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Sugarcane Trash and Whole Cane Pyrolysis in Brazil 3rd ISBUC Meeting Mauritius, 29-30 June 2009 Luís Cortez UNICAMP/FAPESP.

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Presentation on theme: "Sugarcane Trash and Whole Cane Pyrolysis in Brazil 3rd ISBUC Meeting Mauritius, 29-30 June 2009 Luís Cortez UNICAMP/FAPESP."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sugarcane Trash and Whole Cane Pyrolysis in Brazil 3rd ISBUC Meeting Mauritius, 29-30 June 2009 Luís Cortez UNICAMP/FAPESP

2 State University of Campinas UNICAMP

3 Sugarcane Trash Not used in the “old production model” Harvest (green cane) Sugarcane trash left on the soil Level of harvest mechanization: São Paulo State: 50-60% Brazil: 35-40% Manual harvesting (cane burning) The sugarcane trash is burned to increase the harvest yield

4 RECOVERY OF SUGARCANE TRASH AFTER HARVEST Harvesting: sugarcane trash scattered field Accumulation of sugarcane trash Packing: to increase density for transport Sugarcane trash bales Transport “NEW PRODUCTION MODEL” USE OF SUGARCANE TRASH

5 Biochemical routes Acid hydrolysis Enzymatic hydrolysis Termochemical routes Fast pyrolysis Gasification Gasification + catalytic conversion CONVERSION OF SUGARCANE TRASH INTO BIOFUEL

6 WHAT IS PYROLYSIS? Pyrolysis is a thermochemical conversion process. It is characterized by the thermal degradation of a solid fuel with restricted oxygen supply. It can be used to convert biomass into value added products. Primary products formed during pyrolysis of biomass: Charcoal Bio-oil (Formed mainly by phenolic derivatives) Acid (Formed by carboxylic acids)

7 Pyrolysis plant ( PPR-200) Partnership Unicamp and Bioware Nominal capacity: 200 kg/h dry biomass Operating temperature range: 450-500 o C Average yields: 30% bio-oil, 20% charcoal, 10% acid, 40% gases

8 Background of the biomass pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 1998: The reactor was used for biomass gasification 1996: First prototype built with TERMOQUIP cooperation

9 2001: Reactor used for charcoal production

10 2004: Modification to increase liquids products yield

11 2007: Tests with whole Cane

12 1. Feeding silo 2. Feeding screw 3. Fluidized bed reactor 4. Cyclone 1 5. Cyclone 2 6. Recovery system of bio-oil and acid 7. Acid reservoir 8. System charcoal extraction 9. Charcoal storage silo 10. Combustion chamber 11. Chimney 12. Heat exchanger 13. Hot gas blower 14. Atmospheric air blower Schematics of the fast pyrolysis plant PPR-200

13 Fast pyrolysis reactor plant PPR-200 TypeFluidized-bed Build materialCarbon steel Internal diameter417 mm Height2,600 mm Bed height400 mm InsulationRefractory Insulation material thickness80 mm Distribution plate materialCarbon steel Minimum fluidization speed0.025 m/s at 25ºC Particles retention time2 to 3 seconds Operating temperature500ºC Pressure300 mmH 2 0 Chemical analysis Physical analysis CharacteristicsVariation threshold values ElementsMass % pH (aqueous solution %)4.5 to 7.0 Wet bulk density (kg/m 3 )1400 to 1600 SiO 2 99.66 Actual density (kg/m 3 )2700 to 2920 Al 2 O 3 0.15 DOP adsorptionNone Fe 2 O 3 0.04 Flaxseed oil adsorptionNone TiO 2 0.01 Loss through fire0.25% maximum Reactor technical specifications Main physicochemical properties of silica sand

14 Bio-oil separation column Unicamp/Bioware developed a commercial prototype to cool the gas, use centrifugation to separate the mist and condensate the bio-oil. Phase separation into aqueous and oil phases

15 Air blower electric motor5.50 kW Biomass silo mixer0.55 kW Feeding screw electric motor0.55 kW Recirculation pump1.50 kW Bio-oil separation (centrifugation) electric motor 0.55 kW Power required in the pyrolysis plant 8.65 kW

