2Notes:This presentation is mainly on the rose midge, but there are other important insect and mite pests of roses! In the past, Japanese beetle adult feeding has been a major problem on roses, and so have the sawflies called roseslugs, spider mites, the rose leafhopper, flower thrips and other pests.Over the last decade, rose midge has risen to the top of the tough-to-control pests of landscape roses. There ARE effective controls, but these controls require early treatments and/or diligence in making multiple applications at set intervals!
3Major Insects & Mites That Attack Roses in Ohio Rose Midge!RoseslugsRose LeafhopperJapanese Beetle AdultsSpider miteThripsCane Borers
4(Dasyneura rhodophaga) Rose Midge(Dasyneura rhodophaga)First described from New Jersey in 1894.Major glass house rose pest inTrue midge, related to gall midges and Hessian fly.Noted as a garden rose pest in 1915.
5Notes:The rose midge appears to be an imported species that was first detected and described in 1884 when it was attacking greenhouse roses in New Jersey. It continued to be a major greenhouse (then called glass houses) pest into the 1920s when USDA researchers developed effective controls.This pest is a midge in the family of midges that cause plant galls, are leafminers or cause other types of plant damage. The Hessian fly that attacks wheat is also in this group. Hessian fly larvae burrow down seedling wheat plants which cause them to fall over and not be able to produce seed.The rose midge was described as a garden rose pest in 1915 when it attacked garden roses in Ontario.
7Notes:Rose midge damage is often misdiagnosed as disease or other maladies. The larvae bury themselves deeply into the crevices at the bases of new leaf-shoots and flower buds. The larvae rasp and feed on the epidermal tissues. This can cause a distinctive curling of the growing shoots. Extensive feeding will eventually girdle the shoots and buds which causes them to wilt, droop and fall off. This is often mistaken for Botrytis fungal blight.
8Rose Midge Biology Eggs 0.3 mm long, take 2 days to hatch. Larvae 0.3 to 1.8 mm long, white to pinkish in color, take 5 to 10 days to mature.Pupae 1.6 mm long, in cocoon in soil, take 5 to 7 days to mature.Adults 1.0 to 1.25 mm long, yellowish with long legs and short antennae, live for 1 to 2 days.
9Notes:The biology of the rose midge was investigated by USDA entomologists at the turn of the last century. Under greenhouse conditions, the little midge can complete its development in two to three weeks. In landscapes, at cooler temperatures, the life cycle can take four to six weeks to complete. In Ohio, we suspect that there are three to four generations in a typical growing season.It is important to note that the mature larvae drop to the ground to pupate. The little pupae look like tiny sesame seeds but they are wrapped in a cocoon which can be covered by surrounding debris. Also note that the adults apparently don’t feed, but mate and lay eggs in one to two days!
11Notes:This is a copy of the illustration included in a 1909 USDA publication on the rose midge life stages. Note that this midge has a typical fly life cycle with egg, larval (maggot), pupal and adult stages. The larval stage is the only one that feeds and grows. The larvae undergo three molts or three instars. The larvae have tiny mouthparts that are used to rasp on the epidermis of the rose tissues. The macerated tissues are swallowed as food. As stated before, when mature, the larvae drop to the ground, spin an oval cocoon and then pupate. The pupa is the transformation stage whereby the entire body and internal organs are being transformed into those found in the adult. Female midges have a more pointed abdomen tip which can be extended to insert eggs into folds and crevices of developing buds.
13Notes:This is a close-up of a larva feeding at the base of an expanding bud. This larva was hidden under a leaf which has been pulled back. Notice the scar-like tissues which have been rasped away by the maggot!Heavily infested roses can have one to a half dozen larvae feeding at the base of a stem or bud shoot!
14Rose Midge Early Controls Layer of tobacco, inch deep, under roses! 1800s-1950sNightly fumigation with tobacco smoke! 1800s-1950sOrganochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates, etc s
15Notes:Before modern insecticides were developed (after World War II), tobacco powder was a commonly used insecticide. USDA researchers found that a layer of tobacco dust placed on top of the beds of greenhouse roses killed the larvae as they dropped out of the buds in search of soil in which to pupate. Tobacco smoke contains nicotine which is highly toxic to insects. Therefore, smoking the greenhouse by burning tobacco was another common technique!When synthetic, organic insecticides were developed, several were found to have long lasting residues when sprayed onto roses. Some of the organophosphates and carbamate insecticides also have systemic action which was also effective against the larvae. These are often sold as “Rose Systemic Granules.”
