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© ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The RYA thank the publishers of the Macmillan Almanac and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office.

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Presentation on theme: "© ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The RYA thank the publishers of the Macmillan Almanac and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office."— Presentation transcript:

1 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The RYA thank the publishers of the Macmillan Almanac and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office for their kind permission to reprint some tables and diagrams contained in these slides. Slides compiled by Jan & Michael Collings of Longbow Sail Training and Alison Noice. COPYRIGHT The information contained in slides 29, 30, 31 and 79 of this product is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. It may not be sold, either whole or in part, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the Crown.

2 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 2 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME TEACHING SLIDES FOR THEORY COURSES

3 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 3 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME Competent Crew Day Skipper Coastal Skipper

4 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 4 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME Competent Crew Day Skipper Theory Day Skipper Coastal Skipper/Yachtmaster Offshore Theory Coastal Skipper Yachtmaster Ocean Theory

5 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 5 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME Competent Crew Day Skipper Theory Day Skipper Coastal Skipper/Yachtmaster Offshore Theory Coastal Skipper Coastal Skipper Exam Yachtmaster Offshore Exam Yachtmaster Ocean Theory Yachtmaster Ocean Exam

6 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 6 Clew Backstay Luff Tack Head Leech Foot Mainsail Genoa Working Jib Storm Jib Forestay Inner Forestay Boom Lower Shroud Spreader Cap Shroud SAILS AND RIGGING

7 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 7 SAILS AND RIGGING Furling Drum Mainsheet Furling Line Wind Indicator Kicking Strap Reefing Pennant Batten Topping Lift °°° ° ° ° ° Clew Outhaul Reefing Cringle Boom °

8 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 8 POINTS OF SAIL Broad Reach Dead Run Beam Reach Fine or Close Reach No Go Zone 90º 45º Close Hauled (Beating) WIND In Stays (In Irons) Running by The Lee STARBOARD TACK PORT TACK

9 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 9 TYPES OF ROPE Kevlar Polyester Polypropylene Nylon

10 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 10 SECURING TO A CLEAT

11 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 11 SECURING A COIL TO A CLEAT

12 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 12 COILING A ROPE

13 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 13 Sheet Bend Double Sheet Bend Bowline Figure of Eight KNOTS, BENDS & HITCHES

14 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 14 KNOTS, BENDS & HITCHES Rolling Hitch Clove Hitch Round Turn and 2 Half Hitches Reef Knot

15 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 15 MOTOR CRUISER

16 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 16 CRUISING YACHT

17 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 17 ANCHOR TERMINOLOGY Shank Stock Fid (to secure stock) Shank Crown Fluke Eye for tripping line

18 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 18 Fisherman & Can stow flat & Good on rock & Few moving parts & Poor power/weight ratio & Upstanding fluke can foul chain & Stock pin needs wire mousing & Easily folded & Best in weed & Useful in small craft & Poor power/weight ratio & Clumsy to handle & Can pinch fingers Grapnel

19 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 19 CQR & Good power/weight ratio & Plough digs into most types of ground & Forged steel very strong & Difficult to stow & Can capsize (but usually resets) & Can stow flat & Good holding in soft ground Danforth & Shingle can jam or trip & Not good on rock & Hard to break out of mud & Can catch fingers

20 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 20 & Excellent power/weight ratio & No moving parts to jam & Easy to break out & Difficult to stow except on bow roller & Not good on weedy or hard ground & Smaller sizes may not dig in easily Bruce & Sets fast and digs deep & Excellent power/weight ratio & Does not capsize & Can self-launch/free-fall from bow roller & Difficult to stow except on bow roller Delta

21 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 21 ANCHORING Strongest stream Heaviest anchor 40° Scope Chain - 4 x depth Warp - 6 x depth Anchors in tandem Running Moor

22 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 22 ANCHORING ! Tidal Stream Direction Speed Turn ! Wind Direction Speed ! Can you get away? In a crisis At night ! Type of Holding ! Be clear of Fairways Dangers Other anchored craft ! Depth Now LW HW ! Shelter Now Later

