Presentation on theme: "Start of the Civil War How did the divide between North and South turn into a Civil War? FROM THIS? TO THIS?"— Presentation transcript:
Start of the Civil War How did the divide between North and South turn into a Civil War? FROM THIS? TO THIS?
KEY CONCEPTS & VOCAB KEY CONCEPTS & VOCABULARY What question does this image ask? ?
As the territory of the United States expanded across the continent, would new states become slave states – or free? ?
States’ Rights Would the North or the South want states to have the POWER to make this decision? Federal Power Would the North or the South want the federal government to have the POWER to make this decision? KEY CONCEPTS & VOCABULARY
What did abolitionists want?
United States, 1819 The number of slave-states equaled the number of free states. Would the new states in the Louisiana Territory be allowed to have slavery? What would be a good COMPROMISE for this situation?
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 quieted the slavery debate for a while
What happened? What do you think were the consequences?
Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831) Nat Turner (a slave) and six men went from house to house, killing all of the white people they encountered. Turner's force eventually consisted of more than 40 slaves. In the end, the rebels had stabbed, shot and clubbed at least 55 white people to death.
Nat Turner was eventually captured He was hanged and beheaded In the hysterical climate that followed the rebellion, close to 200 black people, many of whom had nothing to do with the rebellion, were murdered by white mobs.
Effect of the Rebellion “Slave Codes” (laws) were tightened in the South Slaves could not… be taught to read or write meet without a white person present move from place to place freely
United States, 1848 Would the new land won in the war with Mexico become slave states or free states?
Compromise of 1850 California was admitted as a “free state”. The rest of the territories could decide for themselves whether to permit slavery or not. A strong Fugitive Slave Law, strongly opposed by Northerners, required them to return runaway slaves to their owners
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book about the cruelty of slavery Moved many to join the cause of abolition Increased tension between the North and South
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) created two new territories The act left it up to settlers to decide whether to become slave states or free states This is called “Popular Sovereignty”
“Popular Sovereignty” What do you think happened?
Bleeding Kansas Northern and Southern settlers both flooded into Kansas Supporters of slavery invaded an abolitionist town, burned a hotel, looted home and destroyed newspaper presses Anti-slavery forces retaliated. Led by John Brown, they invaded a pro- slavery town, dragged five men from their homes killed them
Violence in Congress Southerners were outraged by a speech Senator Sumner made criticizing Southern congressmen for supporting the Kansas- Nebraska Act Rep. Preston Brooks savagely beat Sumner with a cane to defend Southern honor The beating was so bad that the cane broke and it took 3 ½ years for Sumner to recover
Dred Scott Decision The U.S. Supreme Court had to decide… Was he a Person or Property? Dred Scott, a slave from Missouri, went to court and sued for his freedom on the grounds that when his master took him to free territories he was no longer a slave. Hint: 4 Northern judges, 5 Southern judges
Chief Justice Roger Taney Slaves were not citizens, so they could not sue in court Slaves were property, so Congress did not have the power to ban slavery in any territory Therefore, the Missouri Compromise was “unconstitutional” Dred Scott remained a slave
Lincoln-Douglas Debates LINCOLN said… A house divided against itself cannot stand I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. It will become all one thing or all the other. Slavery is a MORAL ISSUE It is either right… or it is wrong. DOUGLAS said… In the Dred Scott Decision, the Supreme Court had decided the issue of slavery forever Slavery was legal Before becoming president, Abraham Lincoln ran against Stephen Douglas for an Illinois Senate seat.
Raid at Harpers Ferry John Brown, an abolitionist, was tired of waiting for Congress to act. In 1859, he and his followers seized the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. They planned to march their army through South to forcibly free slaves. Many Northerners viewed Brown as a hero. Southerners thought Brown was a lunatic and became increasingly fearful of northern abolitionism.
John Brown “I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes (slavery) of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” How do you think the South felt about these words?
Presidential Election of 1860 The slavery question overshadowed all others in the presidential election year of The South threatened that it would secede if Lincoln was elected. Secede = break away
Lincoln Wins the Presidency Lincoln won only 40% of the popular vote… But remember the Electoral College?
The South Secedes One by one, Southern states seceded from the Union after Lincoln’s election Lincoln and many northerners refused to accept the right of the south to secede. New nation: Confederate States of America
Attack on Fort Sumter Southern states seized and occupied most of the federal forts within their borders April 12, 1861, at 4:30 a.m., Confederate troops opened fire on Fort Sumter, firing for 36 straight hours The Civil War had begun
By the end of the war… NORTH: 2.2 million men were in put into uniform (180,000 of them African American) 640,000 were killed, wounded in battle, or died of disease. SOUTH: 750,000 to 850,000 Confederate soldiers were mobilized As many as 450,000 them may have died or been wounded
The South was destroyed and needed to be rebuilt. Slavery was abolished and millions of freed African-Americans would start a new life.