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Jin-Hyeong Yoo University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 Seminar topic 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Jin-Hyeong Yoo University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 Seminar topic 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jin-Hyeong Yoo University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 Seminar topic 1

2 Contents Iron-Gallium Alloy – A New Magnetostrictive Material Energy Harvester Sensor Applications Possible Applications for Soldier System

3 Energy Harvester: Solar Cell Drawbacks High cost Needs large amount of space Heavy weight - portability It needs sun light Efficiencies Crystalline silicon devices: 29% Max. GaAs multi-junction devices: 42.3 % K. Sangani, Eng. Technol., vol. 2 2007

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5 Thermoelectric Generator This is a conceptual illustration of typical applications in representative environments where natural temperature differences exist. (Pacific Northwest National Lab.) Average electric power of up to hundreds of milliwatts Application tailoring achieved simply by varying number of thermocouples, deposition parameters, and substrate dimensions Projected life longer than equivalent batteries Provides power for the lifetime of the application Adaptable to wide range of ambient conditions Small temperature differences for miniature size scale Poor thermodynamic efficiency

6 Ambient RF Issues Power level Distance from source Mantiply et al. Pervasive Comput., vol. 4, 2005

7 Piezoelectric - Vibratory Granstrom, et al. Smart Materials and Structures. 16 (2007) Energy Harvesting Running Shoes Shoulder Strap Energy Harvesting Nathan S. Shenck, et al. IEEE Micro, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2001) Macro-Fiber Composites www.smart-material.com

8 Electromagnetic nPowerPEG.com Size: 9" tall, Top & Bottom Cylinders: 1'" diameter, Center Cylinder: 1.5" diameter Weight: 12 oz. (340 gram) Energy Storage Capacity: 1000mAh lithium Polymer battery Voltage: 5V DC, 500mA output range Watts: 2.5 Watts Faraday Flashlights Amazon.com

9 Power Shirt (GIT) Image courtesy Zhong Lin Wang and Xudong Wang, GIT Regents professor Zhong Lin Wang holds a prototype microfiber nanogenerator composed of two fibers that rub together to produce a small electrical current. Many pairs of these fibers could be woven into a garment to produce a "power shirt.“ (2008)

10 What is Magnetostriction? “A change in dimensions exhibited by ferromagnetic materials when subjected to a magnetic field.” (Random House Dictionary) Documented by James Joule in 1842 Curie temperature quite high (~750°C for Fe81-Ga19) Effect will not “de-pole” Domain ordering returns without the need for poling after exceeding Curie temperature.

11 1-D Linearized Eqns Actuation modeled by the “direct effect”: Sensing modeled by the “inverse effect”: where H=nI

12 DC or AC Magnetic Field l l +  l Magnetostrictive Actuation The Direct Effect: The change in the dimensions of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of magnetization. H=nI

13 The Inverse Effect: The change in the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of stress. Magnetostrictive Sensing DC Magnetic Field l  B H 0 =110 Oe A B A B

14 Comparison of active materials  Smaller magnetizing coil  Smaller size  Higher power density  Ability to withstand shock loads  Bending structure

15 The Inverse Effect: The change in the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of stress. Magnetostrictive Electric Harvesting

16 Galfenol as Energy Harvester Galfenol has high permeability and high saturation magnetization  We expect high energy output! High Saturation Magnetization ~1.6 Tesla High Magnetic Efficiency ~2500 Gauss/ppm Strain

17 Galfenol Energy Harvester Pickup Coil On a vibration stage Pickup coils Galfenol beam Al beam Magnet Conceptual diagram

18 Pickup Coil 2” 1.5” Aluminum (t=0.05”) Galfenol (t=0.03”) Mode Shape at 223Hz Galfenol Harvester PropertyS YMBOL Value Modulus of beam Beam dimension Lumped mass Damping Coefficient E L x b x t M+m eff  69 GPa 1.5x0.25x0.085 in 3 10.34 g 0.0087 Mechanical Response of Beam

