3What is Phonics? Knowledge of the alphabetic code (26 letters, 44 phonemes, 140 different letter combinations)Understanding of the skills of segmenting and blending
4Phonics Quiz 1. What is a phoneme? 2. How many phonemes are in the word‘strap’?3. a) What is a digraph? b) Give an example4. a) What is a CVC? b) Give an example5. a) What is a ‘trigraph’? b) Give an example6. Write down at least four different ways of representing ‘ee’
5A phoneme is the smallest unit of Some definitionsPhonemeA phoneme is the smallest unit ofsound in a word
6Letter(s) representing a phoneme GraphemeLetter(s) representing a phonemet ai igh
7Digraph Two letters, which make one sound A consonant digraph contains two consonantssh ck th llA vowel digraph contains at least one vowel also known as a long vowel phonemeai ee ar oy
8TrigraphThree letters, which make one sound igh dge
9Split digraphA digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent (e.g. make)a_e e_e i_eo_e u_e
10Consonant digraphsll ss ff zz hill puff fizz sh ch th wh ship chat thin ck ng qu x fox sing quick
11Adjacent consonants Formally known as blends Letter combinations where each letter makes an individual phonemesp st sk sltr ft nt ltmp un lp drcl sw cr sme.g. step list clap grasp strap
12SegmentingIdentifying the individual sounds in a spoken word (e.g. h-i-m) and writing down or manipulating letters for each sound to form the word ‘him’
13BlendingHearing a series of spoken sounds and merging them together to make a spoken word – no text is used For example, when a teacher calls out b-u-s’, the children say ‘bus’
14Enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation Phonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely
15EnunciationMost consonants should be pronounced in a continuous manner ssssssss, mmmmmAll phonemes need to be said with care so that they do not become distorted e.g muhSome phonemes need to be said in the short form /c/ /t/ /p/ /b/ /d/ /g/Phonemes should be supported by symbols and actions (Jolly Phonics)
16How many phonemes?Can you count the phonemes in each of these words. dog like shell tie portrait cloud
17Segmenting Activity Segment the following words pin child press drink threecroaklight
18Segmenting Activity pin p i n child ch l d press r e ss drink k three croakcoalightight
19Phonics in school Taught everyday for 20 minutes. Year One and Two are set across the whole key stage.EYFS are set into groups within their year group from October half term.Phonics is taught in phases from phase 1 to 6Expectations:EYFS phase 3Year One phase 5Year Two phase 6
20Phase 1 Environmental sounds Instrumental sounds Body percussion Rhythm and RhymeAlliterationVoice soundsOral blending and segmenting
21Phase 2 Sounds are introduced in sets Set 1: s a t p Set 2: i n m d Set 3: g o c kSet 4: ck e u rSet 5: h b f ff l ll ss
22Phase 3 Letter progression and graphemes continued Set 6: j v w x Set 7: y z zz quSet 8: ch sh th ngTeach: ai ee igh oa oo ar or ur ow oi ear air ure er
23Phase 4The main challenge in this phase is to help children to blend and segment words with adjacent consonants e.g. truck, help.These adjacent consonant phonemes can both be heard when you say the word which makes them different from a digraph where there are two letters that make just one sound.Be careful, lots of people get these confused, including some published materials.Children with speech and language difficulties can find Phase 4 very tricky. If children struggle to hear all the sounds in a word encourage them to think about the movements that their mouths are making. Looking in mirrors can help with this.
24Phase 5New split digraphs are introduced they are a_e, e_e, i_e, o_e, u_e.Introduction of alternative pronunciation e.g. the ch grapheme can be pronounced in each of these ways check, chef and school.This is a vital lesson for children to learn and they need to learn to apply it in their reading.This can be quite a jump for some children to make as they have to realise that English isn't quite as straightforward as it once seemed. However, it can also be quite empowering to know that just because a word doesn't make sense first time, it doesn't mean that they can't go back and figure it out for themselves.
25Phase 5This part of Phase 5 is all about learning that some phonemes have more than one spelling (in fact some of the really awkward ones have loads of different spellings) e.g. ee, ea, ey, e, i, ie, yIn the past, some people have thrown in the towel with phonics at this point and decided that there is no point in teaching it as there is no rhyme and reason to how these phonemes are spelled. The fact is that there is much more rhyme and reason to which spelling we use for these phonemes then most people are aware of. Certainly we can teach children how to make the best guesses when spelling these phonemes. They aren't always infallible but it leaves children with far fewer 'tricky' spellings that they have to just learn in other ways. It is important that children try to discover these rules by themselves by playing investigative type games and looking for patterns.
