2Post harvest losses in Promising Sugarcane Genotypes By Ghulam Abbas Assistant Agri. Chemist Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad
3SignificanceIdentification of cane genotypes to post harvest deterioration is needed to device scientific supply and crushing schedule with minimal loss of recover able sugar.
4ObjectivesTo indentify the promising sugarcane genotypes with better juice quality maintenance during post harvest period in order to select the varieties most resistant to the post harvest inversion by the breeders for crossing program to develop the desirable genotypes.
5CausesSugarcane has poor post harvest as well as post maturity keeping quality due to which sugar deterioration of harvested canes starts immediately.The sucrose decreases while the invert sugars increase which in turn hinder the normal sugar recovery.During post harvest period sugarcane is subjected to many physical and chemical changes.The most important physical change is the loss in cane weight due the evaporation of water from the cut portion of the cane and chemical change due to loss in sugar through inversion.
6MethologySugarcane genotypes = HSF-240, S-2003-US-633, S-2003-US-694, S-2003-US , S-2003-US-165 and S-2003-US-704Location = SRI, Faisalabad.Year of study =Design = RCBD split plotReplications = 3
7Magnitude of losses in 8 days In Pakistan and other Asian countries, payment to the farmers is made on weight basis so the delay in supply of harvested cane to the sugar industries could lead to major economic loss to cane growers.At the prevailing cane payment price in Districts of the Punjab province, monetary losses to cane growers (calculation based on 8th day) are estimated to be around Rs. 522 (US$ 6.00) per tonne of cane supplied to the sugar mills.
8Direct lossesInversion leads to unit loss in recovery; for a 5000 TCD mill we may lose cane sugar bags which amounts to Rs lac per day.
9Indirect lossesDextran sucrase enzyme (of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria) produces dextran and fructose.Fructose is oxidized to organic acids and pH of the juice is lowered. As a result, more lime is required and scaling increases.Dextran production increases juice viscosity, filtration becomes difficult, more energy is needed for processing and due to c-axis elongation needle shaped sugar crystals are produced which lead to poor quality of sugar.
10% Loss in cane weight during 8 days ResultsEffect of staling on % loss in cane weight a. 9th month old crop (November- 2009)Variety/Days% Loss in cane weight during 8 daysAverage% weight loss12345678HSF-2400.01.322.984.115.506.807.968.929.685.90S-2003-US-63126.96.36.1995.566.797.769.676.07S-2003-US-6941.933.284.575.886.907.919.0910.816.29S-2003-US-2471.853.204.295.596.787.849.4710.276.16S-2003-US-1651.703.104.405.536.837.899.3610.086.11S-2003-US-7041.903.054.345.516.757.889.2910.306.12Average6.11 B
11% Loss in cane weight during 8 days Effect of staling on % loss in cane weight b. 11th month old crop (January- 2010)Variety/Days% Loss in cane weight during 8 daysAverage% weight loss12345678HSF-2400.01.222.123.394.535.806.978.078.965.13S-2003-US-6331.502.903.954.926.016.987.929.035.40S-2003-US-6941.2188.8.131.525.466.397.628.68S-2003-US-2471.252.723.734.455.696.9184.108.40.206S-2003-US-1652.563.644.555.516.617.918.855.11S-2003-US-7041.362.543.634.565.586.778.098.995.19Average5.17 C
12% Loss in cane weight during 8 days Effect of staling on % loss in cane weight c. 13th month old crop (March- 2010)Variety/Days% Loss in cane weight during 8 daysAverage% weight loss12345678HSF-2400.01.733.234.385.877.038.499.8311.276.48S-2003-US-6332.303.975.627.218.6910.0111.3012.617.71S-2003-US-6942.344.115.797.488.8910.3011.7513.177.98S-2003-US-2472.454.195.957.569.1010.6412.0013.448.17S-2003-US-1651.883.534.766.007.418.7610.0011.206.69S-2003-US-7042.013.615.026.498.089.4511.0312.377.26Average7.38 A