16(Oregon State Studies by Rose Midge(Oregon State Studies byRobin Rosetta)Compared imidacloprid G applied late February to cyfluthrin sprays at 2-week intervals (12 apps).
17Notes:While roses are popular plants, it is surprising that there are very few recent applied research projects evaluating modern insecticides for efficacy to control rose midge. One set of studies was performed by Dr. Robin Rosetta, an entomologist at Oregon State.In one study, she tried two approaches – a preventive approach using the systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid (=Merit, Bayer Advanced Tree and Shrub Systemic Insecticide, Bonide Systemic Insecticide and Fertilome Systemic Insecticide), and biweekly applications of a common pyrethroid, cyfluthrin.
19Notes:As you can see in the chart produced from Dr. Rosetta’s study, both the early application of the imidacloprid granules and the every-two-week applications of cyfluthrin were effective at keeping the rose midge in check!Other studies have also used imidacloprid and many have failed when the treatment is applied after the roses have fully emerged and rose midge damage is appearing! It appears that getting the imidacloprid into the plants early to knock out the first generation of rose midges is the key to success with this insecticide.
20(British Columbia, Contract Research Study by Janice Elmhirst) Rose Midge(British Columbia, Contract Research Study by Janice Elmhirst)Compared avermectin (Avid), permethrin (Doktor Doom) foliar spray and soil drench, lambda-cyhalothrin (Matador), and two biological controls – Steinernema feltae (a nematode) and Hypoaspis (a predatory mite).Avid, Doktor Doom (foliar) & Matador applied at 14-day intervalsDoktor Doom drench at monthlyBiocontrols released once
21Notes:Another study performed in British Columbia tested the systemic insecticide/miticide avermectin (Avid), two pyrethroids (permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) and a couple of biological controls (insect-parasitic nematodes and predatory mites). The insecticides were used as foliar sprays every two weeks and permethrin product was also applied to the mulch under the rose plants as a monthly drench.
23Notes:While all the insecticide treatments significantly reduced the midge numbers, it is obvious that the regular applications of the permethrin (both foliar and soil drenches) performed the best, followed by the foliar applications of the lambda-cyhalothrin. The biological controls were not good at controlling this midge!
24(BugDoc Perspectives) Rose Midge Controls(BugDoc Perspectives)Cultural ControlsGround covers, hand pick?Preventive InsecticidesImidacloprid (every month – not on label!)Dinotefuran (every month – label allows)Disulfoton (every days)?Azadirachtin (NeemAway)?Spinosad?Curative Insecticides (NOT!)
25Notes,After working with several local Ohio rose enthusiasts, I have found that there can be several programs that work quite well for control of the rose midge. For those wishing to avoid pesticide use, putting a plastic ground cover under rose plants will intercept the midge larvae when they finish feeding. If there is no way for these larvae to get to the soil in order to spin their cocoons and pupate, they will soon die! Others claim that daily inspection of the plants and quick removal of any buds showing symptoms of midge damage can greatly reduce the midge populations. If nearby rose plants are not being managed well, there is always a chance that the midges will regularly fly in and begin a new infestation! Fortunately, the midges are quite delicate and probably don’t normally fly more than 50 to 100 feet.
26Notes (cont’d):The neonicotinoid insecticides provide good control of rose midge, but early treatments are essential for season-long success! The soil drench (pull back the mulch so that the bases of the plants are exposed) is one of the easiest methods to apply these pesticides. Granular formulations are also available, but again, be sure to apply the granules to the soil surrounding the rose plants, NOT the mulch! Imidacloprid is not very soluble and takes a week to 10 days to achieve active levels in the plant. I recommend applications start when there is 1.5 to 2.0 inches of green showing in the spring! This is pretty early! Dinotefuran (Safari & Green Light systemic insecticide with Safari) is highly water soluble and moves much more rapidly in plants. Again early applications are important for success. Most imidacloprid labels only allow one application in a season, while dinotefuran labels allow several. To be most effective, dinotefuran seems to work best when applied during flushes of new growth (about every 30 to 40 days). Older products, like the rose systemic granules that contain Disulfoton, can also be effective if applied TO THE ROOTS every two to three weeks. Some web blogs are also suggesting that the botanical insecticide, azadiractin, and the microbial insecticide, spinosad, can be effective if used on a regular basis.
