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The Four Families of Instruments

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Presentation on theme: "The Four Families of Instruments"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Four Families of Instruments
Woodwinds, Brass, Strings, Percussion

2 Flute Oboe Clarinet Bassoon
Woodwind Family Flute Oboe Clarinet Bassoon Click link above to listen to the timbre of the Woodwind instruments (listening test over the woodwind family of instruments following this section of the power point!)

3 The flute~ What are the parts?
How It's Made The body of the flute is a long cylinder that is divided into three sections: the headjoint, the body, and the foot joint. On these three sections you will find 16 tone holes that are covered by fingers and key pads when played. (click link above to watch 8 min. youtube video on the Native American Flute (story of Charles LittleLeaf)

4 A painting from the Middle Ages, 1340 of right held flutes
The flute The Flute is a member of the woodwind section of the orchestra. Only the piccolo, a member of the flute family, plays higher. The flute produces a sound that is light, clear and penetrating on its highest notes. A flute player may be referred to as a flautist or a flutist. History The transverse (side-blown) flutes can be seen in paintings and manuscripts that date back as far as the 14th century, though most flutes were played like the recorder, blowing air in from the end. By about the 15th century the transverse flute had become quite popular and by 1847 the modern orchestral flute had reached its present form. Click link above to watch/hear Claude Bolings, ‘Javanaise’ featuring computer graphics by Romero Caldinin (6 min. )

5 Fun Fact The Flute (continued)
The hyperbass flute is the biggest member of the flute family. It is pitched in C, and plays four octaves lower than the standard symphonic flute. The hyperbass flute tubing is over 8 meters long. Its lowest note is one C lower than the lowest C on the piano - lower than what scientists consider the range of human hearing!

6 The Oboe Fun Fact The oboe is featured in "Across the Stars" from John Williams film score to Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones. Sonya, the Duck is portrayed by an ‘OBOE’ in the Orchestral composition including narration written by Prokofiev for Children’s Theatre titled, “Peter and the Wolf”. Peter is portrayed by the Strings The Bird is portrayed by a flute The Cat is portrayed by the Clarinet Grandpa is portrayed by the Bassoon The Wolf is portrayed by the French Horn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ot7m9i70JDg Click link above to hear and watch the intro. To Peter and the Wolf (7 min.)

7 The Clarinet Click link above to listen to opening passage to jazz concerto: “Rhapsody in Blue” by George Gershwin (1 min.30 sec) Fun Facts One of the most popular symphonic clarinet solos is the one in George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue. The opening for Gershwin's 'jazz concerto' features the clarinet ascending from a low note to a high note followed by a melody. During the rehearsal of the piece for the premier performance in 1924, the clarinet soloist decided it would be funny to glissando (slide) up to the high note rather than play the written chromatic scale notes. Gershwin liked it so much that it has been played that way ever since! The clarinet sometimes is referred to a licorice whip.

8 The Bassoon Fun Facts The bassoon has 7 feet of tubing, while the contrabassoon has a whopping 16 feet! If instrument builders hadn't decided to "fold" the tubing, you would have to stand on a very tall ladder to play the contrabassoon - but then how would you reach the keys? Click link above to hear ‘Bad Romance’ played by a Bassoon Quartet (5 min.)

9 Listening Test Over Woodwinds
Get Out your Quiz sheet for the this listening quiz. Listen carefully, and choose which instrument you hear in the correct order. Your choices are listed below: FLUTE OBOE CLARINET BASSOON Click link above to access instruments for the listening test Click link to watch, disney’s Peter and the Wolf” after you take your quiz! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ot7m9i70JDg (13 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7UmxNInkqc (8 minutes)

10 Trumpet French Horn Trombone Tuba
The Brass Family Trumpet French Horn Trombone Tuba Click link above to listen to the timbre of the Brass instruments (listening test over the brass family of instruments following this section of the power point!) Picture of Miles Davis, Famous jazz trumpet player

11 The Trumpet Fun Fact The trumpet was known to be used in the medieval era for war and pagentry. It could be heard over the noise of battle, therefore, it was used for signaling. Trumpets are made of brass, a metal made of copper and zinc. Both of these metals are found in vitamins. This means that during your life you may eat an entire trumpet - and it would be good for you! Trumpets can play 45 notes! They are played by buzzing softer and faster as well as changing the positions of the buttons. Click link above to hear: “Fanfare for the common Man” by Aaron Copland slideshow with Grand Canyon (3 min.)

