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2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Nutrient cycles - Contamination L4 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語.

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Presentation on theme: "2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Nutrient cycles - Contamination L4 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語."— Presentation transcript:

1 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Nutrient cycles - Contamination L4 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語

2 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Respiration [Decomposers] Putrefaction Death Dead matter Ecosystem processes [Primary production] Photosynthesis [Consumers] Ingestion Metabolism

3 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 CO 2 Atmosphere CO 2 Respiration Carbon cycle CH 2 O soil Rocks CO 3 CaMg Aquatic Biota CH 2 O Terrestrial biota CH 2 O Sediments CO 3 CaMg Photosynthesis Dissolves Combustion Water CO 3 -2 Photosynthesis Organic uptake Runoff Metamorphism Dissolves Fossil fuels Precipitation Debris

4 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 N 2 N 2 O, NH 3 Atmosphere N 2 O Nitrogen cycle Water microorganisms NO x Soil NH 4 Aquatic biota Terrestrial biota Ocean sediments N fixation Storms NO 3 - Uptake Runoff Debris Loss Uptake Excretion Fertilizers Combustion Eutrophication

5 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Water Phosphorous cycle Atmosphere Soil - rocks Aquatic biota Terrestrial biota Metamorphism Excretion Uptake Runoff Uptake Debris Fisheries Ocean sediments Fertilizers Detergents Eutrophication

6 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Metamorphism Sulphur cycle SH 2 Atmosphere SO 2 SH 2 SO 4 -2 Water Terrestrial biota SO 4 -2 Soil - rocks Sea spray Anaerobic respiration Aquatic biota Acid rain Uptake Runoff Uptake Volcanoes Ocean sediments Excretion Precipitation Debris Combustion Acid rain

7 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Primary productivity Photosynthesis –Aquatic (algae) 92.4 x 10 12 kg/yr 255 t/km 2 yr –Terrestrial (plants)132.1 x 10 12 kg/yr 899 t/km 2 yr C4: tropics and arid zones tropical grasses Dicotyledons crop plants: corn, sugar cane sorghum, millet C3: most plants Monocotyledons crop plants: wheat, rye-grass alfalfa, beans trees: Fagaceae, Pinus

8 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 BiomeNet PP Polar desert / alpine tundra0.4 Wet tundra0.6 Boreal woodland1.1 Boreal forest2.9 Temperate coniferous forest1.1 Temperate mixed forest3.3 Temperate deciduous forest / broadleaf evergreen2.2 Temperate woodland2.2 Mediterranean shrubland0.5 Short grassland1.0 Arid shrubland1.8 Desert0.6 Tall grassland1.2 Tropical savannah5.3 Dry tropical forest2.9 Tropical deciduous forest3.8 Tropical evergreen forest (jungle)18.0 Primary productivity (x10 9 tons C) Pole Equator

9 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Natural resources Renewable –Biological Forestry Agriculture –Crops –Grazing animals Fisheries Non-renewable –Metals –Inorganic materials Fossil fuels (crude oil, coal) Recyclable Sustainable production Able to maintain yield Non-recyclable

10 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Biological resources Ecosystem x 10 12 kg/ yr% total productivity Human use Forest48.736.9 Woodland35.026.5 Grassland17.112.9 Cultivated15.011.4 Shrubland7.75.8 Desert3.12.3 Wetland3.02.3 Tundra2.11.6 Other0.40.3 TERRESTRIAL132.158.8 % Earth39 - 50% Freshwater0.80.9 Oceans91.699.18% AQUATIC92.441.2 % Earth TOTAL EARTH224.5100 % 45%

11 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Human use of natural resources Freshwater usage >50% Nitrogen input (soil, water) >50% Land transformation 45% CO 2 input (atmosphere) >20% Biodiversity loss20% Fisheries8% (Vitousek et al., 1997)

12 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 A) Land transformation Objective: Urban expansion  population ~ 6 billion Agriculture How? Deforestation Tropical forest - Amazon, India, South-East Asia Temperate forest - USA, Europe, China Coastal mangroves (50%) Annual rate ~1% –Exponential increase in the last 50 years

13 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Tropical deforestation Deforestation (Km 2 /yr) Rate 1980-1990 (%) Area remaining in 1990 (Km 2 ) Brazil36,7100.904,093,000 Venezuela5,9901.31457,000 Bolivia5,3201.16459,000 Colombia3,6700.68541,000 Peru2,7100.40674,000 Ecuador2,3801.98120,000 Cleared land unsuitable for agriculture –Rainfall  loss of soil –topsoil lost  decrease productivity Big losses of biodiversity Decrease absorption of atmospheric CO 2

14 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 B1) Exploitation - fisheries Fishing industry 8% global productivity 35% continental shelf 3% discarded (non-target species: dolphin, etc)  22% overexploited (cod, sardine)  44% limit of exploitation (tuna) Colateral damage Dredging ocean floor Algal blooms Fish kills Shellfish poisoning

15 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 B2) Exploitation - forestry Resources –Timber, lumber –Paper –Rubber –Fruits (nuts) –Medicines Sustainability 1.Plantations 2.Adequate management Selective cutting NO clearcutting

