Presentation on theme: "Molecular Evidence of Sugarcane Evolution and Domestication Rachel Jabaily and Maggie Koopman."— Presentation transcript:
Molecular Evidence of Sugarcane Evolution and Domestication Rachel Jabaily and Maggie Koopman
Poaceae: Andropogoneae: Saccarum officinarum x S.spontaneum
History of Sugar www.plantcultures.org Arabic “sukkar” and Sanskrit “sharkara” Originally cultivated in New Guinea (6000 BC), but crop mainly developed in India Traditionally used in Indian in religious ceremonies and to treat leprosy/gallstones. Referred to in Sanskrit texts from 600 BC. Chewed initially, then boiled for sweet water. Arab traders moved to Egypt and the Mediterranean. Major trading ports in Italy. Planted in the New World 15 years after Columbus
Sugar today Brazil, India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Mexico, Australia top producers 70% cane, 30% beet (but really, mostly HFCS)
Historical theories Role of S. barberi, S. sinense in cultivation Crossing between Saccharum and other genera? (Erianthus, Miscanthus, Sclerostacha, Narenga) Interspecific hybrid origin of S. officinarum
S. robustum S. officinarum S. barberi S. sinense S. spontaneum x S. edule Modern cultivars
S. officinarum (female)S. spontaneum (male) F1 High sugar cultivar Nobelization -occurred in the 19th century in Java and India from just a few initial clones
S. robustum, S. officinarum x8 S. spontaneum x10 (highly variable chromosome number)
“Sweet” questions How does the mode of crop reproduction (ie. Clonal vs. seed setting) contribute to the genetics of domestication? Does high ploidy number correspond to high sweetness? There seems to be a lack of data on “wild” populations of some of these species/cultivars. Does information on localities/amount confuse or help clarify the picture? How were researchers initially misled by morphology/flavenoid data and what other problems can high ploidy number create when trying to study the origin of crops? Do we know anything about the selection of S. robustum clones to produce S. officinarum?
Recent work Genome mapping with AFLP markers (Hoarau et al 2001) QTL analysis of cultivars (Hoarau et al 2002)
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