27RoseslugsRoseslugCurled roseslugBristly roseslugAll are SAWFLIES
28Notes:Roseslugs are not slugs (mollusks related to snails) at all, but the caterpillar-like larvae of sawflies. Sawflies are actually in the same order as bees and wasps! Ohio has three species of roseslugs, all of which can cause significant damage to rose foliage! Fortunately, these pests are easily treated, both preventively and curatively.
30Notes:Usually, roseslugs are first detected when the larvae skeletonize leaves! The larvae eat the leaf epidermis and underlying spongy layer, but they leave the underlying layer of epidermis intact. This is sometimes called “windowpane” feeding. Even if you can’t find the larvae (which may have finished their development and dropped to the ground to pupate!), you can often determine which roseslug was present. The common roseslug feeds on the upper leaf surfaces while the bristly and curled roseslugs feed from the lower leaf surfaces. The roseslug and bristly roseslugs are the most common pests in Ohio. The curled roseslug is doubly damaging since the larvae prune small branch tips and burrow into the pith to pupate!
31Bristly roseslug (small larvae, right; large larva, below)
32Notes:The bristly roseslug feeds on leaf undersurfaces and when larger, they have distinctive spines over the body. The curled roseslug is similar in shape, but larger and with less distinctive spines. The bristly roseslug can have several generations per year, and their skeletoniztion of leaves is often mistaken for Japanese beetle feeding, especially in mid-season!
36Notes:Hand picking and crushing is always an option! However, if insecticides are used, remember that these insects are sawflies, not caterpillars. For this reason, the systemic neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid and dinotefuran) are very effective, either as drenches or foliar sprays. When these are used to manage rose midge, roseslugs are also controlled. The older rose systemic granules that contain disulfoton are also effective. Since these insects feed on rose foliage, all the foliar, stomach insecticides work quite well. Even horticultural oils and insecticidal soaps will kill these larvae if they are hit by the sprays.
37Flecking (spots) caused by rose leafhopper feeding. Leafhoppers are small, wedge-shaped insects that run sideways and jump if disturbed.
38Notes:The rose leafhopper is primarily a nuisance pest of roses. This wedge-shaped, white to light green insect feeds by piercing the foliage and removing cell contents. This produces a series of yellow to white speckles on the leaves. The nymphs and adults feed on the leaf undersurfaces and are easy to miss as they quickly run or jump and fly if disturbed. This pest often completes two generations per year, occasionally three. The adults that emerge late in the season insert eggs into canes which remain until the following spring. Therefore, pruning and destroying the canes in the early spring, before the eggs hatch can greatly reduce populations and spring damage. The adults are very capable of flight and will commonly reinfest plants during the summer months.
39Leafhopper Controls Trim back canes, keep out brambles Preventive InsecticidesImidaclopridDinotefuranDisulfotonCurative InsecticidesSevinDeltamethrinBifenthrinAzadirachtin (NeemAway)Spinosad
40Notes:As previously described, the systemic insecticides, imidacloprid, dinotefuran and disulfoton, can effectively knock out these insects if their residues are in the leaves when the leafhoppers begin to feed. Early applications are therefore recommended. The leafhopper nymphs and adults are also susceptible to many contact insecticides. These usually have to be applied to the leaf undersurfaces where the leafhoppers tend to reside.
42Notes:Without a doubt, one of the most devastating pests of roses in Ohio is the Japanese beetle! The adults relish dining of the soft, succulent rose flowers and they will also skeletonize the leaves. While there are some cultivars and flower colors that appear to be less preferred, when Japanese beetle populations are high, almost all plants will be attacked!
44Notes:Probably the most effective insecticide that has ever been used to control Japanese beetle adults is carbaryl (Sevin), the newer systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are pretty effective! Basically, these insecticides are not normally acutely toxic to the beetles (they don’t hit the ground twitching!). Instead, when the beetles nip a leaf containing one of the neonics, it stops feeding and just sits there! It appears that the beetles may actually die from sun exposure. Bottom line, there will be some minor leaf damage when using the neonics!For those wishing to use an organic insecticide, the azadirachtin (neem) often comes in certified organic formulations. These usually have to be applied every 10 to 14 days while the beetles are active.Traps only bring in more beetles and should be avoided.
