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E NTREPRENEURSHIP WITH A SOCIAL PURPOSE David Cromwell & Libby Ludlow | UW Entrepreneurial Law Clinic All images appearing in this presentation are subject.

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Presentation on theme: "E NTREPRENEURSHIP WITH A SOCIAL PURPOSE David Cromwell & Libby Ludlow | UW Entrepreneurial Law Clinic All images appearing in this presentation are subject."— Presentation transcript:

1 E NTREPRENEURSHIP WITH A SOCIAL PURPOSE David Cromwell & Libby Ludlow | UW Entrepreneurial Law Clinic All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

2 This presentation is provided for your information only and is not intended to constitute professional advice as to any particular situation.

3 A GENDA The Possibility – Why entrepreneurship? The Idea – Assessing the opportunity The Name – Trademark considerations The Entity – Selecting, Forming, and Maintaining The Funding – Sourcing funding The People – Building a team The IP – Protecting intellectual property All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

4 T HE P OSSIBILITY : W HY E NTREPRENEURSHIP ? All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

5 Even more than usual, the world will need imaginative and insanely hardworking entrepreneurs. - The Economist All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

6 Social entrepreneurs recognize social problems and use entrepreneurial principles to organize, create and manage a venture to achieve social change. To be one takes courage, a keen mind and a big heart. - Sean Murphy All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

7 B UT, I T ’ S N OT FOR E VERYONE... Make a difference Set your own course Greater autonomy Live your passion P ERKS : Element of risk Long, hard hours Resources thin Resilience and perseverance All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

8 T HE I DEA : A SSESSING THE O PPORTUNITY All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

9 A SSESSING THE O PPORTUNITY What is the problem or need you are addressing? What is your “unique” solution? (product/service definition) Who will pay for it? (market definition) Why will they buy it/use it? (nature of the need) Who or what is the competition? (forms of competition) Why will customers/beneficiaries choose you? (advantage) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

10 A SSESSING THE O PPORTUNITY Can competitors copy your “uniqueness?” (barriers) How will you create demand? (marketing) How will you sell/distribute your solution? (channel) Can this business earn a profit/break even? (business/funding model) What kind of skills & experience is needed? (team) What are the major risks? (risk profile) Is the idea worth pursuing? All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

11 A SSESSING THE O PPORTUNITY But most importantly… Do you LOVE it??? All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

12 A case study… www.gozgirls.com All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

13 T HE N AME : T RADEMARK C ONSIDERATIONS All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

14 TM C ONSIDERATIONS – Y OU H AVE A N AME …B UT W HAT ’ S A T RADEMARK ? A word, name, symbol, or device used to indicate the source of the goods/services and to distinguish them from other goods/services. Examples: Apple, Wal-Mart, Tide, McDonald’s, “I’m lovin’ it,” the color brown for UPS, the designs of the Coke bottle and apple’s iPod, logos All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

15 TM C ONSIDERATIONS – S O, H OW D O Y OU E STABLISH A M ARK ? Start using the mark To Register, File an application: Federal registration (USPTO): http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/index.jsp http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/index.jsp State trademark registration (info on Secretary of State website) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

16 TM C ONSIDERATIONS – W HY S HOULD Y OU C ARE ? Advantages of Registering your Mark Not invincible, but: Public notice Presumption of validity Various venue and damages advantages So, from a business standpoint: Avoid cost of infringing another’s trademark Build brand Don’t underestimate sleeping at night…this is your baby All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

17 TM C ONSIDERATIONS – H ELPFUL H INTS Selecting a Registrable Name Don’t Copy Others: Search Google and also the USPTO database Are they close to yours? Sound, meaning, products/services… All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

18 TM C ONSIDERATIONS – H ELPFUL H INTS The More Original, the More Protection Generic = Bad Not registrable Example: “Ivory” ivory Descriptive = Pretty bad Only registrable if secondary meaning Example: “Tasty” bread Suggestive = Better Registrable Example: “Chicken of the Sea” Tuna Fanciful or Arbitrary = Very good Registrable Example: Apple computers (arbitrary), “Kodak” cameras (fanciful). All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

19 TM C ONSIDERATIONS – K NOW Y OUR R IGHTS Defenses for Alleged Infringement? Fair use Comparative advertising Case Study… All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

