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Tuesday Lecture – Sugar Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7, 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Tuesday Lecture – Sugar Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7, 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tuesday Lecture – Sugar Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7, 8

2 Quiz

3 1. We use the name “potato” for two different food crops, the “Irish Potato” and the “Sweet Potato”. Which of these is a root and which is a stem? 2. What are the two major crops that serve as the source of sugar for people? 3. What plant is the topic of your plant project?

4 Sweets – A Plant Specialty

5 Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH 2 O

6 Sweets – A Plant Specialty Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH 2 O - many chemicals included in this category

7 Sweets – A Plant Specialty Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH 2 O - many chemicals included in this category Sugar – consumer – the specific sugar sucrose 2 units (disaccharide): glucose-fructose

8 Sweets – A Plant Specialty Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH 2 O - many chemicals included in this category Sugar – consumer – the specific sugar sucrose 2 units (disaccharide): glucose-fructose Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose

9 Sweets – A Plant Specialty Sugar – chemist = carbohydrate, formula CH 2 O - many chemicals included in this category Sugar – consumer – the specific sugar sucrose 2 units (disaccharide): glucose-fructose Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose Note – terminology can get confusing here – mixture of chemical and colloquial terms: Glucose = d-Glucose = Dextrose Fructose + Glucose - bee sugar (in honey); “inverted” sugar

10 Primary Plant Sources of Sugar Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum10%10 tons/hectare sugar yield

11 Primary Plant Sources of Sugar Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum10%10 tons/hectare Sugar Beet – Beta vulgaris 17% 7 tons/hectare sugar yield

12 Primary Plant Sources of Sugar Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum10%10 tons/hectare Sugar Beet – Beta vulgaris 17% 7 tons/hectare Sorghum – Sorghum bicolor Palm – Phoenix dactylifera sugar yield

13 Primary Plant Sources of Sugar Sugar Cane – Saccharum officinarum10%10 tons/hectare Sugar Beet – Beta vulgaris 17% 7 tons/hectare Sorghum – Sorghum bicolor Palm – Phoenix dactylifera Maple – Acer saccharum 8% (sap) sugar yield

14 Where Sugar is Produced

15 Sugar Cane Saccharum officinarum – member of Poaceae (Grass family) Native to: Polynesia

16 Harvesting Sugar Cane

17 Refining Sugar Cane 1. Cane solids are separated from juice 2. Juice is processed to concentrate sugar 3. Syrup is boiled and sugar is crystallized

18 Sugar Cane Products “Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there

19 Sugar Cane Products “Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there Sugar Types: - standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary)

20 Sugar Cane Products “Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there Sugar Types: - standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary) - ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar

21 Sugar Cane Products “Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there Sugar Types: - standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary) - ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar - crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes

22 Sugar Cane Products “Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there Sugar Types: - standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary) - ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar - crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes - crystals mixed with syrup from refining  brown sugar

23 Sugar Cane Products “Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there Sugar Types: - standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary) - ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar - crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes - crystals mixed with syrup from refining  brown sugar - crystals mixed with glucose  “blended” sugar (cheaper)

24 Sugar Cane Products “Raw” Sugar – shipped to country where used, further refined there Sugar Types: - standard crystals  “regular” sugar (crystal size can vary) - ground crystals (+ cornstarch)  powdered (confectioner’s) sugar - crystals “glued” with sugar syrup  sugar cubes - crystals mixed with syrup from refining  brown sugar - crystals mixed with glucose  “blended” sugar (cheaper) Byproducts: - Molasses - syrups of various types

25 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?)

26 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India

27 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia

28 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia 11 th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England)

29 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia 11 th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England) Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold ( $220/lb in England)

30 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia 11 th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England) Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold ( $220/lb in England) 1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies

31 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia 11 th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England) Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold ( $220/lb in England) 1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies 1700’s – American “Sugar Triangle” (sugar, rum, slaves)

32 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia 11 th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England) Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold ( $220/lb in England) 1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies 1700’s – American “Sugar Triangle” (sugar, rum, slaves) 1700’s – Sugar taxation  Revolution

33 Sugar Cane – History Sugar Cane – domesticated in New Guinea (?) 2992 B.C. – unrefined sugar being produced in India 642 A.D. – Arab-speaking peoples get sugar refining from Persia 11 th Century - Crusaders bring sugar to Europe (1099 in England) Medieval times – Sugar = White Gold ( $220/lb in England) 1493 – Columbus takes sugar cane to West Indies 1700’s – American “Sugar Triangle” (sugar, rum, slaves) 1700’s – Sugar taxation  Revolution 1800’s – Sugar beet provides competition in temperate areas Currently: sugar production subsidized, taxed, politicized

34 Napoleon Sweetens the Pot – Sugar Beet Beta vulgaris – Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot Family)

35 Sugar Beet Processing Lewistown, Idaho Sugar Factory, 1905 Caption to Photo: 10 year old boys can be very useful

36 Where Sugar is Produced

37 North American Sweetener Acer saccharum – Sugar Maple

38 Maple Syrup Sap is collected in early spring Sap is boiled in “sugar house” 40 gallons sap  1 gallon syrup

39 Glucose, Fructose - C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose glucose fructose fructose - “chair”

40 Glucose, Fructose - C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose glucose fructose fructose - “chair” Starch - amylose

41 Glucose, Fructose - C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose High Fructose Corn Syrup 1. Starch from Corn 2. Treat with alpha-amylase  oligosaccharides 3. Treat with glucoamylase  glucose 4. Treat with glucose isomerase  mixture of glucose and fructose 5. Enrichment, “back-blending” to produce final product glucose fructose fructose - “chair” Starch - amylose

42 Glucose, Fructose - C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose High Fructose Corn Syrup 1. Starch from Corn 2. Treat with alpha-amylase  oligosaccharides 3. Treat with glucoamylase  glucose 4. Treat with glucose isomerase  mixture of glucose and fructose 5. Enrichment, “back-blending” to produce final product glucose fructose fructose - “chair” Starch - amylose

43 Non-caloric Sweeteners from Plants Glycyrrhizin – from licorice root (Glycyrrhiza, a legume) - Used originally to make licorice candy - 30 x as sweet as table sugar - more than limited consumption has health effects - potential as an herbal medicine in anti-cancer treatments

44 Non-caloric Sweeteners from Plants Glycyrrhizin – from licorice root (Glycyrrhiza, a legume) - Used originally to make licorice candy - 30 x as sweet as table sugar - more than limited consumption has health effects - potential as an herbal medicine in anti-cancer treatments Stevia – from sweetleaf plant, Stevia - Widespread use in Japan - regulatory issues, starting to be used elsewhere

45 Non-caloric Sweeteners from Plants Glycyrrhizin – from licorice root (Glycyrrhiza, a legume) - Used originally to make licorice candy - 30 x as sweet as table sugar - more than limited consumption has health effects - potential as an herbal medicine in anti-cancer treatments Stevia – from sweetleaf plant, Stevia - Widespread use in Japan - regulatory issues, starting to be used elsewhere Miraculin – protein from miracle fruit, Synsepalum - Not sweet, but modifies taste receptors so foods are sweet

46 Tuesday March 8 – optional assignment. Due Tuesday March 22. Write a brief paragraph, using proper English grammar, that explains: What was the “Sugar Trade Triangle” - what were the major elements (both geographical and trading items)? How did it impact the history of the U.S.A.?


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