Presentation on theme: "Unlocking the Mysteries of Making Candi Sugar Some Right, and “Not So Correct” Techniques and Ideas to Boost the Flavor and Complexity of Your Beer."— Presentation transcript:
Unlocking the Mysteries of Making Candi Sugar Some Right, and “Not So Correct” Techniques and Ideas to Boost the Flavor and Complexity of Your Beer
Modified Sugars Used for Centuries Belgians used both invert and “Candi” sugars for confectioneries and brewing. England used caramelized sugars for many of their beers. Sugar browning reactions happen in moderate and long kettle boils.
So What’s Caramelization? Caramelization is destruction of “reducing” sugars by carbonization (heat). No enzymatic reactions needed. English beers use cooked sugars (Lyles Golden Sugar, Treacle).
Invert Sugar (WTH?) Process of converting sucrose into fructose & glucose. Sucrose is “non- reducing, so will burn & not caramelize well. Inverting happens with heat, or acid condition. Invert sugar is not “Belgian Candi Sugar”
How to Make Invert Sugar In a pan with 5x more capacity than the volume of sugar/water, add 10% distilled or RO water to sucrose plus 1/4tsp cream of tartar, or citric acid (acid not needed when experienced), stir. Monitor temperature while heating on low, with lid off & stir occasionally. Slow down heating when sugar gets to 235F. Put on lid. Let vent. Maintain that temp ramp for min, don’t go above 280F. *Tip: A turkey thermometer with remote probe works well for monitoring temperatures. This will keep the display out of the pan’s steam, for easy reading.
Caramelizing Invert Sugar Browning reaction/flavor needs alkaline conditions (reduces burning of sugar at high temps). Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH2)- (pickling lime) most common but NaOH, KOH, NH3OH can be used, albeit more dangerous from chemical safety standpoint Reaction happens quickly after adding alkaline material. *Tip: Pickling lime has limited solubility. Add lime to water & let it clear over 10+ minutes, then use only the liquid to avoid mineral flavors.
Caramelizing Process Sucrose inverted, heat reduced. (Eyewear, gloves recommended!). Limewater slowly added, stirred. Heat mixture on low, monitor temp & go above 275F+ for dark caramel. Have shallow cup ice water to drop sugar into, to taste, as browning progresses. Add limewater again. 300F+ produces darkest sugar. Monitor burnt sugar notes! Can pour onto non-stick cookie sheet for hard sugar, or carefully add back water to make syrup. *Tip: When inverting is happening, there will be a change in aroma to a more fruity note, similar to cooking apples.
Belgian-Style Candi Sugar Uses more complex Maillard Browning, not enzymatic. Needs reducing sugar and amino acids (Cu ions help!). Beet sugar OR cane sugar works equally well! Most complex (and tasty IMO) of the sugar browning processes. Many candies & syrups use Maillard Browning Reactions
Candi Sugar Ingredients Invert is “base sugar” for Candi. Other partial addition sugars such as date, coconut, maple, etc, add amino acids, add flavor complexity. Wheat, Barley malt liquid, or extract, a favorite due to flavor, amino acids. Start with 10% to invert, to taste. Other amino acid sources such as whey powder, apple cider, (DAP) are candidates.
Making Candi Sugar After inverting sucrose, remove from heat, add source for alkaline syrup (Mix lime with water, let settle and use liquid, not undissolved solids). Remove from heat, slowly add amino acid source (malt, date sugar, apple cider, etc. Recommended to make a water solution to enhance mixing. Heat slowly, after 260F, monitor taste by dropping candi into ice water. Can go over 295F to get dark fruit flavors. When syrup is to-taste, either pour into a nonstick pan, or slowly add water to make syrup (lower temp candi won’t harden, so no choice) *Tip: Using a nonstick pan and silicone spatula will reduce burned sites and ease cleanup. Wear gloves to reduce accidental skin burns from sugar.
Candi Starter Recipes Light Candi Syrup 1.1 lb invert sugar 2.1 oz wheat malt (wort or extract). 3.¼ tsp cream of tartar 4.3 grams (1/2 tsp lime) to 4 oz (100 mg) H2O 5.After inverting, remove from heat, add limewater then malt, mix. Ramp temp to 270F. Cover with lid, maintain temp for 30 min or to taste. Cool, add 4 oz H2O, pour into container. Freeze/refrigerate. Dark Candi Syrup Replace wheat malt with date sugar (recipe on left) Repeat steps 1-4 Slowly heat to 295F, stirring to avoid scorching bottom layer of sugar. Take off heat source, add back 2 oz limewater, repeat heating. (*Keeping mix alkaline reduces burning of candi). Add final H2O for syrup or place on cookie sheet for hard candi.