16 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 C) Impacts of climate change Increased productivity (biomass) –3.2 billion tons/yr CO 2  C 3 plants more biomass –Warmer atmosphere  C 4 plants advantage Decreased yield in wheat, barley crops –Physiological threshold –Pollination failure  fewer insects leavesgrain X

17 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 D) Global biogeochemistry Water –Humans use over 50% surface water 70% used in agriculture (35% global) 6% evaporation losses 24% consumption - electricity –2/3 of river flows regulated (dams, weirs) –Underground water NOT renewable - Saudi Arabia (3/4) Ecosystem disturbances –Little water reaches the ocean: Colorado, Nile, Ganges Estuary, coastal ecosystems  fisheries losses –Inland seas dry up: Chad (Africa), Aral (Asia) Biodiversity losses (fish, plants) Increase of dust, diseases Useless soil - salination Desertification

18 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 …other impacts on aquatic ecosystems Dams –erosion downstream –local climate (temperature, rainfall) Change of chemistry –Danube river  silica in Black Sea Water pollution  reduced water quality –Agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticide residues) –Industry: chemical, mining, pharmaceutical, paper, plastics –Urban waste

19 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Global biogeochemistry - Nitrogen N Fixation (x 10 9 kg year) –Terrestrial ecosystems90-130 –Aquatic ecosystems ~100 –Human input Fertilizers 140 Biofertilizers (legumes) 40 Fossil fuel combustion 20 Consequences –Increase in NO 2 (greenhouse gas) and reactive N (NH 4, NO x ) in atmosphere –Acid rain (NO 3 - )  damage to crops and forests –Water pollution: eutrophication  algal blooms 200 / yr 210 / yr

20 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Sulphur –Fossil fuel combustion –Acid rain (SO 4 - )  damage forest, crops, health Phosphorous –Fertilizers –Water pollution: eutrophication  algal blooms Fuel combustion –smog (ozone)  crop damage, health Heavy metal mobilization - mining, industry –Lead (Pb) –Cadmium (Cd) –Mercury (Hg) –Nickel (Ni) –Chromium (Cr) –Copper (Cu) Very toxic Birth defects Alzheimer disease Minamata disease cancer

21 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Effect of air pollutants on Picea forests (Schulze 1989)

22 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Chemicals in the environment ‘All chemicals are toxic…it is only the dose which makes a thing a poison’ Paracelsus (1493-1541) –Toxic substance: negative effects at very low doses e.g. below ppm (mg/kg body weight) Chemical industry in developed countries produces… 100 m tons/yr 70,000 different compounds 1,000 new every year

23 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Chemical pollutants SourceMain causesPollutants NaturalVolcanic eruptions Blue-green algal blooms Planktonic bloom SH 2 Natural toxins UrbanSewage Solid waste treatment Household heating – fossil fuels NH 3, P [not toxic] Dioxins CO 2, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) IndustryChemical & pharmaceutical waste Mining waste/spills Electrical insulators Anilines, phenols, plasticisers Cyanides, heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cu) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) TransportCombustion gases Oil (petroleum) spills CO, CO 2, SO 2 Aromatic hydrocarbons (AH, etc) AgricultureFertilizers Pesticides N 2 O, NO 3 -, PO 4 -2 [not toxic] As, organic toxins

24 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Environmental pollution Air Biota Soil Water Waste disposal Agrochemicals Industry Chemical Mining Energy fuels Garbage bin

25 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Long-range transport Global distillation effect  Very volatile compounds condense with latitude  Example: ocean waters (40-60 m deep) –HCH: hexachlorocyclohexane –CHBs: chlorobornanes (toxaphene) –HEPX: heptachlor exo- epoxide –TC, CC: trans-, cis- chlordane –Endo-I and II: endosulfan –TN: trans-, cis-nonachlor (Jantunen and Bidleman, 1998)

26 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Bioamplification Multiplication effect through the ecosystems’ food web Due to cumulative nature of some chemicals: –Persistent, resistant to degradation –Heavy metals, Organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, etc), Dioxins

27 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Aquatic bioindicators Mollusks: mussels, clams, oysters –Ecology: filter water and particles –Sedentary, easy to collect, long life –Tolerant to neurotoxic insecticides –Accumulation of OC and OP residues Crustaceans: –Waterflea Daphnia magna Bioassay for ChE inhibiting insecticides (OP, Carb) –Shrimp Thamnocephalus spp. Bioassay for micotoxins and CYN Birds: dipper (Cinclus spp.) –Ecology: pristine streams in mountains feed on aquatic larvae –Indirect indicators of pollution - food disappearance

28 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 Solutions to pollution Agrochemicals Reduce inputs: fertilizers + pesticides New methods of pest control Bioremediation of residues Industry Reduce outputs: filter traps recycle or destroy waste (remediation) Waste Reduce input = less consumption Improve disposal Incinerators (burning) and compost technology Energy - fossil fuels are NOT sustainable clean energy sources - solar, wind, geothermal

29 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L4 References Lange et al. (eds). 1983. Ecosystem processes : mineral cycling, productivity and man's influence / 松戸閲覧室 call 471.5||E Freedman, W. 1989. Environmental ecology: the impacts of pollution and other stresses on ecosystem structure and function / 園芸 - 緑地植物学 call 466 Vitousek et al. 1997. Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494-499

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