46Notes:In Ohio, the twospotted spider mite is the most common mite pest. In more southern states, the southern red mite can be a major fall, winter and spring pest. The twospotted spider mite is a warm season mite which does best in warm, non-rainy conditions. Adult mites overwinter by hiding in protected places, especially in crack and crevices of landscape stones and timbers. They also do pretty well in the crevices of brick or stone siding when roses are grown next to a house or building!Twospotted spider mites actually don’t survive well in most of Ohio landscapes but they are commonly reintroduced each season when bedding plants are purchases and planted among rose plants!
48Notes:Unfortunately, there are NO good miticides contained in the common over-the-counter products! Several products claim spider mite control, but these usually increase the mite problems as they kill natural predators! Most of the true miticides are not “restricted use,” so you can purchase them without having to obtain a license. You will have to go to a commercial distributor and purchase a larger container than you probably want to buy!Twospotted spider mites are subjected to commercial miticides in greenhouses and in field crops! Because of this constant pressure, populations may be resistant to one or more categories of miticides. If you purchase a miticide and it doesn’t work, switch to another compound!Of interest is the fact that all mites are still susceptible to horticultural oils and insecticidal/miticidal soaps! These only work by contacting the mite body.
50Notes:Flower thrips are common pests of greenhouse and garden roses. Fortunately, they generally cause spotting or streaking of the rose flower petals and unless the roses are being grown for show, this streaking can be tolerated.Thrips are difficult to control because they have several stages that can easily avoid insecticide treatments! Eggs are inserted into leaf and stem tissues where they avoid surface insecticide (or soap and oil) applications. Upon hatching the first and second instar nymphs feed and grow. When the thrips molt the third time, they transform into a moving, but non-feeding stage, the prepupa! After a few days, this drops from the plant and forms an inactive pupa in the soil. This then gives rise to the adult thrips that are very efficient fliers!
51Thrips Controls Preventive Insecticides Imidacloprid Dinotefuran? DisulfotonCurative InsecticidesPyrethroids (10 to 14 day intervals)Azadirachtin (NeemAway)Spinosad
52Notes:In the past, contact insecticides were applied every few days in order to knock out the actively feeding nymphs and new adults emerging from the inactive pupae located in the soil under the plants. With systemic insecticides, the residues in the plants more effectively kill the feeding nymphs and adults. Unfortunately, flower thrips are major greenhouse pests and local populations can be resistant to some of the insecticides. If a systemic insecticide doesn’t work, switch to another compound. At present, spinosad products appear to be performing very well for thrips control.
54Notes:There are several nuisance bees that use roses for nesting and/or making nesting materials! One of the most obvious of these bees is the leafcutter bee. This black bee (about the same size as a honey bee) may have white bands on the abdomen and it collects pollen on the abdomen undersurface. This is a solitary bee that uses a pithy stem to build a brood nest. They also cut circles and ovals of leaves which are used to line their burrows. Basically, when a female bee finds a stem that has an approximate ¼-inch diameter pith area, she will chew out the pith to a dept of several inches to nearly a foot! Removal of pith can kill the stem! Once the burrow has been cleaned out, the bee cuts a circle and rams this down the burrow to serve as an end cap. She then cuts longer pieces which are used to line the sides of the burrow. Pollen and nectar are then collected and deposited in a chamber. Once completed, she lays an egg in the chamber, cuts another end cap and starts another cell. These bees, while important plant pollinators can damage roses through their leaf-cutting and pith removal!
56Notes:There are several other pith-nesting bees and wasps. Most provision nesting cells with pollen and/or nectar while some of the wasps capture other insects which are used as food for their larvae. The pith removal can cause the canes to die back prematurely and such canes are often more susceptible to winter damage.In Europe and Asia, home owners and farmers often hang bundles of bamboo (about 8 to 12 inches long) of various diameters (1/8-inch to 3/8-inch pith diameter) around the landscape. This encourages nesting of these bees and wasps in these locations. Unfortunately, this won’t stop the leafcutter bees from cutting out sections of leaf tissues, but can lessen the stem burrowing damage.
57Pith Borer Controls Wax cover cut tip Plug pith with match stick or toothpick!
58Notes:Rosarians have been pretty inventive at discouraging bees and wasps that like to nest in the pithy stems of roses!After pruning, simply drip candle wax over the cut end! Other growers use short sections of match sticks or toothpicks which are pushed into the pith. These harder woods are too difficult for the bees to remove and they will move to another area.