23 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 23 MOORING ALONGSIDE Bow Ropes Stern Rope Bow Shoreline Stern Shoreline Fore spring stops the boat going forwards Back spring stops the boat going backwards Fore Spring Back Spring

24 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 24 LATITUDE & LONGITUDE Longitude (from Greenwich) Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Equator Latitude Meridian Longitude Latitude x

25 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 25 CHART PROJECTIONS Longitude Latitude W N E S Used for Large Scale charts where meridians appear parallel Mercator Transverse Mercator

26 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 26 CHART PROJECTIONS Longitude Latitude Gnomonic

27 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 27 RHUMB LINE SAILING Great Circle Rhumb Line Mercator Projection Gnomonic Projection Great Circle Rhumb Line

28 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 28 CHART DESCRIPTION ENGLAND - SOUTH COAST MANACLE POINT TO BOLT HEAD DEPTHS IN METRES SCALE 1:150,000 at Lat 50  00 ´ Depths are in metres and are reduced to Chart Datum, which is approximately the level of Lowest Astronomical Tide. Heights are in metres. Underlined figures are drying heights above Chart Datum; all other heights are above Mean High Water Springs. Positions are referred to European Datum (1950). Navigational marks: IALA Maritime Buoyage System - Region A (Red to port). Projection: Mercator. Sources: The origin, scale, date and limits of the hydrographic information used to compile the chart are shown in the Source Data diagram.

29 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 29 COMPASS ROSE

30 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 30 TIDAL DIAMONDS & DATUMS Tidal streams referred to HW at PLYMOUTH 50°16’.90 N W C

31 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 31 TIDAL STREAM ATLAS 03,07 Thickness and length of arrow indicate rate of tidal stream 15,31

32 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 32 Tenths of a Knot COMPUTATION OF RATES Mean Range DOVER Neaps 6m 5m 4m 3m 2m Springs 7m Springs Neaps TIDAL STREAM RATE (in tenths of a knot)

33 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 33 HOURS RELATED TO HIGH WATER HW HW - 2 HW - 1½ hrs HW - 1 HW - ½ hr HW HW + ½ hr HW + 1 HW + 1½ hrs HW - 2½ hrs HW + 2½ hrs

34 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 34 DEAD RECKONING (DR) DR Deduced from Log and Compass Distance Run 6.2M Fix M Water Track 070°(T) + DR M

35 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 35 DEAD RECKONING (DR). Distance Run 6.2M DR Deduced from Log and Compass Fix M + Tidal Stream Estimated Position (No leeway) M Water Track 070°(T) DR M

36 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 36 DEAD RECKONING (DR) DR Deduced from Log and Compass Fix M DR M. Tidal Stream Distance Made Good 7.2M Estimated Position (No leeway) M Water Track 070°(T) Ground Track 090° (T) + Distance Run 6.2M

37 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 37 LEEWAY Wind Water Track = Heading + or - LEEWAY Course 070°(T) Not Plotted Water Track 075°(T) Course Plotted Leeway 5°

38 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 38 ESTIMATED POSITION WITH LEEWAY Wind Tidal Stream 075°(T) 5° 070°(T) 090°(T)

39 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 39 COURSE TO STEER (CTS) EP M Wind Tidal Stream 150°(T). Ground Track

40 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 40 COURSE TO STEER (CTS) EP M Tidal Stream 150°(T). Ground Track Wind

41 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 41 COURSE TO STEER (CTS) Ground Track EP M Tidal Stream Water Track Tidal Stream 150°(T). Wind

42 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 42 COURSE TO STEER (CTS) EP M Tidal Stream Allowance for Leeway 7° Tidal Stream 150°(T) Water Track. Ground Track Wind

43 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 43 ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL (ETA) Duration of Passage = 4.4 x 60min = 52min 5.1 ETA = = Ground Track M Distance to Destination 4.4M Distance Capability in 1 Hour 5.1M Tidal Stream 150° (T)

44 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 44 PLOTTING SYMBOLS OR 1945 OR 2006  DR (Dead reckoning) EP (Estimated position) Fix (Observed position) Position line Transferred position line Range / Distance off Depth contour line Water track Ground track Tidal stream