13% Loss in cane weight during 8 days Average of three months (Season)Variety/Days% Loss in cane weight during 8 daysAverage% weight loss12345678HSF-2400.01.422.783.965.306.547.808.949.975.84 CS-2003-US-6331.983.374.705.897.168.259.3810.436.39 ABS-2003-US-6941.853.204.525.957.088.209.4810.686.36 ABS-2003-US-2474.655.867.198.489.9010.986.54 AS-2003-US-1651.623.064.265.366.587.759.0910.045.97 CS-2003-US-7041.763.074.335.526.808.039.4710.556.19 BAverage6.22LSD alpha = 0.05Month = , Variety = , Days = 0.195, Month x variety = , Month x days = , Days x variety =
14% loss in CCS (%) on 8th day Effect of staling on % loss in CCS (%) a. 9th month old crop (November- 2010)Variety/Days% Loss CCS during 8 days% loss in CCS (%) on 8th day12345678HSF-24011.9212.0012.0812.0611.8411.5011.1410.878.81S-2003-US-63313.0813.0613.0112.8512.7212.3311.6910.63S-2003-US-69412.7912.7812.7612.6512.2512.1111.7511.559.69S-2003-US-24712.7112.7312.6712.1811.9411.8311.4511.3610.97S-2003-US-16512.7012.5712.4912.1211.9811.6411.499.95S-2003-US-70412.6412.6112.5912.3912.1411.8811.6811.5411.3310.36Average C10.07
15% Loss in CCS during 8 days % loss in CCS (%) on 8th day Effect of staling on % loss in CCS (%) b. 11th month old crop (January- 2010)Variety/Days% Loss in CCS during 8 days% loss in CCS (%) on 8th day12345678HSF-24012.9913.0213.0312.9512.8512.7812.4812.2511.898.46S-2003-US-63313.2213.2613.2013.1313.0012.9312.8212.6112.227.56S-2003-US-69413.0813.0612.9612.9012.8312.7012.3812.217.00S-2003-US-24712.8112.8012.7912.6312.4712.2812.1111.956.71S-2003-US-16513.0712.9412.6512.456.12S-2003-US-70412.7712.7512.5212.1912.0611.797.89Average B7.29
16% Loss in CCS during 8 days % loss in CCS (%) on 8th day Effect of staling on % loss in CCS (%) c. 13th month old crop (March- 2010)Variety/Days% Loss in CCS during 8 days% loss in CCS (%) on 8th day12345678HSF-24013.6213.5913.4013.3413.0612.7812.4012.3412.1910.49S-2003-US-63313.9013.9213.7213.5213.2012.8012.4412.3011.51S-2003-US-69413.5113.4413.2413.0112.7912.4812.2512.1311.9811.32S-2003-US-24713.0513.0212.9512.8212.4912.2312.0811.9611.859.19S-2003-US-16513.3513.1813.0412.7612.6612.3211.8811.01S-2003-US-70413.2213.2613.1213.0312.8612.6912.4712.128.32Average A10.31
17% Loss in CCS during 8 days d. Average of three months (Season)Variety/Days% Loss in CCS during 8 daysAverage% weight loss12345678HSF-24012.8412.8712.7812.6412.4712.1311.9111.659.25S-2003-US-63313.4013.4113.3113.2413.0212.9012.6512.3512.079.90S-2003-US-69413.1413.1012.5212.099.34S-2003-US-24712.8612.8512.8012.7212.4312.2112.0611.8411.728.96S-2003-US-16513.0613.0412.9812.7012.3211.889.03S-2003-US-70412.8912.8812.7112.5612.4012.1912.0211.758.86Average9.22LSD alpha = 0.05Month = , Variety = , Days = , Month x variety = , Month x days = , Days x variety =
18Magnitude of Weight and Sugar Losses on 8th Day Sr.No.VarietyLoss of Farmer By Weight(Per Ton)Loss of Sugar(per 5000 TCD)Av. % Wt. LossWt. loss in Kg per tonMonetaryLoss Rs.(US$)Loss in Sugar Recovery (%)Loss of Sugar in TonsLoss By Sugar BagsValuation(Rs.) of Loss per Day1.HSF-2409.9799.7498.5(US$ 5.73)1.1155.511102.S-2003-US-63310.43104.3521.5(US $ 6.00)1.2562.512503.S-2003-US-69410.68106.8534.0(US$ 6.14)1.1658.011604.S-2003-US-24710.98109.8549.0(US$ 6.31)1.0753.510705.S-2003-US-16510.04100.4502.0(US$ 5.77)1.1055.011006.S-2003-US-70410.55105.5527.5(US$ 6.07)Market Price of Sugar Bag on = Rs.3650/- per Bag Currency Rate of US dollar on = Rs /-per Dollar
19Loss per acre Variety Average yield (Mounds per acre) Loss per acre(Rs)HSF-24060011964S-2003-US-63370014602S-2003-US-69475016020S-2003-US-24785018666S-2003-US-16590018072S-2003-US-704100021100
20Conclusions & Suggestions How to overcome post harvest losses.In view of high post harvest weight and sugar losses with consequently lower recovery in many sugar units in Punjab. It is suggested that the time between cut-to- crush should be reduced to 72 hours for manually harvested whole-stalk
21Reducing the heat loadReduce heat load by keeping cane in shaded place, spraying water (10 L/tone cane), or by covering with trash and sprinkling water on it.Killing the bacteria producing dextran, by using bactericides (Bactrinol-200 ppm, Actin ID 0.15 % solution, Leukokil -1% solution) dipping cut ends in it for 5 minutesPreventing inversion by using inhibitors for invertase enzyme activity.Spray of 25 mM KMnO mM Sodium metasilicate on the canes.