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Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-4 1 TRAINING Ropes & Rigging Techniques Goals of Training Training Rope SOP Essential Knots Rigging.

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Presentation on theme: "Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-4 1 TRAINING Ropes & Rigging Techniques Goals of Training Training Rope SOP Essential Knots Rigging."— Presentation transcript:

1 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume TRAINING Ropes & Rigging Techniques Goals of Training Training Rope SOP Essential Knots Rigging Basics Multi-Point Anchors Block & Tackle Systems Stokes Rigging SKED Stretcher Discussion Quiz Continuing Education Working Fire Training 04-4 Training Materials Click anywhere to view show in its entirety

2 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume I. Goals of Training Learning or refamiliarizing members with basic rope techniques Understanding how these techniques will work in real scenarios. Learning the tips and tricks that will make these techniques more effective.

3 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Central County Fire Rescue, St. Charles County, Missouri: Life safety ropes installed on the trucks are not used for any kind of training. Ropes used for training were originally ropes off the trucks that have been inspected and taken out of service due to irregularities found. These are still acceptable for training but not viable to be used as original rescue ropes. Training Rope S.O.P.

4 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Family of 8s –Figure 8 Stop-Knot Tie it on to the end of a rope so you don’t rappel off of it –Figure 8 Follow-Through Use a Stop-Knot and “follow it through” to make the knot; for tying around an anchor point –Double Loop Figure 8owline For tying objects Essential Knots

5 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Bowline –For tying objects Clove Hitch –For tying objects Munter Hitch –A running knot for controlling speed on safety lines Water Knot –For tying two ends of webbing together to get into a loop to maintain strength Essential Knots (cont.)

6 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Double Fisherman’s Knot –Used to hook two cords together to make an accessory cord for self-rescue Butterfly Knot –You take a three-way directional pulley and hook into both legs and the bend of the knot itself and pull in three different directions with out compromising the knot. Essential Knots (cont.) Keep your knots practiced! Perhaps once a week, run through all the knots. It takes about five minutes.

7 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Rig Ratios: –Pounds of pull yielded : Pounds of pull expended; that’s the mechanical advantage. See video clip. Horizontal Z-Rig: –For example a 3:1 gets three pounds of result for every pound of pull Block & Tackle: Rope Used: –For every foot pulled, you need four feet of rope available in system Rigging Basics Click for live video

8 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Compound or Stacked System: –You can stack Z-Rigs together which increases your mechanical advantage. –For example, stacking two 3:1 Z-rigs gives you a 9:1 system (multiply the two systems in the stack). Rigging Basics (cont.)

9 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Why stack? –a. Manpower advantages: stacking allows you to pull a lot more weight with very few personnel. Even a single person can pull hundreds of pounds. –b. Disadvantages: It takes many feet of rope to move the weight just inches. So if quantity of rope is a factor, that may determine which system you rig. Rigging Basics (cont.)

10 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Pre-Rigging: –Different departments pre-rig different systems. –A 4:1 is a good one to pre-rig because you can hang it vertically from a high-point anchor with a Stokes or piggyback it (hooking a system on to a main line) and use it horizontally with other systems for more advantage. Yet, a 4:1 is not so complicated that it gets tangled in the bag. Rigging Basics (cont.)

11 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Tensionless 4:1 wrap anchor –Don’t bend rescue rope back on itself tightly; it loses its efficiency. Keeping its curve as you wrap it will maintain its strength and the 4:1 safety ratio. –Wrap the rope around the anchor point that is four times bigger in diameter than the rope itself. No more than four passes around are needed. See video clip –Tie a Figure 8 knot with a carabiner and you have a very solid anchor point. Multiple Anchor Points Click for live video

12 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Two primary anchor points/one secondary –The idea is to set up two anchor points somewhat separate from each other, but connected. This can be done with one rope. –Both could be primaries and secondaries to the other. For example, one could be a rappel line and the other could be a backup, or vice-versa. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

13 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Two primary anchor points/one secondary –When using a single line for two anchor points, you want enough slack so that when you pull on one anchor, you don’t also pull on the other anchor. –On the other end, don’t leave too much slack between the two, so if one fails, there isn’t going to be too much “drop,” causing a big shock load as the slack gets taken out. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

14 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Two primary anchor points/one shared secondary –The same basic setup but each primary shares a secondary with a third anchor point in between the first two. –Note: Anytime you’re doing rappelling, you want a 9,000 lb. or 15:1 safety advantage. A rescuer/victim pair is considered to weigh 600 lbs., so at 15:1 that’s 9,000 lbs. Doubling over your rescue straps with two carabiners (rated at 5,000 lbs. each = 10,000 lbs.) gives you more than the 9,000 lb. rating you want. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

15 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Primary Anchor Redirectional Use this to avoid rope rubbing and friction caused by a rescuer and victim being hauled up at a point offset from the anchor point. Setting up a redirectional solves that problem. –Knots used: for the primary anchor use a Figure 8 and for the secondary, a Butterfly. –Set up the redirected anchor point exactly at the point where the load is. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

