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Biorrefinarias: Máquinas de Produção de Energia e Armazenamento Geológico de Carbono Paulo Seleghim Jr.

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Presentation on theme: "Biorrefinarias: Máquinas de Produção de Energia e Armazenamento Geológico de Carbono Paulo Seleghim Jr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biorrefinarias: Máquinas de Produção de Energia e Armazenamento Geológico de Carbono Paulo Seleghim Jr.

2 2 The problem...

3 3 Power to sustain our life processes Power to support our lifestyle 2500 cal/day 120 W 90 W 2000 W 500 EJ/year 2300 W 7 billion people industry + agriculture(28% = ) transportation sector(27%  ) services + residences(36%  ) Energy use by humankind

4 Typical sugarcane mill Non-renewable Carbon based economy CO 2 energy chemical compounds petroleum

5 Typical sugarcane mill Fossil carbon based economy

6 6 The solution...

7 Typical sugarcane mill Renewable neutral carbon based economy energy biochemical compounds CO 2

8 Typical sugarcane mill Fossil carbon based economy

9 Typical sugarcane mill Fossil carbon based economy Already engenders tremendous socio- economic impacts on… HUMAN CONDITION !

10 Typical sugarcane mill Renewable negative carbon based economy energy -  biochemical compounds CO 2 CO 2

11 Typical sugarcane mill Fossil carbon based economy

12 Typical sugarcane mill Fossil carbon based economy

13 13 Case Study: Sugarcane in Brazil: Industrial Reference Unit

14 $ plantation external limit (r) filed operations cost ~ r 3 economies of scale ~r 2 viability limit Typical sugarcane mill state of São Paulo Agriculture / Industry equilibrium Typical sugarcane mill Agro-Industrial Reference Unit – Processing Scales 30 kha 500 tsc/h lower viability limit

15 15 Agricultural production + Logistics + Industrial Processing 20 – 40 kha sunlightwaterCO 2 sugar (35 t/h) ethanol (42 m 3 /h) electricity (50 MW) solids 1-10 t/h vinasse 500 m 3 /h CO 2 2 t/h harvesting 500 t/h field op. water 1000 t/h nutrients (1 ton/h) 200 MUS$ Agro-Industrial Reference Unit – Processing Scales

16 16 Carbon capture and storage  Fermentation: 2 tCO 2 /h  Bagasse and straw combustion: 89 tCO 2 /h Potential CO 2 capture for a reference sugarcane mill Annual CO 2 capture and storage by the sugarcane sector  One mill: 0.43 MtCO 2 /year  Number of mills: 450 average proc. rate 500tsc/h  Annual CCS: 292 MtCO 2 /year Annual CO 2 Brazilian emissions  ~ 400 MtCo 2 /year

17 17 Case Study: Sugarcane in Brazil: Conversion pathways

18 dewatering water molasses mechanical processing juice extraction cooking crystallization juice fermentation sugar centrifugation wine distillation boiler and turbines sugar cane 500 tc/h ethanol m 3 /h juice bagasse 150 t/h sugar 0-65 t/h CO 2 2 t/h vinasse 500 m 3 /h electricity MW straw

19 dewatering water molasses mechanical processing juice extraction cooking crystallization juice fermentation sugar centrifugation wine distillation boiler and turbines sugar cane 500 tc/h ethanol m 3 /h juice bagasse 150 t/h sugar 0-65 t/h fermentable sugars bagasse pre-treatment cellulose hydrolization NFFs CO 2 2 t/h vinasse 500 m 3 /h electricity MW bagasse 150 t/h straw

20 dewatering water CO 2 2 t/h vinasse 500 m 3 /h molasses mechanical processing juice extraction cooking crystallization juice fermentation sugar centrifugation wine distillation boiler and turbines sugar cane 500 tc/h ethanol m 3 /h juice bagasse 150 t/h sugar 0-65 t/h fermentable sugars bagasse pre-treatment cellulose hydrolization NFFs photo- bioreactor extraction separation transes- terification biodiesel / chemicals broth glycerinnutrients water electricity MW bagasse 150 t/h straw