45 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 45 VARIATION Easterly Variations Westerly Variations Magnetic North Magnetic South T T M T M True North

46 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 46 MAGNETIC BEARINGS True North Magnetic North 63° 71° 8° 55° BEARING Magnetic Bearing 071° Variation 8°W True Bearing 063°

47 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 47 MAGNETIC BEARINGS True North Magnetic North 63° 71° 8° 55° BEARING Magnetic Bearing 071° Variation 8°W True Bearing 063° RELATIVE BEARING Boat's heading 305° (T) 55° W of N True Bearing 063° (T) Relative Bearing 118° to Starboard

48 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 48 DEVIATION ! Similar in application to variation ! Varies with boat's heading ! Need a current Deviation Chart for each fixed compass on board ! Not used with handbearing compass (but need to check for gross errors) ! Need to swing compass annually and check deviation occasionally

49 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 49 EFFECT OF COMPASS DEVIATION N S W E N S W E N S W E N S W E

50 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 50 COMPASS DEVIATION TABLE

51 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 51 APPLYING CORRECTIONS True Direction apply Deviation Magnetic Direction apply Variation Compass Direction

52 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 52 MNEMONICS NB Order and sign of corrections are important “Error West - Compass Best Error East - Compass Least” “Cadbury's Dairy Milk Very Tasty + Exciting (- W)”

53 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 53 DEVIATION CONVERSIONS Finding Course to Steer True Course (from chart) 060°(T) Variation (from chart) 9°W Magnetic Course 069°(M) Deviation (from table) 2°E Compass Course to Steer 067°(C) Finding Course to Plot Compass Course Steered 240°(C) Deviation (from table) 2° W Magnetic Course 238°(M) Variation (from chart) 8° W True Course (to plot on chart) 230°(T) 230° 240° 238° 060° 067° 069°

54 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 54 DEVIATION CHECK True North N S W E 305°(T) Transit bears: True 305° Variation 8°W Magnetic 313° Compass 308° DEVIATION 5°E 8° Magnetic North

55 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 55 POSITION AND POSITION LINES Position: 114°(T) from L/H 5M OR 52°55'N 05°40'W 294°(T) 114°(T) Give Position FROM object Take Fix TO object Position Line 5°40'W 52°55'N

56 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 56 POSITION FIXING THE THREE POINT FIX Perfect fix Cocked hat

57 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 57 POTENTIAL FIX INACCURACIES - 1

58 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 58 POTENTIAL FIX INACCURACIES - 2

59 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 59 TRANSITS Nearing transit On transit Past transit

60 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 60 FIX BY BEARING AND SOUNDING Fix 1115 Log Lighthouse bears 346 ° (T) Depth 20 Metres 20

61 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 61 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line +DR

62 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 62 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line Tidal Stream Water Track +DR

63 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 63 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line Tidal Stream Water Track +DR 2nd Position Line

64 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 64 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line Tidal Stream Water Track +DR Fix Transferred Position Line 2nd Position Line

65 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 65 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE. + DR 1st Position Line Water Track Tidal Stream

66 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 66 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE + DR 1st Position Line Water Track Tidal Stream 2nd Position Line

67 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 67 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE. + DR Water Track Tidal Stream Fix Transferred Position Line RUNNING FIX 2nd Position Line 1st Position Line

68 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 68 FIX BY DIPPING OR RISING LIGHT Eye Level 2 metres Height of light 20m Geographical Range Loom of light well below horizon

69 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 69 FIX BY DIPPING OR RISING LIGHT Eye Level 2 metres Geographical Range Height of light 20m Loom of light well below horizon Light just below horizon

70 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 70 FIX BY DIPPING OR RISING LIGHT Loom of light well below horizon Light just below horizonLight breaks horizon (Rising Distance) Eye Level 2 metres Geographical Range Height of light 20m

71 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 71 DIPPING DISTANCE TABLE metres feet feet Height of Eye Height of light

72 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 72 TIDES Earth Sun

73 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 73 TIDES Earth Sun Full Moon New Moon Springs

