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ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 1 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya.

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Presentation on theme: "ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 1 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 1 19 th – 23 rd June 2006 Nairobi, Kenya

2 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 2 Module 5: Modern Biomass - Cogeneration Dr. Kassiap Deepchand

3 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 3 Large Scale Biomass Energy Options Biofuels  Ethanol – Zimbabwe, Malawi, Swaziland, Kenya  Bio-diesel – Selected projects with plans for expansion Biomass gasification – Pilot projects Direct biomass combustion – Widely used in agro and forest industries Biogas – Pilot projects Briquetting – Pilot projects Cogeneration

4 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 4 Cane biomass fraction Dry Matter (tonnes/ha) Cane Stalk Fibre Absolute Juice Cane Tops and Leaves Trash Roots Total54 Sugar Cane Biomass Composition

5 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 5 Sugar Processing in a typical Mauritian Sugar Factory

6 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 6

7 7  Fibrous residue leaving the last mill of a milling tandem  Varies from 22 to 36% on cane - average of 30% (depends on fibre % cane, cane cleanliness, harvesting practices)  Moisture content – important factor influencing calorific value GCV of 19,250 0% moisture and % moisture 48% moisture is 7985 kJ/kg Good milling work ~ 45% moisture & poor milling work ~ 52% Boiler house design to burn ~ 50 % moisture  Fibre % bagasse ~ moisture % bagasse (cellulose)  1-2 % sucrose (influence calorific value)  Extraneous matter (higher with mechanical harvesting)  Low bulk density of 130 kg/m3 Bagasse Characteristics

8 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 8 Simultaneous production of Electricity and Steam (or heat) in a single power plant It represents a saving when compared to separate generation of electricity and steam (or heat) Well known examples: -> Chemical industries, District Heating -> Sugar Mills What is Cogeneration?

9 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 9 Boiler HP Steam BP T/A Typical Cogeneration Set-Up Bagasse LP Process Steam C Condenser Factory Uses & Export

10 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 10 Typical sugar factory annexed to a cogeneration plant Sugar cane Factory Bagasse Low pressure steam GRID Electricity Independent Power Plant (HP steam/ CE turbo alternator) Electricity

11 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 11 Sugar Sector Reform initiatives & Bagasse Energy Year Policy initiatives & fiscal measures Emphasis on 1985 Sugar Sector Action Plan Bagasse energy policy evoked 1988 Sugar Industry Efficiency Act -Tax free revenue from sales of bagasse and electricity -Export duty rebate on bagasse savings for firm power production -Capital allowance on investment in bagasse energy 1991 Bagasse Energy Development Programme -Diversify energy base -Reduce reliance on imported fuel -Modernise sugar factories -Enhanced environmental benefits

12 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 12 Sugar Sector Reform initiatives & Bagasse Energy Year Policy initiatives & fiscal measures Emphasis on 1997 Blue Print on the Centralisation of Cane Milling Activities Facilitate closure of small mills with concurrent increase in capacities and investment in bagasse energy 2001 Sugar Sector Strategic Plan -Enhance energy efficiency in milling -Decrease number and increase capacity of mills -Favour investment in cogeneration units 2005 Roadmap for the Mauritius Sugarcane Industry for the 21 st Century -Reduction in the number of mills to 6 with a cogeneration plant annexed to each plant

13 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 13 Energy Pricing Power mode Power Plant Price – Rs (us ¢)/kWh YearCharacteristics Intermittent (0.6)1982Price frozen since 1982 Continuous Medine0.55 (1.9)1982No change in price since 1982 –no changes brought to the plant Continuous 6 PPs1.05 (3.7)199744% of kWh price indexed to changes in oil price and the other 56% is fixed 1.40 (4.9)2000 Firm FUELcoal (5.7) bag (5.5) 1985Invested in new equipment Indexed to coal price FirmDRBCcoal (5.4) bag (5.1) 1998Invested in second hand equipment Indexed to coal price FirmCTBVboth (6.0) sur (3.9) 2000Indexed to coal price, cost of living in Mauritius, foreign exchange rate fluctuations

14 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 14 Investment in Power Plants

15 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 15 FactoryTCH Mode of Power Supply Boiler Capacity (T/hr) Pressure (bars) & Temp (˚C) Turbo Alternator type Installed Capacity (MW) ML165Continuous1*8545; 475Back pressure1*14 BV325Firm2*14082; 525Cond/Extract2*35 DRBC270Firm1*14045; 440 Cond/Extract Condensing Using Extract Stream 1*24.6 1*3.8 FUEL275Firm 1*110 44; 440 Cond/Extract 1*21.7 1*18 MDA185Continuous 1*70 1*50 31; ; 343 Cond/Extract 1*11.2 1*2.5 2*0.8 Méd190Continuous 1*50 2*35 32; ; 345 Cond/Extract Back pressure 1*10.2 2*15 Sav145Continuous 1*70 1*35 31; ; 250 Cond/Extract 1*15.6 2* Continuous1*8031; 440 Back pressure 1*12.2 1*2.5 REE125Continuous 1*45 1*43 19; ; 400 Condensing Back pressure 1*6.5 1*3 1*1.6 MTMD109Continuous1*7026; 400Cond/Extract Condensing Back pressure 1*9.5 2*2.5 1*1.6 Power Plant Configurations

16 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 16 Energy projects from the Sugar Industry

