Presentation on theme: "MAIN DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES OF AUTISTIC DISORDER Deficits in social attachments and behavior Deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication Presence of perseverative,"— Presentation transcript:
MAIN DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES OF AUTISTIC DISORDER Deficits in social attachments and behavior Deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication Presence of perseverative, stereotyped, repetitive, behaviors
Social Interaction Differences Kids with autism smile! Social interaction may be desired but difficult Poor reciprocity in social interaction Relationship with care providers may be most strongly developed Peer relationships difficult
Autistic Types Interactive but odd Passive Aloof Dr. Lorna Wing Unknown
Communication Differences Delayed/Different Communication Speech without communication vs. communication without speech Echolalia Poor gesture use Instrumental hand leading Playlalia and lack of symbolic play
Stereotyped Behavior Perseverative Interests or play Motor stereotopies in preschool and beyond Insistence on sameness/routine Need for “prediction” and “control” Preoccupation with parts of objects
What is not addressed in the DSM-IV Sensory Processing Temperament Motor Planning Imitation Anxiety and Avoidance Adaptive Skills Impact of intellectual functioning
OTHER FEATURES OF AUTISM Incidence is cited at rate of between 1 in 2500 to 1 in 500 births. 4:1 boys to girls ratio Lifespan disorder No known etiology although known to be organic in nature. Commonly accompanied by mental retardation Heterogeneous disorder
Treatment Although current push towards identifying biological bases of the disorder, no treatment implications are on the horizon. The form of treatment with the greatest empirical validation is treatment based upon a behavioral model.
Behavioral Model Treatment based on the systematic application of the principles of learning Consitently empirically demonstrated to be effective in improving the behavior of children with autism Developed via the methodology of applied behavior analysis Initial demonstrations were the first to show these children could learn in a systematic manner
Components of Discrete Trial Training Instruction > Response > Consequence Presenting Instructions and Questions: Child attending Easily discriminable Short and consistent Child responds or fails to respond Child responds or fails to respond Consequences: Consequences: Types of consequences Types of consequences Manner of presenting consequences Manner of presenting consequences
Results of Early Behavioral Intervention Initial demonstrations involved highly structured discrete trial format Initial demonstrations involved highly structured discrete trial format Proved to be very effective in establishing a wide range of behaviors in these children Proved to be very effective in establishing a wide range of behaviors in these children Provided basis for all behavioral treatments to follow Provided basis for all behavioral treatments to follow Can lead to substantial improvement in many children with autism Can lead to substantial improvement in many children with autism
Problem Areas Generalization Generalization Stimulus Stimulus Response Response Lack of spontaneity Lack of spontaneity Robotic responding Robotic responding Prompt dependency Prompt dependency Slow progress Slow progress Time consuming Time consuming Difficult to implement Difficult to implement Children and treatment provider may not like Children and treatment provider may not like
Naturalistic Strategies Developed in response to needed improvements Developed in response to needed improvements Arose from a number of different laboratories Arose from a number of different laboratories Called “incidental teaching,” “pivotal response Called “incidental teaching,” “pivotal response training,” “milieu treatment,” etc. training,” “milieu treatment,” etc. All share many of the same components All share many of the same components
Parental Stress Parents experience significant stress in areas related to child with autism –Long-term care –Limits on family opportunity –Koegel, Schreibman, Loos, Dirlich- Wilhelm, Dunlap, Robbins & Plienis (1992)
Parental Stress Con’t Different types of training have a differential effect on stress of parents –Naturalistic strategies reduce stress more than highly structured techniques Parental stress is correlated with progress of child in family-oriented programs Parents under high degree of “parent domain” stress (PSI) may not benefit from parent training.
Parent Support Parents enrolled in parent training programs report that social support would be likely to reduce stress. –Gallagher, Beckman & Cross, 1983 –Moes, Koegel, Schreibman & Loos, 1993
Parent Support/Information Group Purpose: –Does participation in a parent group reduce stress in parents of children recently diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? –Do parents enrolled in a parent group learn the training techniques better than parents not enrolled in a parent group?
Conclusions Autism is a complex disorder One treatment methodology, placement type or parent program will not be optimally effective for all children or families. Continued individualization of intervention necessary.