21 chemicals water dewatering water CO 2 2 t/h vinasse 500 m 3 /h molasses mechanical processing juice extraction cooking crystallization juice fermentation sugar centrifugation wine distillation boiler and turbines sugar cane 500 tc/h ethanol m 3 /h juice bagasse 150 t/h sugar 0-65 t/h fermentable sugars bagasse pre-treatment cellulose hydrolization NFFs anaerobic digestion electricity MW bagasse 150 t/h straw methane nutrients

22 dewatering water CO 2 2 t/h vinasse 500 m 3 /h molasses mechanical processing juice extraction cooking crystallization juice fermentation sugar centrifugation wine distillation Oxycombustion boiler and turbines sugar cane 500 tc/h electricity ~10 MW ethanol m 3 /h juice bagasse 150 t/h sugar 0-65 t/h fermentable sugars bagasse pre-treatment cellulose hydrolization NFFs CO 2 bagasse 150 t/h straw chemicals water anaerobic digestion methane nutrients

23 23 Production of supercritical CO2 from oxycombustion cyclone condenser economizer biomass boiler superheater power cycle evaporator N2N2 water supercritical CO 2 unit air CO 2 air separation unit oxyfuel boiler scCO 2 power O2O2

24 24 Temperature o C Entropy kJ/kg/ o C separação H 2 O pressão de injeção no reservatório

25 25

26 26 Carbon capture and storage

27 27 Carbon capture and storage

28 28 Carbon capture and storage

29 29 Carbon capture and storage

30 30 Carbon capture and storage  Oil and gas 2.5 Gt enough for 6 years  Saline aquifers 2000 Gt enough for 5000 years  Pre-salt ??? CO 2 storage capacity (CarbMap project) Sugarcane sector 292Mta, total Brazilian emissions 400Mta …

31 Example of commercial plants in operation Reference sugarcane mill: 0.43 MtCO 2 /year Global CCS Institute 2012, The Global Status of CCS: 2012

32 Example of commercial plants in operation Reference sugarcane mill: 0.43 MtCO 2 /year Global CCS Institute 2012, The Global Status of CCS: 2012

33 33 First feasibility studies: robust optimal operation

34 operating parameters Process optimization approach uniform random ethanol + electricity + scCO 2 characteristic distributions Inputs that miximize outputs How to set the control variables in order to increase probability of optimal conversion, given the variability of all uncontrolled variables ?

35 Process optimization approach Monte Carlo simulations (simplified example)

36 Process optimization approach  control variable stochastic variables  Monte Carlo simulations (simplified example)

37 Process optimization approach Modeling equations…

38 Simulation variables

39 39 Carbon capture and storage by a sugarcane mill Optimization approach – operation envelope

40 40 Carbon capture and storage by a sugarcane mill Optimization approach – operation envelope scCO 2

41 41 Carbon capture and storage by a sugarcane mill Optimization approach – operation envelope scCO 2

42 42 Processing pathways (hem. are fermented or burned) Conversion of sugarcane into ethanol and electricity

43 energy conservation limit

44 Process optimization approach control results: fiber + water contents More fiber and less water (53%) litigation: dewatering versus sc water content 13% to 25% fiber 70 %to 55% water

45 Process optimization approach burning x hydrolysis (hemicelluloses are burned) optimality Two optimal operating states 85% + 15% 15%t +o 85%

46 Process optimization approach burning x hydrolysis (hemicelluloses are fermented) Much more robust conversion process !

47 Process optimization approach more lignin, more hemicelluloses less cellulose fiber composition (hemicelluloses are burned)

48 Process optimization approach idem, slightly more robust process fiber composition (hemicelluloses are fermented)

49 49 sucrose/starch (+water) lignocellulosic fiber (-water) Industrial biorefineries evolution

50 50 1G+2G BRFs will evolve to 1G2G and possibly to 2G only BRFs at much higher processing scales…

51 Obrigado… Paulo Seleghim Jr.


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