12 The French Horn Fun Fact French horns are made of brass, a metal made of copper and zinc. Both of these metals are found in vitamins. This means that during your life you may eat an entire french horn - and it would be good for you! The Horn comes from a long tradition of instruments first used in ancient China, Egypt, and Scandinavia. In the 1600’s, the French Horn was used in the English royal mounted hunt. The horn became a regular member of the orchestra during the 1700’s.

13 Click link above to hear the song, 76 Trombones written by Meredith Wilson (3 min. ) The Trombone Fun Facts Beethoven was the first composer to write a trombone part for a symphony. He included one in his Fifth Symphony. The German name for Trombone is ‘sackbut’ which means push and pull. In Mason City, Iowa, hometown of Meredith Wilson (who wrote the musical 'The Music Man' and its famous song "Seventy-Six Trombones"), is a building called Music Man Square that has 76 Trombones hanging from the ceiling in one room

14 The Tuba Fun Fact Tubas are the largest and lowest of the brass instruments. The first Friday in May is known as ‘International Tuba Day” An orchestra typically has one to three tubas in it (they are LOUD!) Very little music is written to feature a tuba soloist. The tuba is made of brass, a metal made of copper and zinc. Both of these metals are found in vitamins. This means that during your life you may eat an entire tuba - and it would be good for you!

15 Listening Test Over Brass Instruments
Get Out your Quiz sheet for this section of the listening quiz. Listen carefully, and choose which instrument you hear in the correct order. Your choices are listed below: Directions: On your quiz sheet, write down the instrument that you hear in the correct order, (ex. If you think the first instrument you hear is a TUBA, then write ‘TUBA’ beside number ‘1’ on your sheet. TRUMPET FRENCH HORN TROMBONE TUBA Click link above to access instruments for listening test

16 Violin Viola Cello Double Bass Harp
The String Family Violin Viola Cello Double Bass Harp Click link above to listen to the timbre of the String instruments (listening test over the string family of instruments following this section of the power point!)

17 The Violin Fun Fact On May 16, 2006, Christie's, a London auction house, auctioned a Stradivarius called The Hammer for a record $3,544,000. It is the most anyone has ever paid at public auction for a musical instrument. It is said that unlike the Lady Tennant, sold for $2,000,000, the Hammer was made after 1700, during Stradivari's "golden period", when he is believed to have made his finest instruments. Of more than 1100 instruments Stradivari is believed to have made, only about 620 survive. "These are the finest violins in the world and there is a finite number of them.”

18 Songs that feature the strings/viola:
The Viola FUN FACTS Jimi Hendrix’s first instrument he played was the viola. Velvet Underground features the viola because one of the members, John Cale was a trained violist. The Viola reads in the ‘Alto Clef’ or the C clef since the symbol centers around the C line. Songs that feature the strings/viola: Velvet Underground: “Stephanie Says” The Verve, “Bittersweet Symphony” Listen to hear ‘Firework’ played by a Violaist (viola soloist)

19 The Cello Fun Fact A cello made in 1707 by Matteo Goffriller of Venice, sold at auction on April 22, 2005 for $620,800, a new record for Goffriller's instruments. Click link above to hear STRINGS featured in Regina Spektor’s song , “US” (4 min.) ONLY IF TIME PERMITS

20 The String Bass FUN FACTS !
Of the four main members of the orchestra's string section, the string bass, or double bass, is the largest and deepest in sound. The electric bass guitar is a popular modern version of the same instrument. Mrs. Smith’s husband, Steve Smith is an Electric Bass guitar player! Click link above to hear Steve play a bass solo at an outdoor festival!