20 T HE E NTITY : S ELECTION All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

21 S ELECTING AN E NTITY - O VERVIEW Why form an entity? Overview of Options Available: Non-Profit 501(c)(3) Many, many others… For-Profit Partnership LLC L3C Co-op Corporation C Corp S Corp B Corp Social Purpose Corp All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

22 N ON -P ROFIT – I S IT THE R IGHT F IT ? Advantages Liability Protection Tax Exemption Halo Effect (Public Trust) Grants Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program (PSLF) Disadvantages No Private Inurement Assets Committed to Charitable Stream Tax Exemption Not Guaranteed Maintenance is Burdensome All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

23 N ON -P ROFITS – O PTIONS 501(c)(3) * Religious, educational, charitable, scientific, literary, testing for public safety, foster sports competition, or prevention of cruelty 501(c)(4) Civic Leagues, social welfare organizations, and local associations of employees 501(c)(5) Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations 501(c)(6) Business leagues, chambers of commerce, and real estate boards 501(c)(19) * Organization of past or present members of the armed forces And many more… (28 in total) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

24 N ON -P ROFITS – A H EAD ’ S U P 501(c)(3) Organized & operated exclusively for public benefit No private inurement No political and legislative activities Charitable contributions NO employment tax exemption (except 501(c)(3) is exempt from Unemployment Taxes) Unrelated Business Income (UBI) Board of Directors Raising funds All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

25 N ON -P ROFITS – R EAL Q UICK : THE C O -O P Increasingly popular…but what is it? Business owned and controlled by the people who use its services. Why use the structure? To provide greater benefits to the members, e.g., increasing individual income by increasing sources of supplies otherwise unavailable if members acted alone. How? Examine options under RCW Section 23B Examples: REI, Tillamook County Creamery Association (110 farmers) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

26 F OR -P ROFIT – I S IT THE R IGHT F IT ? One starting question: How are we funding the entity? If will need outside funding: Will the funding be “donations,” i.e., does the donor expect to receive a tax deduction? OR: Will the “investors” expect a return on their investment? Another Question: Do you expect to offer free or discount services? OR do you expect to have profits? Another Question: What is your exit strategy? If you have one, probably want to do a for-profit All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

27 F OR -P ROFITS – O PTIONS LLC Corporation C Corp or S Corp? Limited Partnerships, Limited Liability Partnerships, Limited Liability Limited Partnerships…and the list goes on All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

28 F OR -P ROFITS – O PTIONS So many entities, where do I start? One question: Again, how will I fund the entity? Will I need major funding (e.g., from angel or venture capital investors)? If yes, probably going to be a Delaware C Corp If not venture funding, LLCs often work Flexibility, pass through taxation. But, numerous tax considerations and other factors… Will the entity offer stock options or other equity to employees? (LLC less desirable) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

29 F OR P ROFITS – K EEPING Y OUR S OUL “Maximizing shareholder value” is a culture, not a legal rule: directors enjoy wide leeway Corporate Social Responsibility B Corp Certification L3C And… All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

30 S OMEWHERE IN B ETWEEN – S OCIAL P URPOSE C ORPORATIONS Just passed last spring, unique to Washington Requirement: create general social benefit Social benefit Environmental impact Employee welfare But not told what that has to be or how to achieve it Idea: give businesses flexibility to prioritize other interests over shareholder profit Case study All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

31 T HE E NTITY : F ORMATION All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

32 F ORMING AN E NTITY – F ORMS & F ILINGS Charter Documents – File with Secretary of State Corp – Articles of Incorporation LLC – Certificate of Formation http://www.sos.wa.gov/corps/OnlineApplicationForms.aspx Master Business Application File with Department of Revenue http://dor.wa.gov/content/doingbusiness/registermybusiness/ Federal Employer Identification Number (EIN) Apply to the Internal Revenue Service http://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Small-Businesses-&-Self- Employed/Apply-for-an-Employer-Identification-Number-(EIN)-Online Local Business License File with municipality Corps & LLCs All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