74 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 74 TIDES Earth Sun First Quarter Last Quarter Neaps

75 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 75 TIDE TABLE

76 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 76 TIDAL HEIGHTS - DEFINITIONS Height of tide Low Water Drying Height Depth Sea Level Charted Depth Chart Datum Rise

77 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 77 TIDAL HEIGHTS - DEFINITIONS MHWN MLWN Height of tide Drying Height Neap Range Charted Depth Rise Chart Datum

78 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 78 Spring Range TIDAL HEIGHTS - DEFINITIONS Height of tide Rise Chart Datum Drying Height MHWS MLWS Charted Height of light Depth

79 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 79 TIDAL CURVE LW-4h-3h-2h-1hHW+1h+2h+3h+4h+5h+6h+7hLW MHWS MLWS MHWN MLWN Factor MEAN RANGES Springs 5.8m Neaps 3.6m Springs occur 2 days after New and Full Moon

80 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 80 RULE OF TWELFTHS 1st hour 1/12 2nd hour 2/12 3rd hour 3/12 4th hour 3/12 5th hour 2/12 6th hour 1/12 HW +1h +2h +3h +4h +5h LW

81 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 81 SECONDARY PORTS National Standard Port DOVER Standard Port examples Portsmouth Plymouth (Devonport) Secondary port examples Fowey Torquay DOVER   Portsmouth Flood Tide Plymouth   Torquay Differences on Plymouth HW Fowey = Plymouth minus 15mins Torquay = Plymouth plus 45mins Fowey 

82 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 82 SECONDARY PORTS - TIMES & HEIGHTS

83 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 83 INTERPRETING THE 'DIFFERENCES BLOCK'

84 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 84 INTERPRETING THE 'DIFFERENCES BLOCK'

85 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 85 INTERPRETING THE 'DIFFERENCES BLOCK'

86 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 86 INTERPOLATION Torquay 30th May When is HW in the morning? Standard Port Plymouth (Devonport) HW 0320 UT Difference approx +35 mins HW Torquay 0355 Time Differences (min) Torquay

87 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 87 CARDINAL MARKS Continuous Flashing 3 Flashes 6 Short + 1 Long 9 Flashes 2 Flashes Shows direction of safe water

88 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 88 LATERAL AND OTHER BUOYAGE MARKS CAN BE BUOYS OR ON POSTS COLOUR DEFINES PURPOSE Port Hand Any R except (2 + 1) Special Marks Yellow, any rhythm except used for white lights Starboard Hand Any G except (2 + 1) Safe Water Iso, Occ, L Fl 10s or Mo(A) KEEP TO PORT OR STARBOARD Direction of Buoyage

89 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 89 LATERAL AND OTHER BUOYAGE Special Marks Yellow, rhythm not used for white lights Preferred Channel to Port Fl (2 + 1)G Starboard Hand Any G except (2 + 1) Direction of Buoyage Preferred Channel to Stbd Fl (2 + 1)R Port Hand Any R except (2 + 1) Safe Water Iso, Occ, L Fl 10s or Mo(A) KEEP TO PORT OR STARBOARD MARKS CAN BE BUOYS OR ON POSTS COLOUR DEFINES PURPOSE

90 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 90 COURSE SHAPING - WIND STRATEGY Tide Cherbourg to Salcombe Port or Starboard Tack? Tack on Tide Change This maximises relative wind Known as “ Lee-bowing ” Wind

91 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 91 COURSE SHAPING Tide Get on any natural transit and steer into tide to stay on it Course to be made good PORT ENTRY - CROSS TIDE

92 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 92 COURSE SHAPING PORT ENTRY - CROSS TIDE When close enough to see, transfer to more appropriate transit until out of tide Tide Course to be made good

93 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 93 STRATEGY ON APPROACH TO HARBOUR If wind shifts, you are never far off course Tack when approx. 15° either side of track to destination Wind

94 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 94 LEADING LINES 192°(T) Keep lights in line on 192°(T) for transit