17 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 17 Share ownership of power plants Firm  Corporate sector 51%  Strategic Partner 27%  SIT (Small planters/workers) 14%  State Investment Corporation 8% Continous  Corporate sector 80%  SIT 20%

18 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 18 Evolution of Electricity Production Year Bagasse (GWh) Coal (GWh) SI total (GWh) Island (GWh) SI % Island

19 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 19 Energy Generated by Source for sales (2005)

20 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 20 The Future of Bagasse Energy in Mauritius  Avg. export of surplus electricity from bagasse at CTBV is around 110 kWh compared to an average of 60 kWh in other bagasse base power plants in Mauritius  Potential for Mauritius can thus be estimated to be 600 GWh based on Production of 5.8 million TC/yr Further centralisation with each mill crushing 800,000 TC/yr Upgrading of boiler pressure up to 82 bar (similar to CTBV)  Further increase through the use of Cane field residues (150 GWh) Emerging technologies – BIG-CC, pyrolysis  Total of 2000 GWh is achievable with the use of coal as complementary fuel

21 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 21 Evolution of Electricity Production from the Sugar Industry

22 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 22 The reforming sugar sector Installed Capacity (MW) GWh generated YearTotalB&CTotalB&C%B% 1979Prior to Sugar Sector Reform Sugar Sector Action Plan Sugar Industry Efficiency Act Bagasse Energy Development Programme Blue Print on the Centralisation of Cane Milling Activities Sugar Sector Strategic Plan Multi-Annual Adaptation Strategy for Sugar Sector Target to be reached Bagasse Energy and its Impact on the Energy Sector

23 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 23 Environmental Life Cycle Benefits  Cane plant is a very efficient sequestrator of atmospheric carbon  All co-products and waste streams have a value Bagasse (cane trash) for energy Filter cake/furnace ash as soil conditioner Molasses for ethanol and spirits Vinasse as fertiliser through - field irrigation or - composting with filter cake or - incinerated and spread in fields

24 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 24 Environmental Impacts of 300 GWh of Bagasse Electricity  Total coal avoided = 200,000 tonnes  Total oil equivalent = 120,000 tonnes  Coal ash avoided = 40,000 tonnes  Carbon dioxide avoided = 300,000 tonnes ATMOSPHERIC CO 2

25 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 25 Improved thermal efficiency compared to traditional mills => less heat rejected Limited atmospheric emissions  Particulate <100 mg/Nm 3  SO 2 : almost non-existent with bagasse and in live with international regulations due to use of low-sulfur coal  NO x : also reduced due to use of spreader- stoker technology Positive Environment Impact

26 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 26 Bagasse: a renewable fuel Bagasse contributes to a reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions  CO 2 released by bagasse combustion is absorbed by the ensuing crop => no effect  Increase in cane trash recovery from the fields produces more bagasse, more electricity and reduced methane release (caused by trash decay)  Optimal use of bagasse implies reduced fossil fuel imports Positive Environment Impact

27 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 27 Surplus Electricity Yield from cane in Mauritius (2003)

28 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 28 The Potential of Bagasse Energy in Africa  Sugar production = 9,612 x10 3 tonnes  Cane 11% sugar = 87 x10 6 tonnes  Cogeneration 31 bars = 4, bars = 6, bars = 9,600 GWh

29 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 29 African CountriesSugar (x 10 3 t) Sugar Cane (a) (x 10 3 bars (b) Cogeneration Potential 44 bars 82 bars (d) Angola Benin Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Chad Congo Côte d’Ivoire Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Guinea Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Nigeria Réunion Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe , , , ,436 12,700 2, , , ,018 1,418 2, , ,045 7,200 4,727 1, , ,100 5, , , , Total9,61287, ,1179,612

30 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 30 Lessons Learnt: Successful Development of Cogeneration Clearly spelt policy on sugar cane bagasse for cogenerated electricity Provision for appropriate incentives to induce investment in sugar factory modernization and investment in power plants. Adopt energy efficiency and conservation measures in cane juice processing for sugar recover to minimize process steam consumption. Electrification of drive of all prime movers in cane milling. Target a cane crushing capacity of around 200 TCH to match with one module of MW power plant at steam pressure of around 82 bars. A commercially proven technology. Use coal as complementary fuel for year round power export to grid.

31 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 31 Lessons Learnt Successful Development of Co-Generation Centralization of cane milling to ensure bagasse availability on site rather than saving bagasse in a cluster and transporting it to a central power plant. A kWh price worked out independently of the utility and the IPP or alternatively inviting request for proposal with set guidelines in a competitive bidding process. Make provision for participation of small planters and workers in the equity portion of investment. Negotiate a PPA with details on the obligations of the IPP towards the utility and vice versa, including in particular payment obligations by the utility. This PPA is used inter alia, in negotiating a loan from the bank. Concurrently seek all permits including EIA license

32 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 32 Concluding Remarks Bagasse based electricity – high priority in the sugar sector reform in Mauritius as well as significant source of revenue to the industry The sugar industry power plant exports 39.6 % of the total electricity in 2003 The success is attributable to the various entrepreneurs operating in an environment with clearly defined Government policy Bagasse/coal power plant associated with environmental advantages and benefit the sugar industry and the country at large Can easily be replicated in the sugarcane industry in Africa

33 ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction 33 Thank You


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