33 F ORMING AN E NTITY – F ORMS & F ILINGS Charter Documents – Articles of Incorporation File with Secretary of State http://www.sos.wa.gov/_assets/corps/NonProfitArticles2010.pdf Master Business Application File with Department of Revenue http://dor.wa.gov/content/doingbusiness/registermybusiness/ Federal Employer Identification Number (EIN) Apply to the Internal Revenue Service – Form SS-4 http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/fss4.pdf Federal Tax-Exempt Status File with the Internal Revenue Service – Form 1023 http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/f1023.pdf Washington Charities Program Registration Register with the Charities Program to raise or collect contributions http://www.sos.wa.gov/charities/StartingaNewCharitableOrganization.aspx Local Business License File with municipality Non-Profit Corporation All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

34 T HE E NTITY : M AINTENANCE All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

35 M AINTAINING AN E NTITY Bylaws Organizational Meeting Record Book Initial Report Annual Report (LLC – “Renewal”) Taxes & Licenses Formalities to preserve limited liability: Stay appropriately capitalized Follow all legal formalities Don’t comingle assets Insurance Coverage Corporations & Non-Profits All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

36 T HE E NTITY – O THER C ONSIDERATIONS Shareholders agreement (for-profits) Board of Directors Liability Protection Insurance Website – Privacy Issues All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

37 T HE F UNDING : S OURCING F UNDING All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

38 S OURCING F UNDING – N ON -P ROFITS Non-Profit Funding Model Distinction between beneficiary and funder Two “businesses” Program activities & raising charitable subsidies Funding Types: Donors Individuals Foundations Corporate Mix Grants Fee-for-Service All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

39 S OURCING F UNDING – F OR -P ROFITS Boot-strap Loans Friends & Family Crowd-Funding Angel Investors Venture Capital All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

40 T HE P EOPLE : B UILDING A T EAM All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

41 B UILDING A T EAM Finding the right people Bringing people on: Partner Mentor Volunteers Independent Contractors Employees All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

42 B UILDING A T EAM – C ONTRACTOR VS. E MPLOYEE Incorrect classification of employees as contractors can result in penalties and back-taxes IRS Multi-Factor Test: Financial – pay, reimbursement, tools/supplies Behavioral – control over how work is done Business Relationship – nature of agreements Washington State Multi-Factor Test: Bringing own tools or equipment? Supervising, training, setting hours, assigning tasks? Do they have a separate business of their own? Supervision, location, UBI, business registration, paying taxes, keeping books All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

43 B UILDING A T EAM – F ORMS & F ILINGS Independent Contractors Contractors must fill out a Form W-9 Must file a Form 1099 for each contractor whose annual payments exceed $600 Employees Employee must fill out a Form W-4 Social Security and Medicare Taxes must be withheld & matched Must pay Federal Unemployment Tax (reported on federal return Form 941 or 944) Must complete a Form W-2 for each employee every year WA requires all businesses with employees to file reports with the Dept. of Labor & Industries Workers Compensation Employment Insurance All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

44 T HE IP: P ROTECTING I NTELLECTUAL P ROPERTY All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

45 IP – W HO K NOWS, W HO C ARES ? Many businesses founded on IP Basic knowledge of how law recognizes IP will help you as a business person maximize your IP and increase chances of business’s success All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

46 IP – I NTRODUCTION Four basic types For review, anybody know one? Also: copyright, trade secret and patent All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

47 C OPYRIGHT – W HAT IS COPYRIGHT ? A set of exclusive rights granted to the author of “an original work.” Requirements: Original Independently created Minimum level of creativity “Fixed in any tangible medium of expression” “sufficiently permanent or stable to permit it to be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated for a period of more than transitory duration” e.g., written down, recorded, saved to hard drive, live performance if fixed during transmission All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

48 C OPYRIGHT – E XAMPLES Literary works (fiction, nonfiction, computer programs) Works of visual arts (paintings, drawings, photographs, maps, architectural plans/works) Works of performing arts Motion pictures and other audiovisual works Sound recordings All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

49 C OPYRIGHT – W HAT WORKS ARE NOT PROTECTABLE ? Unfixed works Titles, names, short phrases, slogans (Trademark) Facts, idea, procedure, process, system, [method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery] (maybe Patent) Useful article All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

50 C OPYRIGHT – H OW TO O BTAIN C OPYRIGHT ? Copyright is secured automatically when the work is created, i.e., fixed/recorded in a tangible medium for the first time. Providing copyright notice [optional] © 1996 Jane Doe Copyright registration [optional] Application + filing fee Deposit of work being registered (damages advantages) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