95 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 95 LEADING LINES AND LIGHTS Leading Lights in line 215°(T) As seen Spire and Cone in line 210°(T) Ldg Lts 215º(T) As charted Spire and cone in line 210°(T ) +

96 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 96 BEARINGS 192°(T) Keep buoy on 228°(T) until leading lights are in transit 228°(T)

97 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 97 CLEARING BEARINGS No less than 162°(T) No greater than 190°(T) Beacon Tower

98 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 98 PASSAGE PLANNING ! Define objective ! Constraints on operation Crew, time available etc ! Assemble navigation equipment Charts, Pilots, Tide Tables and Tidal Stream Atlases ! Plan provisions (including emergency stock) ! Personal kit

99 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 99 ! Constraints on departure - locks, sills? If so - departure time is set within these limits - Plan FORWARD ! Constraints on arrival - locks, sills? If so - arrival time is set between these limits - Plan BACKWARDS ! Passage constraints - races, strong tides? If so - transit time is set by the phenomenon ! If more than one constraint Plan waiting period when appropriate PASSAGE PLANNING

100 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 100 ! Calculate distance and expected passage time Calculate times between waypoints for high speed navigation ! Plan for departure/arrival by day/night ! Plan for optimum use of tide ! Plan waypoints ! Is fuel capacity adequate for passage? If not, plan refuelling stops PASSAGE PLANNING

101 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 101 ! Determine possible visual aids on the route By day - buoys, headlands etc. By night - lights, glow from towns etc. ! Prepare pilotage notes for departure, entry and ports of refuge ! Listen to forecasts over several days to determine possible wind directions and sea states PASSAGE PLANNING

102 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 102 ! Departure constraints? Bar especially at Spring Ebb & strong onshore winds ! Arrival constraints? None - but difficult in strong SE to SW winds ! Transit constraints? None, but avoid overfalls off Start Point and drying area on Skerries Bank ! Distance 19 miles, approx kn. / 2 10 kn. PASSAGE PLAN SALCOMBE TO DARTMOUTH

103 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 103 ! Departure Local HW ± 4½ hrs - Take advantage of tidal streams ! Plan waypoints Salcombe Bar South of Prawle Point Overfalls off Start Point 2½ Miles W of Skerries Point LH Dartmouth Entrance ! Visual aids Start Point LH, Skerries Point LH Port Hand Mark NW of Skerries Bank Churches and Masts on Shore PASSAGE PLAN SALCOMBE TO DARTMOUTH

104 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 104 ! Ports of refuge Anchorage N of Start Point for SW Winds (Avoid overfalls and Skerries Bank) Anchorage in Holcombe Bay for NW to NE winds ! Crew considerations Clothing Experience Food/drinks en route MOB Drill ! Weather information Before start and under way PASSAGE PLAN SALCOMBE TO DARTMOUTH

105 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 105 PASSAGE PLAN PLYMOUTH TO GUERNSEY ! Departure constraints None - but beware of Naval activities and ferries Care in strong South and West winds Take departure from Eddystone Rock LH ! Arrival constraints? Sill (Entry/exit up to ± 2½ hours local HW) ! Transit constraints? Shipping Lanes (Not Separation Scheme) Through Race of Alderney, Swinge or via Casquets? Through Little or Big Russel Channels or West of Guernsey?

106 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 106 ! Distance 58 Miles Approx 12 5 knots 3 20 knots ! Departure Time departure to arrive at Race of Alderney at appropriate time ! Visual aids Mast on Rame Head EC 'A' Buoy, Eddystone Rocks LH Quenard Pt LH, Cap de la Hague LH Platte Fougère LH, Bec du Nez LH PASSAGE PLAN PLYMOUTH TO GUERNSEY

107 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 107 PASSAGE PLAN PLYMOUTH TO GUERNSEY ! Plan waypoints Plymouth West Breakwater East of Eddystone Rocks LH Start and end of shipping lanes Top of Race of Alderney West of Banc de la Schôle Lower Heads South Cardinal ! Ports of refuge Cherbourg, Braye ! Weather information Before start and under way