16 PPR-200 plant in operation Feeding silo Reactor Feeding screw Cyclones for separation of fine Charcoal Fine charcoal

17 Acid Reservoir Combustion chamber Pyrolysis gases

18 Extraction of bio-oil

19 Energy balance PPR-200 8.65 kW 137.6 kW 8.65 kW 311 kW220 kW Other (gas + loss) 248.4 kW

20 Fast pyrolysis requires small-particle biomass in the range of 2 to 4 mm and moisture content up to 15% wt. Some biomass tested in PPR-200

21 Products yield for some types of biomass processed in PPR-200 ProductYield (%) Sugarcane trash Orange bagasse Charcoal 2520 Total liquid 3540 Acid 10 Gases (by difference) 30

22 Fast pyrolysis application products


24 Pyrolysis tests with sugarcane trash and whole cane

25 Present situation in Brazil the “Brazilian Model” of simultaneous production of sugar and ethanol may be reaching its maximum (today 40-60%): 60% of fuel used in light vehicles (domestic market) 30% of world sugar exports (foreign trade) Which are the new possibilities for Brazilian sugarcane?

26 Whole Cane vs “By-Products” Approach most likely other production models will appear, such as “new energy plants”, dedicated only to produce ethanol, electricity and bio-products (e.g. plastics) in Brazil, it makes sense to produce electricity from lignocellulosic by-products because we will have difficulties to expand electricity generation using hydro resources (Amazon) another way: to convert the “whole cane” (sugars, bagasse and trash) with minimum energy use, into products that can either enter in an oil refinery or be transformed...

27 Energy content of one ton of sugarcane FractionQuantity (kg) Energy (MJ) Energy (kcal) Sugars1532,554608,000 Bagasse(*) 2762,504598,000 Sugarcane trash (**)1652,144512,000 Total5947,2021,718,000 (*) Bagasse moisture: 50% (**) Sugarcane trash moisture: 15%

28 Sugarcane trash reception and pre-treatment

29 Whole cane reception and pre-treatment Whole Cane Milling Drying

30 AnalysisDescription Value Ultimate (%) Carbon (C) 41.58 Hydrogen (H) 5.80 Nitrogen (N) 0.45 Sulphur (S) 0.08 Proximate (%) Ash 11.70 Volatile Material 81.55 Moisture 9.92 Fixed Carbon 6.90 MJ/kgHigher Heating Value (HHV) 17.74 MJ/kgLower Heating Value (LHV) 16.51 Ultimate and Proximate chemical analysis of sugarcane trash

31 Proximate analysis of bio-oil from whole sugarcane and sugarcane trash Parameter Bio-oil of whole cane Bio-oil of sugarcane trash pH6.86.2 Fixed Carbon (dry basis) [% mass]8.037.92 Ash (wet basis) [% mass]0.660.40 Volatile material (wet basis) [%mass]91.0491.41 Moisture by Karl Fischer [% mass]15.88.2

32 Ultimate analysis of bio-oil from whole sugarcane and sugarcane trash Parameter bio-oil of whole cane bio-oil of sugarcane trash Carbon [% mass]5558 Hydrogen [% mass]7.26.8 Nitrogen [% mass]0.20.4 Sulphur [%mass]0.080.05 HHV [MJ/kg]2324 LHV (calculated) [MJ/kg]2123

33 Pyrolysis productivity (sugarcane trash x whole cane) PyrolysisDry raw material (ton/ha) Bio-oil (ton/ha) Charcoal (ton/ha) Slurry (*) (ton/ha) Sugarcane trash124.23.07.2 Whole cane3512.258.7521 (*) Bio-oil + Charcoal PyrolysisEnergy (Slurry) (GJ/ha) Sugarcane trash136.2 Whole cane421.75

34 Whole cane pyrolysis x Ethanol fermentation Process Energy primary sugarcane (GJ/ha) Products Energy products (GJ/ha) Overall efficiency (*) Pyrolysis whole cane 612.17 Bio-oil Charcoal 421.7569% Ethanol fermentation 612.17 Ethanol (7,310 l/ha) 163.5027% (*) Energy products/Energy primary sugarcane Not considering drying energy

35 The future may be “BTL” Whole cane (880 GJ/ha) Pyrolysis (Conversion efficiency= 80%) 704 GJ/ha Gasification (Conversion efficiency= 90%) 633.6 GJ/ha Synthesis FT (Conversion efficiency= 90%) Bio-fuels 570 GJ/ha Overall efficiency: 65%

36 Thank you!

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