16 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Primary Anchor Redirectional –Use a piece of webbing and a pulley which will maintain the 4:1 safety ratio. The original anchor point is still the main one, but the load is redirected to compensate from the offset. –Note: When using webbing, maintain its safety ratio by looping and doubling it. Webbing alone end-to-end is rated at 4,000 lbs, doubled it’s 6,000 lbs. and looped and doubled it’s 12,000 lbs. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

17 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Load-Sharing Anchor Use this where you want extra security or aren’t sure your individual anchor points are strong enough. –Tie in two rescue ropes to your webbing anchors with a Figure 8. The rescuer can then clip the ropes to a carabiner or tie them together with a Butterfly, to which you can clip a ‘biner. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

18 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Load-Sharing Anchor –Don’t slide side-to-side across the anchor points because you are then overloading what might be weak or questionable anchor points (which is why we did load- sharing in the first place). –The 120-Degree Rule: Keep your anchor points spread no more than a 120-degree angle with the rescuer. See video clip. A 90-degree angle would be even better. If the angle gets too wide, the load-sharing aspect becomes minimized as more weight must be applied to get the required lift. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.) Click for live video

19 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Load-Distributing Anchor –If the rescuer can’t be directly between the anchor points, insert a load-distributing anchor point so the weight can be moved from side to side. –You can use webbing or a rope. The trick is to flip it so the webbing or rope has a cross in it and then clip your carabiner around the cross. This allows the ‘biner to slide along the line from side to side, with the load being distributed. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

20 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Multi-Point Distributing Anchor This will provide a multi-point distributing anchor system that will allow you to slide from side to side. It works best when the anchor points are fairly spread apart. –Insert a Double Loop Figure 8 and drag one of the loops a lot further out than the other. –Using a carabiner, clip the large loop to your three anchor points. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

21 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Multi-Point Distributing Anchor –Clip ‘biners from the rope between the outer and middle anchors to the small loop. –Pulleys can also be hooked to these ‘biners to make it work more smoothly. Multiple Anchor Points (cont.)

22 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques 3:1 System –Three lines going to your load, a haul line, and a hole- tender minding the Gibbs ascender which will catch the load. –To avoid congestion and bodies around the hole, use redirects (which add nothing to the system in terms of mechanical advantage) to lead the haul line away from the hole so the haul team can do their work removed from the hole. Block & Tackle Mechanical Advantage Systems

23 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques 4:1 System –Flip the system over and re-hang it; the extra line makes it a 4:1 system –Again, manpower and quantity of rope issues will help determine how extensive a system you should rig. Through various stacking, a 12:1 system is possible, but is it efficient or manageable? Block & Tackle Mechanical Advantage Systems

24 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques 4:1 System –Also as a reminder, many departments keep a pre- rigged 4:1 in a rope bag. It’s a good place to start when trading off the above issues with achieving work with a usable system. –For more on which system to use, click the video link. Block & Tackle Mechanical Advantage Systems Click for live video

25 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Diamond Lashing –Find the ends of the webbing and girth hitch it at the bottom of the Stokes around the patient’s feet. Either wrap the feet inside to out and strap them against the Stokes or outside to in and wrap the feet together. –Two people one each side of the Stokes feed the webbing around the posts of the Stokes frame and through the frame from one side to the other. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

26 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Diamond Lashing –Secure the webbing to the top of the Stokes with a clove hitch. Then go back to the bottom and pull all the slack out of the webbing and “snug” it up, ratcheting out the slack with the clove hitch. –When done, tie a safety after the clove hitch. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

27 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Horizontal Bridle System –Take four utility straps, two fully extended (and doubled over) at the top or head-end of the Stokes and two fully shortened end-to-end at the bottom. Carabiners are attached at each end. –All four are gathered together with either an anchor plate, rigging plate or a Tri-Link, if available. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

28 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Vertical Bridle System –Use 24-30’ rope. –Put a Figure 8 on a double loop or a carabiner. Wrap the rope twice around the Stokes frame. –Bring the rope down the outer rail on each side of the Stokes, wrapping it outside-in. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

29 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Vertical Bridle System –Wrap the rope twice around at the bottom and bring it across the patient’s shins from both sides, tying them together with a Square knot. The Square knot won’t take any of the weight. –The ropes running down the sides will distribute the weight; the basket will take the weight of the bridle when the Stokes is hung vertically by the Figure 8. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

30 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Safety Line –A safety line should be rigged with a length of rope and a Butterfly. –Ideally, the patient should be in a body harness which would be tied to the backboard in the Stokes. –The safety line is then secured to the main system and then continued down to the patient’s harness. This prevents against failure of the haul system or the diamond lashing. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

31 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Safety Line –In an emergency situation, the Standard says a safety line is not essential; however, if time allows, it should be employed every time. In training, it should ALWAYS be used. –Click the video to learn more about safety. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical Click for live video