108 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 108 PILOTAGE (Navigating Safely in Confined Waters) USE ALL SIGNPOSTS AVAILABLE Buoys & lights Charted landmarks Transits, clearing bearings Soundings etc. PRE-PLAN Use large scale charts Pilot books Local knowledge As detailed as necessary for the task

109 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 109 PILOTAGE DETAIL NEEDED Start of pilotage Distance and Course to Steer to next mark Use 6 minute marks for high speed navigation Repeat until destination reached Use transits and clearing bearings to avoid ha z ards

110 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 110 LOG EXTRACT

111 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 111 FUNDAMENTAL CAUSE OF 'WEATHER' Hot Air Rising Cold Air Falling Cold Air Falling

112 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 112 SEA BREEZE - EARLY Warm air rising off land creates LOW PRESSURE Cool Sea HIGH PRESSURE Returned air falls to cool sea

113 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 113 SEA BREEZE - ESTABLISHED Returned air falls to cool sea Warm air rising off land Cool Sea Clouds form as damp air off sea rises and condenses Damp air

114 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 114 LAND BREEZE Cool air descends as land cools quickly Air off warm sea surface rises Breeze blows from land to sea Land Cools

115 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 115 WORLD WIDE EFFECTS Warm area so Pressure is LOW Cool area so Pressure is HIGH North Pole South Pole Cool area so Pressure is HIGH

116 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 116 WORLD WIDE EFFECTS High Low High

117 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 117 ISOBARS FAR APART Gentle pressure gradient Light winds ISOBARS CLOSE TOGETHER Steep pressure gradient Strong winds Low Pressure High Pressure ISOBARS

118 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 118 WIND ORIGINS High Pressure NORTH POLE SOUTH POLE Low Pressure High Pressure Polar Easterlies Disturbed Westerlies Horse Latitudes North East Trades South East Trades Doldrums Disturbed Westerlies Horse Latitudes Polar Easterlies Equator

119 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 119 BUYS BALLOT'S LAW Buys Ballot's Law In the Northern Hemisphere, if you stand with your back to the wind, the LOW PRESSURE area is to your left Low Pressure High Pressure Low High

120 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 120 EFFECT OF SURFACE FRICTION Gradient or 'Weather Map' Wind Initial direction Veered wind (Clockwise) 15º 30º Friction backs gradient wind by about 30 degrees over land and 15 degrees over sea Backed wind (Anticlockwise )

121 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 121 PRACTICAL EFFECT OF FRICTION Wind Aloft 30º 15º Boat on starboard headed Boat on port frees

122 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 122 COMBINED WIND EFFECTS Light Wind Strong Wind Land and Sea Winds Diverge Sea and Land Winds Converge Wind Aloft

123 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 123 WIND EFFECTS ON WEATHER Polar Maritime Arctic Maritime Polar Continental Tropical Continental Tropical Maritime Polar Maritime

124 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 124 WIND EFFECTS ON WEATHER Polar Maritime Tropical Maritime Polar Maritime Warm and Wet Arctic Maritime Polar Continental Tropical Continental Dry Cold in Winter Hot in Summer Cold & Damp Cold & Wet

125 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 125 DEPRESSION - BIRTH STAGE Cold Air from Polar Regions Warm Air from Tropics Leading edge of this cold air is called ‘The Polar Front’ Warm Air Cold Air

126 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 126 DEPRESSION - WAVE Cold Front Warm Front L General Direction of Depression

127 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 127 DEPRESSION - CLASSIC STAGE Cooler Warm Sector Cool Cold Front Warm Front L Direction of Depression

128 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 128 Cooler Cool W Warm DEPRESSION - MATURE STAGE Secondary Depression Occluded FrontOccluded Front Ridge L L

129 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 129 FRONTAL SYSTEM Cold Front Warm Front A B D E F General Direction of Depression L C

130 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 130 FRONTAL SYSTEM Cirrus Cirro Stratus Cumulus Nimbo Stratus Cumulonimbus Strato Cumulus FogRain Cumulus Heavy Rain Showers COOL AIR WARM AIR COLD AIR FEDCB A Stratus Alto Stratus

