguese rule themselves, their actions and Tiradente’s gruesome exections, as well as influences from the American Revolution and French philosophy inspired future generations to revolt and gain Brazil’s independence.

11 REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION (1817) CAUSES Pernambucan Revolt: 1817- The Pernambucan Revolt did not have major impacts on Brazil at that time, but the revolution was one of the first attempt by Brazil for independence from Portugal preceded only by the Inconfidência Mineira. Discontent with Portuguese colonial administration The lower classes were severely affected by the sugar cane crisis, and the revolution began It was started as a separatist movement to try and liberate Brazil from Portuguese control The decline of sugar cane production after the famine in the Northeastern territory of Brazil The influence of Freemasonry in the region Influence of the United States after their Revolution (liberal ideas from the United States went to Brazil) Taxes rose because of military presence in Brazil and the expenses of military campaigns

12 REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION (1817) P.I.R.A.T.E.S. Republican Revolution (1817) P.I.R.A.T.E.S. Political King John VI was the ruler of Portugal during the Pernambucan Revolution Domingos Jose Martins led the revolution with the support of Antônio Carlos de Andrada e Silva and Frei Caneca At the beginning of the revolt, knowing the dangers of this, a Pernambucan captain, José de Barros Lima, killed the Portuguese officer who was sent to arrest him A republic was formed temporarily, with a provisional government put in place, but it fell after two months Portuguese troops from the monarch surrounded Recife, their capital. The revolutionaries sought the support from countries like the United States, Argentina, and Britain, but it there was no success in getting their aid. Intellectual No intellectual advancements. Religion After the fall of the republic to Portuguese troops, the leaders of the revolution, Domingos José Martins, José Luis de Mendonça, Domingos Teotônio Jorge, and two Catholic priests, Miguelinho and Pedro de Sousa Tenó, were executed then mutilated as their heads and hands were cut off. Art and Architechture A flag was created during the revolution to replace the Portuguese flag that had removed from Recife, the capital, after the provisional government took over. The flag was created by the tailor and militia captain, José Barbosa. Technology There was no real technological advancements during this revolution. Economy decline of sugar cane production after the famine in the northeastern corner of Brazil Society Although a republic was formed for two months, there was no movement to abolish slavery. Secret Societies in Brazil were formed which discussed liberal ideas and plans for the revolt

13 REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION (1817) CHRONOLOGY 1817: The Pernambucan Revolution began. A republic was established, but the republic fell after two months when the capital, Recife, was surrounded by the Portuguese monarch’s troops.

14 REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION (1817) IMAGES John VI of Portugal The Pernambucan Flag

15 REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION (1817) IMAGES CONTINUED The capital, Recife, while being taken by Pernambucan Rebels

16 REPUBLICAN REVOLUTION (1817) COMPARISONS The government structure stayed the same throughout the revolution. It only began to change in the next revolution.

17 INDEPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL (1822-1889) CAUSES The Portugal royal family arrived in Brazil in 1808. This arrival helped stimulate the economy during earlier times. Then, once NApolean was defeated in Europe, the Portugal army called for King John VI to come into power. In 1820, the military became much more powerful, and people responded to this by revolting. There were also revolts happening in Portugal (sympathetic revolting). King John Realized he had to step in and take action in order to save his position, and for them to not revolt against him specifically. People began to reevaluate the relationship of Portugal and Brazil. Pedro I was wanted to return to his rightful position to the throne of Portugal. Brazil gained independence as a constitutional monarchy with Pedro I. But Pedro’s power and changes in the parliament caused upheaval in Brazil.

18 INDEPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL (1822-1889) P.I.R.A.T.E.S. Independence from Portugal (1822-1889) P.I.R.A.T.E.S. Political King John VI returned to Portugal. The government structure was in monarchy in Portugal, and since Portugal controlled Brazil, Brazil was too. Pedro I came into action and changed it into a parliamentary with a constitution. Intellectual Writings were mostly in Baroque and Arcadian styles. Many people became more literate. A new philosophical and political movement and teaching system emerged, known as national academicism. Religion Roman Catholicism was the official religion. Not much change in religion except that they were more free to practice religion. Art and Architecture ceramics with images of people or animals and various other decorations. Baroque art was introduced in Brazil at the beginning of the 17th century by Catholic missionaries, especially the Jesuits Technology railroad construction that accompanies the modernization of mining and plantations Economy Stayed in a financial crisis. Gaining Portugal’s help did not ease the economic struggle. There were many war debts. Society Brazilian administration encouraged immigration from European countries. Slavery was abolished after the revolution.

19 INDEPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL (1822-1889) CHRONOLOGY 1822 - Portugal commands Pedro I to return to Portugal. September, 7th, 1822 - Pedro I proclaims independence from Portugal and is crowned emperor, now D. Pedro I. The country was in economic crisis. 1824 - D. Pedro I sees the first rebellion against his government. 1826 - The Parliament is opened. Main parties were the Liberals and the Conservatives. April, 7th, 1831 - Much criticized by the Liberals, D. Pedro I resigns in favor of his son, Pedro II. A new Regency period is initiated. 1834 - The Liberals, who were majority in Parliament, pass laws giving more power to local governments; were mostly are won by the Liberals. 1837 - Regent Feijo resigns. The Liberals start a campaign to anticipate the majority of Pedro II. In 1841, at age fifteen, Pedro II is declared the second emperor of Brazil. After taking the throne, D. Pedro II nominates a Liberal cabinet, which was replaced the next year by a Conservative, starting an alternating cycle which would last till the end of Empire. 1845 - British approved Aberdeen Bill, which authorized British ships to attack. May, 13th, 1888 - slavery is abolished in Brazil. November, 15th, 1889 - The military, chiefed by Marechal Deodoro da Fonseca, proclaims the Republic of Brazil. There was no violence. The emperor D. Pedro II was sent to Europe.

20 INDEPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL (1822-1889) IMAGES Prince Pedro I Brazilian provinces just before the independence of 1822. They were based off of liberal parties

21 INDEPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL (1822-1889) IMAGES CONTINUED This map shows the Portuguese and Brazilian dominations in South America. Flag of the Empire of Brazil.

22 INDEPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL (1822-1889) COMPARISONS Before Revolution A monarchy ruled under Great Britain, then when Pedro arrived it was a constitutional monarchy. Was under Portugal’s rule for almost 90 years. After Revolution Pedro II was deposed on November 15, 1889 by a Republican military coup led by General Deodoro da Fonseca. Government structure became a constitutional democracy.

23 GROUP DIVISIONS Rachel- the revolution of Inconfidencia Mineira (1792) Ali- the Republic Revolution (1817) Caroline- Republic-Independence from Portugal (1822-1889) and the design and layout of the power point.

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