Keep these in mind! Essential Questions What are the foundations of economic theories? Why do nations adopt different economic policies? How do individuals gain and maintain power?
Russia in WWI 1.How did WWI show Russia’s economic weaknesses? – Not enough food, appropriate armaments, or reliable roads to supply the army – Russian people lose confidence in their government and the czar (Nicholas II) by 1917 Thought Tickler? – What were the people of Russia looking for?
Struggle for New Leadership: Russian Revolution 2. The Russia monarchy served for 350 years. When Czar Nicholas II and his family fled out of fear, what two groups of people starting fighting for power? – Mensheviks (moderates) – Bolsheviks (radical) 3. Which group eventually won and what was their winning slogan? – Bolsheviks, “peace, bread, and land”
Results of the Russian Revolution 4. Who was the leader of the winners of the Russian Revolution? Whose ideas was he inspired by? – Vladimir Lenin-Karl Marx 5. What did the Bolsheviks rename themselves in 1918? – The Communist Party
Communists Flex their Muscles 6. What drastic step did the communists take in July of 1918 to stop the monarchy from coming back to power? – Executed the imprisoned czar and his entire family 7. What broke out for three years in Russia? What were the two armies of this conflict? – civil war, Reds vs Whites 8. Who did the U.S. (the Allies) support in this civil war? Who eventually won anyway in 1921? – U.S. supported the Whites with arms, money, troops – The Communist won
A New Russia 9. What did the Communists change the name of the country to in 1922? – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) – Better known as the Soviet Union
“Workers of the world, unite!” 1. What was “War Communism”? – Policy of nationalizing Russian industries between 1918-1921 a. Did it help? NO!!! Less grain and far less factory production than before war
2. How did the New Economic Policy change Russia? – Major industries (heavy industry, communications, transportation, credit) still under government control – Some free enterprise allowed, especially with farm products – Farmers encouraged to produce more to become kulaks (wealthier people who got to employ others) – Small businessmen (Nepmen) traded some 3. What is a collective farm? – Land pooled into large farms where people worked together as a group, sharing supplies, machinery, etc.
Women 4. How did women’s roles change during the start of the Communist reign? – More equality (army, etc.) – Women could get maternity leave – Easier to obtain divorce (which was unusual in Europe at the time) – However, few women had high-ranking positions, pay was unequal, female unemployment higher
Education 5. How did education change during the start of the Communist reign? – Greater emphasis on education – Goal was to increase literacy, teach socialism, train tech workers through Vo-Tech schools (BCIT, anyone?) – But didn’t work because of limited funds (pencils, notebooks, heat in winter) – Also, greater emphasis on higher education over elementary education – By 1925, Soviet students averaged fewer than 3 years in school
Trotsky and Stalin 6. Contrast the views of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. – Trotsky believed that for socialism to succeed, revolution should take place all over the world – Stalin believed that for socialism to succeed, the Soviet Union needed to serve as a model a. Who ended up taking control of the Soviet Union, and why? – Stalin won an internal power struggle, took over in 1928 (Lenin had died in 1924) b. What happened to the other guy? – Trotsky was exiled, later murdered in Mexico on Stalin’s orders
Under Stalin 7. Did Stalin increase or decrease government control over the economy? Why? – Increased (he thought economy was not growing quick enough, peasants weren’t charging gov’t-recommended low prices on wheat) – Created a command economy, in which government controlled all economic decisions
Under Stalin 8. What was Stalin’s Five-Year Plan, and how did it affect Soviet life? – Plan for economic growth and industry; collective farming would produce enough food for Soviets plus enough to export, which would pay for modern machinery, which would grow industry – Government forced collective farms (execution, exile, prison were possible alternatives) – Decreased agricultural production; millions died of famine and crop failure – However, economy grew overall (especially steel production) – Second five-year plan gave more gov’t control, more focus on industry, less on goods for people (not rewarded for good economy)
Religion and Art 9. How did religion and art in the Soviet Union change during Stalin’s rule? – Soviets discouraged worship, seized property of Orthodox Church – Churches and synagogues destroyed or converted to public buildings – Ministers, priests, rabbis imprisoned, executed – Artists, musicians, writers were censored… ordered to produce works of “socialist realism” to prove loyalty to state
Dealing with the Opposition 10. How did Stalin react when an important Communist Party official was assassinated in 1934? – He ordered purge of party members who were supposedly disloyal to him – This spread to army, and then ordinary people
Dealing with the Opposition 11. How many people were arrested, imported, imprisoned in labor camps or executed by 1939? – 5 million – "The investigators began to use force on me, a sick 65-year-old man. I was made to lie face down and beaten on the soles of my feet and my spine with a rubber strap... For the next few days, when those parts of my legs were covered with extensive internal hemorrhaging, they again beat the red-blue-and-yellow bruises with the strap and the pain was so intense that it felt as if boiling water was being poured on these sensitive areas. I howled and wept from the pain. I incriminated myself in the hope that by telling them lies I could end the ordeal. When I lay down on the cot and fell asleep, after 18 hours of interrogation, in order to go back in an hour's time for more, I was woken up by my own groaning and because I was jerking about like a patient in the last stages of typhoid fever." – a theatre director accused of “spying”
Foreign Policy and Gulags 12. How did the Soviet Union’s foreign policy change during the 1920s and 1930s? – They tried to get other countries to accept them – However, they also supported Comintern, which was founded to spread revolutions throughout the world 13. What were gulags, and why were people sent there? – Labor camps, many in Siberia, for those who spoke out against Stalin’s rule – Had to work in mines, on building projects, many died, others executed
Answers please! Essential Questions What are the foundations of economic theories? Why do nations adopt different economic policies? How do individuals gain and maintain power?