51 C OPYRIGHT – P ROS AND C ONS Advantages Length (author’s life + 70 years) Cost: $35 to register (gives various advantages), but otherwise free Damages: potentially substantial Time (vs. Patent) Popular Disadvantages Just the expression, not the idea Can be “independently” created Investors might not be as impressed as with patent All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

52 T RADE S ECRET – W HAT IS A T RADE S ECRET ? Really Broad Information: Not generally known to the public Confers some sort of economic benefit on its holder Subject of reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

53 T RADE S ECRET – E XAMPLES Formula (e.g., recipe of Coca Cola) Pattern or compilation (e.g., customer lists) Program device, method, technique, or process, designs (e.g., business methods, business plans, business forecasts, blue prints, databases, etc.) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

54 T RADE S ECRET – H OW TO P ROTECT Establish a written confidentiality policy Marking documents Access control Monitoring use Non-disclosure (NDA) and confidentiality agreements Non-compete agreements All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

55 T RADE S ECRET – P ROS AND C ONS Advantages Cheaper (no filing/maintenance fees) Faster (instant) Longer protection (as long as it is kept secret) Disadvantages Weaker legal protection - no protection against reverse engineering and independent discovery Cannot use other forms of IP protection which require disclosure (patents, copyright) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

56 P ATENT – W HAT IS A P ATENT ? The grant of a property right to the inventor, issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office Right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention in the United States or "importing" the invention into the United States All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

57 P ATENT – T YPES OF P ATENTS Utility patents: invention or discovery of any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof (20 years) Design patents: invention of a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture (14 years) Plant patents: if you’re interested, ask me (14 years) All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

58 P ATENT – R EQUIREMENTS OF P ATENTABILITY Patentable subject matter: process (methods), machine, manufacture (articles made), or composition of matter (chemical compositions and compounds). NOT laws of nature, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas New Non-obvious All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

59 P ATENT – H OW TO O BTAIN A P ATENT Filing an application with the USPTO Typically with the help of a patent agent or patent attorney Start this process before or within a year of Selling your invention Talking about it in public etc. All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

60 P ATENT – P ROS AND C ONS OF P ATENTS Advantages: Strong legal protection against infringement Important to some investors Disadvantages: “Publishing” the patent Expensive: USPTO fees $6,000 + attorneys fees (low end) $5,000 Time-consuming Delay to grant (30 months) Keep trade secret protection in mind All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

61 RESOURCES: University of Washington UW Entrepreneurial Law Clinic - http://www.law.washington.edu/clinics/entrepreneurial/http://www.law.washington.edu/clinics/entrepreneurial/ Gates Public Service Law Program - http://www.law.washington.edu/GatesScholar/http://www.law.washington.edu/GatesScholar/ Buerk Center for Entrepreneurship - http://www.foster.washington.edu/centers/entrepreneurship Washington State WA Secretary of State - http://www.sos.wa.gov/corps/http://www.sos.wa.gov/corps/ WA Dept of Revenue - http://dor.wa.gov/http://dor.wa.gov/ WA Dept of Labor & Industries - http://www.lni.wa.gov/http://www.lni.wa.gov/ Washington Attorneys Assisting Community Organizations - http://www.waaco.org/http://www.waaco.org/ Federal IRS - http://www.irs.gov/ Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program - http://studentaid.ed.gov/sites/default/files/public-service-loan- forgiveness.pdf Business Resources Score (business mentoring and workshops) - http://www.score.org/http://www.score.org/ U.S. Small Business Administration - http://www.sba.gov/http://www.sba.gov/ Non-Profit Resources Alliance For Justice (education for nonprofits on how to maximize legislative advocacy) - http://www.afj.org/http://www.afj.org/ Funding Models - http://www.ssireview.org/articles/entry/ten_nonprofit_funding_models/ Legal Practical Law (form contracts, etc./free for students): http://www.practicallaw.comhttp://www.practicallaw.com USPTO Homepage (links to TM searches): http://www.uspto.gov/http://www.uspto.gov/ Patent Searches: https://www.google.com/?tbm=ptshttps://www.google.com/?tbm=pts All images appearing in this presentation are subject to copyright and remain the intellectual property of the respective owners. Use of such images is for educational purposes only. © 2013 UW ELC

62 Q UESTIONS ?


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