Presentation on theme: "Introduction to delivering career development through group work Presented by – Date – “No man is an island, entire of itself.” John Donne."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to delivering career development through group work Presented by – Date – “No man is an island, entire of itself.” John Donne
Aim and objectives Aim: To develop an understanding of how to develop effective facilitated group work to support career development Objectives: List the factors that impact on developing a successful group learning environment State why group work in both formal and informal settings is useful for career development Discuss the developmental stages of groups Discuss how you could support the development of effective groups within your CLC scheme
Introductions – us as a group? Work in groups of four. Introduce yourself to everyone and together decide if you are: A collection of four individuals A group Be prepared to feedback your findings supporting your decision and introducing everyone in the group. You have five minutes for this exercise.
What are they talking about? “It’s the worst part of any training or learning” “ I feel totally physically sick and never sleep the night before.” “I will do anything to get out of it – no matter what happens to me it’s better than doing that.” “I know I get quiet, my stomach cramps, I shake and on occasions I have fainted.” “ It’s really bad, I get a reputation for being a pain, but I just hate it – why do they all do it to us? We should get them to do it so they know what it feels like!”
Defining groups Research has shown that certain properties makes a collection of people more or less bonded: Interdependence Importance Interaction Size Duration Permeability Similarity Group structure Cohesions Nijstad (2009)
Why have groups? Learners working in effective groups: Improves learners intellectually – encourages articulation of ideas Develops: memory, comprehension, analysis, synthesis and evaluation Stimulates interest and motivation Develops communication skills Enhances social skills Develops confidence Develops skills for work Caters for variety of learning styles Adapted from “The Benefits of Group Study” Journal article by Kenneth C. Petress; Education, Vol. 124, 2004
Developing cohesiveness Form groups of three to five. Work with people who you do not know well. Discuss: How you as a group could enable your learners to develop a greater sense of ‘groupiness’ or cohesiveness and encourage the development of the skills and benefits we identified in the last exercise. You have ten minutes for this exercise. One member of your group will be asked to share your findings with another group and if your whole group is large enough the process will be repeated (World café style).
Cohesive groups You have to work in groups of 7/8. Your task is: To lower the cane, from shoulder height to knee height and return it to shoulder height, keeping the cane level, at all times. Your tutor will assess your performance. You have five minutes for this exercise. Rules: All members of the group must maintain contact with the cane at all times, while undertaking the task The cane must be held on upturned, flat, index fingers - no curling of fingers, slanting of hands / fingers etc. allowed Nothing can be added or taken away from the cane
Group development Five stages of developing cooperative learning groups : Forming: Collection of individuals coming together (possibly strangers) Storming: Getting to know each other; airing views Norming: Establish groups ‘rules’; cooperation Performing: Beginning to be an effective group; supportive and trusting Adjourning: Coming to an end; terminating – for a variety of valid reasons Tuckman and Jensen (1977)
Barriers to effective group work Work in pairs and consider two of the barriers we have identified as a group. What solutions might be effective to overcoming these barriers in the context of your role? Think through what could realistically be done in your own environments. And within the context of your CLC scheme. You have 10 minutes for this exercise.
Summary What affects group bonding and togetherness? What can CLCs do to develop these characteristics in the groups? What can be done to reduce student anxiety relating to introducing themselves to the group? Why have group work in learning (formal and informal)? What did you learn about group cohesiveness? What stages do groups go through? How can your CLC scheme develop effective career development groups through informal learning? Thank you for attending, please complete an evaluation form
References Johnson, D., W. & Johnson, R. (1989) Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company Johnson, D., W. & Johnson, F., P, (1991) Joining Together, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice –Hall International Johnson, D., W. & Johnson, R. & Holubec, E. (1990) Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the classroom 3 rd ed., Edina, MN: Interaction Books Nijstad, B., A. (2009), Group Performance New York: Psychology Press Petress, K., C. “The Benefits of Group Study,” Education, Vol. 124, 2004 Atherton J S (2011) Teaching and Learning; Group Development [On-line: UK] retrieved 27 October 2011 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/group_development.htm Tuckman, Bruce W., & Jensen, Mary Ann C. (1977). 'Stages of small group development revisited', Group and Organizational Studies, 2, 419- 427.
Introduction to delivering career development through group work: extension activities Presented by – Date –
Group development Seven stages of developing cooperative learning groups : Defining and structuring procedures, becoming orientated Conforming to procedures and getting acquainted Recognizing mutuality and building trust Rebelling and differentiating Committing and taking ownership of goals, procedures and other members Functioning maturely and productively Terminating Johnson, D.,W. & Johnson, F., P. (1991) adapted model from Tuckman (1965)
Barriers to effective group work Work in pairs and offer two solutions to the two barriers we have identified. Think through what could realistically be done in your own environments and within the context of your CLC scheme. Be creative: idea storm, think of what should not be done first, go through the letters of the alphabet for ideas, use mind maps etc. You have 10 minutes for this exercise.