21 The Harp Fun Facts If you are a beginning harp student Harpsicle Harp Co. may have just the harp for you! The company's brightly colored Harpsicles are affordable and lots of fun! These little harps come in a variety of "flavors," including blue (blueberry), red (cherry), purple (grape), black (licorice), pink (bubble gum), white (marshmallow), dark green, gold, silver, and natural wood finish. Made in the USA by the Harpsicle Harp Co., these simple harps are well designed, sturdily built, and lightweight. They have a great sound for a small harp, and their light tension makes them easy to play.

22 Listening Test Over Strings
Get Out your Quiz sheet for this section of the listening quiz. Listen carefully, and choose which instrument you hear in the correct order. Your choices are listed below: VIOLIN VIOLA CELLO THE STRING BASS HARP Directions: On your quiz sheet, write down the instrument that you hear in the correct order, (ex. If you think the first instrument you hear is a CELLO, then write ‘CELLO’ beside number ‘1’ on your sheet. Click link above to access instruments for listening test

23 Chimes Snare Drum Timpani Xylophone Glockenspiel Cymbal Bass Drum
The Percussion Family Click link above to listen to the timbre of the Percussion instruments (listening test over the percussion family of instruments following this section of the power point!) Chimes Snare Drum Timpani Xylophone Glockenspiel Cymbal Bass Drum

24 Chimes Fun Fact In 1950, NBC filed with the U. S. Patent Office to make their three note chime tune a registered audible service mark. It was the first time a 'tune' was filed with that office. The following is the record from the Patent Office: Serial Number : Type of Mark: SERVICE MARK Mark Drawing Code: (6) NO DRAWING Description of Mark: THE MARK COMPRISES A SEQUENCE OF CHIME-LIKE MUSICAL NOTES WHICH ARE IN THE KEY OF C AND SOUNDED THE NOTES G, E, C, THE "G" BEING THE ONE JUST BELOW MIDDLE C, THE "E" THE ONE JUST ABOVE MIDDLE C, AND THE "C" BEING MIDDLE C, THEREBY TO IDENTIFY APPLICANT'S BROADCAST SERVICE. Owner Name: NATIONAL BROADCASTING COMPANY, INC., The Owner Address: 30 ROCKEFELLER PLAZA NEW YORK, NEW YORK CORPORATION DELAWARE The NBC chime tune was discontinued in 1971 and then returned in 1976 on the anniversary of the network's 50th year in broadcasting. Click link above to hear the patented NBC chime trademark

25 Snare Drum The earliest known snare drum was the medieval drum called tabor. It was used to call in a war between tribes or communities or to announce the arrival of a famous personality in the tribe or community. The snare drum is a percussion instrument used in musical styles from classical to pop. It takes its name from the metal wires stretched across the bottom head, and it has a piercing "snap" sound. The snare drum is sometimes called a "side drum," as it was originally worn by soldiers on a strap under the left arm. It can also be placed on a stand, either on its own or as part of a drum kit. Birch and oak are also a much preferred wood material for making snare drums. Songs that feature the snare drum: ‘50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon “The Ballade of the Green Beret” by Johnny Cash “Mercenary” by the Go-Gos “Cherub Rock” by the Smashing Pumpkins “Seven Nation Army” the White Stripes Click to hear the ‘Ballade of the Green Beret”

26 Timpani FUN FACTS!! Classical Era composer, Johann Karl Fischer once wrote a symphony for 8 timpani and orchestra which required the timpani player to play eight drums at the same time! Groups that featured the Timpani: The Beatles, Led Zepelin’s, “The Immigrant Song” (1st song that used Electronic Timpani) , Queen, The Beach Boys, Emerson Lake and Palmer Click to hear Fischer’s, “Symphony for 8 Timpani, III, Allegretto”