26Phase 6Phase 6 reinforces much of the learning from Phase 5, helps children to develop greater fluency in reading, and begins to explore spelling rules and conventions e.g.Adding -ing and –edPluralsTenses
27Phonics Screening Check Completed over the course of one week in June.All Year one children will be checked and any children in Year 2 that didn’t meet the required level in Year 1.Consists of 40 words which the children have to blend and read.Last year 83% of our children met the required level and we are hoping this year to increase this to 90%.You will all receive a letter nearer to the time explaining the check in more detail.
29The Power of Reading!Reading is one of the most important skills your child will learn in their early years.There can be few better ways to improve pupils chances in school, or beyond in the wider world than to enable them to become truly independent readers.
30Reading requires two skills UnderstandingThe ability to understand the meaning of the words and sentences in a text.The ability to understand the ideas, information and themes in a text.If a child understands what they hear, they will understand the same information when they read.Phonics and Word RecognitionThe ability to recognise words presented in and out of context.The ability to blend letter sounds (phonemes) together to read words.
31Understanding (Comprehension) Being able to read does not mean you understand what you read.Your child might sound like a good reader but may not necessarily understand what the text means.The best way to develop understanding is to talk about texts.The next slide is easy to read – does anyone understand what it means?
32An extract taken from a computer manual According to the previous ATA/IDE hard drive transfer protocol, the signalling way to send data was in synchronous strobe mode by using the rising edge of the strobe signal. The faster strobe rate increases EMI, which cannot be eliminated by the standard 40-pin cable used by ATA and ultra ATA.
33Understanding (Comprehension) Finding information on the page.Being able to find information that is not on the page. Looking for cluesThinking about situations and predicting what might happen.Putting yourself in a character’s shoes and understanding what is going on from their viewpoint.Book talk to make your child think.
34Talking about books Do you like this book; why? Who is your favourite character?Tell me about a character in the book.Which words tell you what the character is like?How would you feel?What do you think will happen next?What would you do?What have you learned about …… in your book?What can you tell me about…?
35Reading in school Shared reading Guided reading Independent reading Introduction of new texts during literacy and across the curriculumGuided readingOne session with class teacher and one session with TA per weekIndependent readingOnce a week with class teacher or TAFocused reading activitiesActivities during guided reading, literacy based group workReading across the curriculumFor example – reading diary entries for history, weather reports for geography etc.Class novels and storiesA variety of novels and stories read to the class at the end of the day
36Reading at homeMake sure reading is enjoyable! It shouldn’t seem like a chore that they need to get out of the way.Point out and share print that is all around us: street signs, labels, posters, newspapers, recipes, comics etc.Involve your child in writing – cards, shopping lists, notes, s, thank you letters etc.Play sound games like ‘I Spy’Have books available in your homeTalk about booksMake use of the library – it now has longer opening hours!
37What to do if your child is stuck? Use phonics first. What sound does the word begin with? Can you say the sounds in the word? Blend them together.Read to the end of the sentence. What would make sense?What is the text about – what might fit here?If your child reads the word incorrectly, ask them if it sounds right?Look at the picture. Does it help?
38Hearing your child read Choose a quiet time and give your child your full attentionGive support if required using the strategies explained earlierExplain the meaning of new wordsTalk about the text by asking questionsSit and listen - don’t do chores around the reader!A good quality read may only be reading five pages of the book each evening if the above are done well.If your child is reading one of the higher stages then try not to read the whole book in one evening, spend time talking about what they have read.
39Reading to your children Introduce your children to different types of books; classic fiction, chapter books, magazines, joke books, poetry, non-fiction, newspapers.Read them the book that was your favourite when you were a child.Read slowly, with expression. Try to use different and funny voices for characters.Follow the words and read the story using the pictures.Talk about what is happening and what might happen next.Leave the story on a cliffhanger!
40Reading RecordsMake sure you tell us where they read up to so we know how much of the story they should be able to retell.It is useful for us to know of any words that your child may have found tricky as we can check this when we read with them.Limit comments to two boxes in the reading record.
41Please support your child and make the learning fun! Golden RulesMake reading a pleasurePraise your child’s effortsTalk about the picturesUse phonics as the prime approach to reading new wordsTalk about what might happen in the storyStop when they have had enoughBring stories to life with lots of expression and silly voicesPlease support your child and make the learning fun!