Presentation on theme: "Chp 10: Human Geography of Latin America A Blending of Cultures."— Presentation transcript:
Chp 10: Human Geography of Latin America A Blending of Cultures
Take Five…Finish the diagram—which countries (regions—make up Latin America) Latin America
Mexico--History Native American groups (1200 AD) Toltecs, Mayans, Aztecs, etc Spanish conquest Hernan Corte’s (1521) Stealing the Aztec gold Independence from Spain (1821) Agustin de Iturbide
Hernan Cortes v Chief Montezuma
Take Five…Remembering the Columbus Exchange… What can you infer about the Latin American relationship (regarding the Columbus Exchange) from your knowledge of the Exchange in North America?
Mexico—Government (Current) Problem with land distribution Wide gaps between rich and poor Civil war Diaz vs. Madero, Villa & Zapata PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) Controlled government for 71 years Executive (6 yr term), Bicameral legislature, judiciary Nation Action Party (2000) Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa
Lasting implications of Spanish/Mexican interactions Language Customs Catholic church Mestizo Population Encomiendas systems Architecture & art
Mexico-Economy Traditional agricultural economy Tourism Struggling industrial economy Movement to cities Oil Manufacturing (North) Maquiladoras Assemble imported materials into finished products NAFTA—reduces (eliminates) tariffs
Take Five… Use your textbook (pg 220) to complete the Skillbuilder questions.
Challenges facing Mexico Today Lack of jobs, education and land force people to emigrate Illegal drug markets
Central America Central America is an isthmus between North and South America Mayan Empire Spread across entire region Military alliance and trade Abandonment and decline Spanish conquest United Provinces of Central America (1823) 1830’s: El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala & Honduras (Panama, Belize)
The Caribbean Natives Taino Settled by numerous European countries Prosperous Sugar Cane (RUM) Imported African labor Slave revolt (Haiti 1790s)
Take Five… Use your textbook (pg 224) to complete the Skillbuilder questions.
Caribbean--Culture Strong European and African influences Catholic, Protestant, Native Religions as well as Voodoo Music Reggae and Calypso Various languages Spanish, Dutch, English, French, Danish
Caribbean— Economy Sugar Cane Farming Bananas, citrus fruits, coffee and spices Trade Panama Canal Tourism Informal economy Street vendors, shoe shiners, other services
But why is the rum gone?
Take Five… What countries make up South America?
South America--History Natives Incan empire Ecuador to Argentina Cuzco Spanish conquest Francisco Pizarro Economic and political domination Native rebellion Simon Bolivar Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Bolivia Jose de San Martin Argentina, Chile and Peru
South America--Government Regional political instability Military dictatorships Oligarchies Underdevelopment Social class differences
South American--Culture Strong Spanish heritage Literature, art and music Celebration of South American independence Craftsmanship
South America—Challenges Education—literacy is important Free public education Higher education Political instability Military dictatorships Ex: General Pinochet
The Great Divide… The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Spain = West Portugal = East
Brazil--History Natives 1.5 million native peoples Portuguese conquest Sugar plantations Portuguese colony until 1822 Dom Pedro (son of Portugal’s King)
Brazil--Culture Blended cultures: native, European & African Largest Catholic population in the world Protestant as well as native religions
Brazil--Economy One of the most industrialized countries in Latin America Tourism Abundant natural resources Mining Agriculture Steel Automobile mfg. Ethanol from sugar cane rather than fuel
Brazilian Push/Pull factors Migration to the cities Migration to the interior
Take Five… What common challenges do all areas of Latin America face?
Chp 11: Today’s Issues: Latin America Social class differences Most people are illiterate Most people cannot find jobs Most people live in the slums Poverty Ex: 45% of Brazilians are impoverished $2.00 per day
Destroying our Rain Forest Resources Why do we care? Rainforest vegetation helps to clean the earth’s atmosphere Rainforest is home to numerous plant and animal species 50 million acres destroyed every year
Destroying our Rain Forest Resources Why is the rainforest being destroyed? Timber—mahogany and cedar Cutting down the rainforest leads to erosion Livestock has been introduced into the rainforest area ½ the Amazon rainforest is located in Brazil Population growth Development of communities
Take Five… Use your textbook to complete the Skillbuilder questions on pg 245
Results of Rainforest Destruction? Deforestation—long term damaging effects Global warming—rainforests help to regulate the earth’s climate Absorbs carbon dioxide and produces oxygen Slash and burn creates carbon dioxide Endangering plant and animal species Endangering medical research
Discussion of rainforest resources… Will “debt-for-nature-swap” work?
Political instability Oligarchies, Juntas and Caudillos Seeking democratic reform Constitutional government Free elections Need for education and prosperity Seeking land ownership reform Breaking up large estates of wealthy-often corrupt political elite and giving land to the poor