32 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Tag Line System Two lines are attached to the Stokes so the basket can be controlled as it is raised and lowered; the Stokes can be pulled out over outcroppings, ledges, etc. and kept from spinning. –Tie two Figure 8 knots in the same rope with sufficient slack between the knots. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

33 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Tag Line System –Clip carabiners through the knot loops to the frame support of the Stokes. –Handlers can then guide the Stokes by the tag lines as it is raised or lowered. Stokes Rigging: Horizontal & Vertical

34 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques A SKED is unique in that it will support a patient without using a fixed frame construction to do it. This produces a more compact, “papoose”-like unit once the patient is packaged. However, it doesn’t allow horizontal lifting like a Stokes will. When unrolling the SKED; it will want to curl up on itself. Take the memory out of the plastic by rolling it the opposite way. Put a backboard in the SKED under the patient. SKED Stretcher for Vertical Raise

35 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques Take the SKED straps and lash them from one side to the other. Position the patient so his shoulders are even with the grommets at the head end of the SKED. Take the bridle rope that comes with the SKED and run it through the holes at the top of the SKED and thread it down through the holes along the sides, inserting three loops between the holes as you go. SKED Stretcher for Vertical Raise

36 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques As with the Stokes, bring the ends of the rope together across the shins and secure with a Square knot. You then hook a haul line and a safety to the patient and lift vertically. SKED Stretcher for Vertical Raise

37 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Department Discussion The department involved in this month’s training pose some discussion questions that you can use as discussion-starters in your own department’s training sessions. How will your department handle these scenarios?

38 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Department Discussion “Do you and your fellow members practice knot-tying on a regular basis? It’s a good thing to practice; you don’t want to be on a response and have to get out the manual to remember how to tie a knot when time is precious.” - Captain Brad Peters Central County Fire Rescue, St. Charles County, Missouri

39 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Department Discussion “Does your department have the appropriate equipment and hardware to affect successful rescues? This would include the ropes, carabiners, rigging plates, etc. that are necessary.” - Captain Brad Peters Central County Fire Rescue, St. Charles County, Missouri

40 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Department Discussion “How does your department handle rescues? Do you partner with mutual aid companies? Does one department serve as the rescue unit for the others? - Captain Brad Peters Central County Fire Rescue, St. Charles County, Missouri

41 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Department Discussion “Is your department or mutual aid departments involved in any kind of task force for mass- casualty or rescue response? If not, how do you handle such responses? Do you think such a thing is a good idea? - Captain Brad Peters Central County Fire Rescue, St. Charles County, Missouri

42 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques: Quiz Date__________________ Firefighter________________ Chief/T.O.______________ Education Credits _________ Select the best answer: 1. True or False: Keeping a 3:1 or 4:1 system pre-rigged in a bag is a real time-saver in the event of an incident. 2. True or False: Because of its incredible mechanical advantage, a 12:1 system should be uses as often as possible. 3. True or False: Rappelling is not a preferred form of rescue deployment.

43 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques: Quiz Select the best answer: 4. Multiple Choice: Which of the following is the LEAST important for anchor distribution and loading? a. 120-degree rule b. Gibbs ascender c. Crossed webbing d. Tensionless 4:1 wrap e. None of the above

44 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Ropes & Rigging Techniques: Quiz Select the best answer: 5. Multiple Choice: Which of the following regarding rigging methods are correct and in the right order? a. Backboard patient - Diamond-lash patient - Bring rope down, wrapping it around Stokes frame, then securing it across patient’s shins with a square knot - Haul patient vertically b. Backboard patient - Unload and retrain SKED - Secure rope across patient’s windpipe for security - Haul patient horizontally c. Backboard patient - Diamond-lash patient - Gather utility straps to rigging plate - Haul patient horizontally d. Backboard patient - Attach tag lines to stretcher - Gather utility straps to Tri-Link - Haul patient diagonally e. Two of the above f. None of the above (Answers on Slide 47)

45 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Continuing Education Kramer vs. Kramer: Rope & Rigging Techniques Complete written responses to the following three essay questions: 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a county-wide task force for specialized rescue? 2. Describe how specialized rescue is conducted in your county or your area and list any changes you would recommend. 3. As a rule, do you feel that a county-wide task force for a specialty function is effective? Why or why not? …CONT. If you’re enrolled in the Open Learning Fire Service Program at the University of Cincinnati, here’s your opportunity this month to earn one college credit hour for watching Working Fire Training.

46 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Continuing Education ENROLLMENT INFORMATION: For more information on enrolling in the Open Learning program to gain college credit, call Fire at for a brochure or, to register directly, call the University of Cincinnati at Associates and Bachelors programs are available. Call to have your transcripts evaluated. Send your responses to: Mr. Bill Kramer University of Cincinnati College of Applied Science 2220 Victory Parkway, ML #103 Cincinnati, Ohio 45206

47 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume Training Materials TRAINING Thanks so much for viewing Working Fire Training! See you next month – stay safe! Answers to quiz on Slides 42-44: 1. True 2. False 3. True 4. b. 5. e.


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