27 Songs that use xylophone:
Fun Fact The sounds of Fred Flintstone's twinkling toes at the bowling alley aren't made by his toes... they're made by a xylophone! Songs that use xylophone: ‘Wake Me Up When September Ends” by Green Day “Born to Run” by Bruce Springsteen “I will Follow You” by U2 “Little Wing” by Jimi Hendrix “Moonlight Feels Right” by Starbuck “Under My Thumb” by Rolling Stones “Africa” by Toto Click to hear the sound of the Xylophone, used to symbolize Fred’s toes when he bowls! Click link above to listen to ‘Under My Thumb’ by The Rolling Stones

28 Glockenspiel The glockenspiel is German for 'bells that are played' Songs that utilized the glockenspiel in the recording: The Beatles song, “Only A Northern Song” The Black Crowes song, “Gone” Radio Head song, “No Surprises” One of the most famous glockenspiels is located in Munich, Germany. Built at the beginning of the 19th century, the glockenspiel clock is the largest in Germany. The carillon has 43 bells which together weigh in excess of 2,800 lbs. The glockenspiel celebrates two different events from Munich’s past. One scene shows barrelmakers, or coopers, dancing in memory of the end of the black plague in 1517, and the other scene is jousting knights re-enacting a tournament that took place at Duke Wilhelm V’s royal wedding. During the summer the glockenspiel has become a “must-see” tourist attraction with hundreds of visitors waiting to see the shows. Click link above to listen to the Glockenspiel bells in Munich, Germany (4 min. 35 sec)

29 Cymbal Fun Fact In the year 1623, Avedis Zildjian, an Armenian alchemist in the city of Constantinople, in his attempt to create gold from a combination of copper, tin and traces of silver, found instead a new metal alloy with unique sound qualities. The secret blend of Zildjian's celebrated cymbals remains the same today as it was four centuries ago. Click link above to watch video of how Cymbals are made!

30 The Keyboard Family The Piano
Click link above to hear a Piano piece written and played for 2 pianos, and 16 hands. How many people would be playing? 2 pianos~ 16 hands The Piano The Spinet…the smallest piano at inches high The Console…40-43 inches high The Studio Piano…45-48 inches high. Upright Piano …50-60 inches high~what we have in the choir room! Petite Grand Piano…smallest of the grands at: 4 feet 5 inches to 4 feet 10 inches in size Baby Grand Piano…2nd in smallest of the grands at: 4 feet 11 inches to 5 feet 6 inches in size Parlor Grand Piano…5 feet 8 inches to 6 feet 1 inche in size Concert Grand Piano…largest of the grands at 9 feet in size

31 The Piano Fun Facts By the time a piano is put together it can be quite heavy. A Steinway Concert Grand can weigh up to 990 pounds. The largest piano built, the Fazioli F308, weighs in at a whopping 1520 pounds! The system described for building the rim of a grand piano was developed by Theodore Steinway in 1880. Piano playing is sometimes referred to as "tickling the ivories". They used to make the ivory keys from elephant tusks, until they became an endangered species. Click link above to watch video of: How pianos are made (10 min) Click link above to listen to Martin Vatter’s “Where is this Yearning Leading Me?” based on Max Erhmann’s poem, Desiderata”

32 Listening Test Over Percussion Instruments
Get Out your Quiz sheet for this section of the listening quiz. Listen carefully, and choose which instrument you hear in the correct order. Your choices are listed below: SNARE DRUM TIMPANI Bass Drum CYMBAL Directions: On your quiz sheet, write down the instrument that you hear in the correct order, (ex. If you think the first instrument you hear is a CYMBAL, then write ‘CYMBAL’ beside number ‘1’ on your sheet. Click link above to access instruments for listening test


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