131 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 131 EFFECT OF MULTIPLE SYSTEMS High Low Col (Calm) 4) L L 2) H 3) H L 1) H

132 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 132 FOG Radiation Fog Clear nights with little wind Damp warm air radiates off as the ground cools at night Condensation takes place Fog forms first over valleys, water and damp vegetation Ground cools      Thickest around dawn when air temperature is at its lowest Heat from sun usually disperses this type of fog

133 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 133 FOG Advection Fog Tropical Maritime - warm moist wind blowing over cold sea Air cools and water vapour condenses to form fog Force 5/6 winds will lift the fog to form low stratus cloud Sun tends to thicken the fog by warming the air further Cool Sea

134 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 134 ! National Radio ! Local Radio ! TV ! Marine Call ! Internet ! Teletext ! Met Office ! Navtex ! Weatherfax/Fax ! Coastguard ! Press ! Coast Radio Station ! Look WEATHER FORECAST SOURCES

135 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 135 ! Gale Warnings ! General Synopsis ! Sea Area Forecasts Wind Weather Visibility ! Coastal Station Reports Wind Significant Weather Visibility in miles or metres Pressure Tendency SHIPPING FORECAST CONTENTS

136 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 136 ! General Synopsis Overall pattern of major systems ! Speed, direction and destination Slowly knots Steadily knots Rather rapidly knots Rapidly knots Very Rapidly 45+ knots ! Timing Imminent Within 6 hours of issue Soon hours Later hours GENERAL SYNOPSIS AND TIMING

137 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 137 VISIBILITY CRITERIA Sea Land Good More than 5 miles Moderate 5 to 2 miles Poor 2 miles to 1100 yds Fog Less than 1100 yds Less than 200 yds Dense fog Less than 50 yds Mist or Haze 1100 to 2200 yds 200 to 1100 yds

138 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 138 PRESSURE AND TENDENCY Tendency = Change in 3 Hours Less than 1 mb Less than 3 mb 3.5 to 6mb More than 6 mb Higher Lower Very Rapidly Steady Slowly Quickly Falling Rising

139 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 139 ! Determine weather for the day ! Determine where the best shelter is: Imminently Soon Later ! Decide when to sail ! Decide whether it is prudent to: Sail Stay at anchor Run for shelter USE OF WEATHER FORECASTS

140 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 140 ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION AIDS ! Position Latitude & Longitude Bearing and distance ! Course and speed over ground ! Bearing and distance to next Waypoint ! Cross track error ! ETA ! Waypoint entry ! Sailplan / Routes ! Tracks between waypoints ! Satellites/transmitters available ! Transmitter selection ! Datum & Altitude selection ! Variation correction ! Position correction ! Battery voltage

141 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 141 WAYPOINTS AND SAILPLAN Start Port of Refuge Destination

142 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 142 WAYPOINTS AND SAILPLAN Start Port of Refuge Destination

143 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 143 WAYPOINTS AND SAILPLAN Start Port of Refuge Destination

144 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 144 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ! US Military system ! Based on 24 satellites (21 operational) ! 10,900 mile high orbits ! Planned 24 hour coverage ! Position on a position sphere from one satellite ! 3 Satellites give 3 dimension fix ! Receiver corrects for 3 dimensional cocked hat ! Receiver 1 millisecond out = 163 mile error

145 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 145 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

146 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 146 POSITION SPHERE

147 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 147 GPS - FIX ERROR Position Spheres

148 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 148 ! Selective Availability Random error is built into civilian signal 95% of fixes within 100m Can be corrected with Differential GPS ! Similar errors to visual fix when intersection much less than 60 degrees ! Shape of earth - need to use correct datum or can be as much as 150 metres in error GPS - POTENTIAL LIMITATIONS

149 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 149 VHF MAYDAY n DISTRESS MESSAGE n IdentityMAYDAY Yacht FAIRWIND n PositionPosition is 025°(T) from Braye Harbour, 7 miles n Situation Struck submerged object, holed and sinking n Assistance Needed I require immediate assistance n CrewSix persons on board all with lifejackets n Other InformationPreparing liferaft and will abandon in 10 minutes n Invitation to replyOver DISTRESS CALL MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, This is Yacht FAIRWIND, FAIRWIND,FAIRWIND