19 Piezomagnetic Constitutive Equation Piezomagnetic Coupling Coefficient Sensor Coil Response n= 1000 turns, A =b x t Magnetic Efficiency of Galfenol

20 Strain range H~50 Oe Numerical Simulation

21 Output Volts: Measured and Predicted

22 Vibration Command Shaker Controller FFT analyzer Shaker Resistance Box Accelerometer Output Power Test Setup

23 Galfenol-Al beam R V Output volt and current at given resistance load (n=1000) R = 1, 10, 36, 50, 100, 1000, inf  a = 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 g Output Power Test Results

24 Sensor Coil Vibration Harvester M m eff P in Max. Output and Efficiency

25 Applications for soldier system Manpack Antennas (Hascall-Denke) One early change by the US Army was to put multi-functional, low power, lightweight electronics on the wrist as shown in the picture and later work extensively employs energy harvesting.

26 Micro Gyro Sensor Development

27 Permanent Magnet Actuator prong Ω(t) VDVD x Fe 79 Ga 21 Strips y GMR Magnetic sensor Sensing prong Original DesignModified Design  Gyro Sensor Configuration Modified thickness of prongs and sensor coil measurement Permanent Magnet Actuator prong Ω(t) VDVD x y Sensing prong VSVS

28 Tuning Fork Gyro Sensor z Ω(t) VDVD VSVS x Galfenol Strips y (a) Drive mode(b) Sensing mode GMR sensor  Basic Principle Excite one tuning fork leg to induce sympathetic vibration of second leg Coriolis force will induce orthogonal deflection Permeability will be changed by deflection of the Galfenol strip Coriolis Force Maximize  x to maximize F(t) xx

29 Gyro Sensor Structure GMR Sensor Adapter Sensor Assembly GMR Sensor Holder Magnet GMR sensor Assembly Driving Coil GMR sensor (NVE AA002-02)  15 Oe max.  0.9828Oe/V JH Yoo, U Marschner and AB Flatau, Proceedings of SPIE, 5764-14, 2005.

30 Permanent Magnet Actuator prong Ω(t) VDVD x y Sensing prong VSVS Sensor Coil Output Spectrum 0Hz5Hz20Hz Vibration Mode Test

31 1 Hz moment input0.2 Hz moment input It has high sensitivity at low frequency!

32 Applications for Soldier System Garmin Foretrex Lightweight Wrist Mounted GPS Navigation Indoor GPS compensation Hand Shaking Compensation

33 Alloy 79 – high permeable material as a flux return path. 20 g of sprung mass, 0.3 Tesla permanent magnet 3 Galfenol cylinders were tested (1/8”, 1/16”, and 1/32” wall thickness, ¼” long) Sensor coil Base Galfenol Cylinders Shaft & washers Sprung Mass Wide Band Accelerometer Hall sensor

34 Non-Contact Torque Measurement using Galfenol Single Crystal-Like Galfenol Patch placed on the surface of Aluminum Shaft at 45 ° with bias magnet Hall effect voltage vs. strain measured from strain gage at 45° on shaft Bias MagnetHall Sensor Galfenol Patch D. Douglas, SM Na, JH Yoo and AB Flatau, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, 2010

35 Rotational Test Setup Rotational Test 1/8 HP 30 rpm geared driving motor 220 inch-lbs torque 1/10 HP brake motor 1.8 inch-lbs torque Patch bonded to shaft Brake Motor Commercial Torque Sensor Hall Sensor Driving Motor D. Douglas, SM Na, JH Yoo and AB Flatau, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, 2010

36 Rotational Test Results Bias magnet mounted with hall sensor Rotation Hall Sensor Galfenol Patch corner 1 Bias Magnet Galfenol patch corner 1 passing under hall sensor corner 2 Galfenol patch corner 2 passing under hall sensor

37 Summary: Advantage of Galfenol Sensor  Shock tolerable structural sensor  No energy input needed with sensor coil (Green)  Easy to design  High sensitivity @ high frequency  Harsh condition application


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