150 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 150 DISTRESS FLARES INSHORE 5 miles from land 2 red hand flares 2 orange smokes COASTAL 7 miles from land 2 parachute flares 2 red hand flares 2 orange smokes OFFSHORE Over 7 miles from land 4 red parachute flares 4 red hand flares 2 buoyant orange smokes Fire downwind 15° for no cloud Up to 45° for low cloud WIND Visibility : Red hand held 7 miles on a clear night Parachute 28 miles on a clear night Orange smoke 3 miles in daylight

151 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 151 & Communicate on VHF & Pilot will give exact course under sail or power (Usually wind on port bow) & Brief crew early as too noisy later & Weighted Hi-Line lowered & Earth in sea or on boat before handling DO NOT MAKE FAST & Pull as directed - stow loosely in bucket & Let diver touch boat before you touch him HELICOPTER RESCUE Beware of down draught Hi-line Winch wire Diver DO AS YOU ARE TOLD

152 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 152 HEAVY WEATHER ! Decide what is heavy weather for you ! Preplan navigation ! Get ready below decks - stow gear and prepare food ! Shorten sail early and secure loose deck gear ! Rig jackstays ! Prepare the crew - good briefing and kit for foul weather

153 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 153 ACTIONS IF CAUGHT IN FOG ! Fix or best EP on chart before entering fog ! Set radar reflector ! Navigation lights on ! Lifejackets on ! Liferaft ready for launching ! Engine on to maintain speed Turn off occasionally to listen ! Post lookouts ! Safe speed ! Horn ! Head for shallow water

154 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 154 FOG NAVIGATION Planned Track - Good Visibility

155 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 155 FOG NAVIGATION Poor Visibility Track

156 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 156 OFFSHORE FOG NAVIGATION Objective 10 Circle of DR 20 Uncertainty

157 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 157 OFFSHORE FOG NAVIGATION Objective 10 Circle of DR 20 Uncertainty

158 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 158 OFFSHORE FOG NAVIGATION Objective 10 Circle of DR 20 Uncertainty

159 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 159 FIRE PRECAUTIONS Gas locker Site away from heat sources Drain overboard Fire Extinguishers Minimum of 2 Site inside hatches Dry Powder or AFFF Extra extinguisher in cockpit locker Automatic Engine Extinguisher CO2 or BCF/Halon Low melting point release capsule Hole in engine casing Use hand held extinguisher Fire blanket Woven glass fibre Use in galley or on people Cover fire with blanket Care not to burn hands

160 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 160 SAFETY HARNESSES & LIFEJACKETS Harness lanyard clipped to strongpoint in cockpit Harness lanyard clipped to jackstay allows crew to go forward while secured WEAR SAFETY HARNESS If the boat is reefed or would be if hard on the wind If sighting & recovery of YOUR BODY would be difficult - at night, in fog etc. If about to abandon the vessel WEAR A LIFEJACKET For dinghy journeys, especially at night In fog (due to risk of collision) If about to abandon the vessel

161 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 161 LIFERAFTS - THE LAST RESORT Do Not Use the Liferaft Unless the Boat is Sinking or is on Fire 1. Crew dress in warm clothes, oilskins & lifejackets 2. Gather stores: Flares, Radio and EPIRB Water, Food, Torches etc. 3. Secure raft’s static line to strongpoint 4. Throw raft overboard and pull static line to inflate 5. Strongest person into raft first 6. Rest of crew board quickly - do not rely on static line as it is designed to tear off raft under heavy load

162 © ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 162 LIFERAFTS - THE LAST RESORT ONCE IN THE RAFT 7. Cut static line with safety knife from raft 8. Stream the drogue to improve stability and reduce drift 9. Bale out excess water 10.Unplug light to save battery if daylight 11. Close canopy and post a lookout 12. All crew take anti- seasickness pills 13. Inflate double floor and tie in the pump 14. Keep up morale BELIEVE THAT YOU WILL SURVIVE


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