Presentation on theme: "Application of Iron-Gallium Alloy - Energy Harvester and Sensors"— Presentation transcript:
1Application of Iron-Gallium Alloy - Energy Harvester and Sensors Seminar topic 1Application of Iron-Gallium Alloy - Energy Harvester and SensorsJin-Hyeong Yoo University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
2Contents Iron-Gallium Alloy – A New Magnetostrictive Material Energy HarvesterSensor ApplicationsPossible Applications for Soldier System
3Energy Harvester: Solar Cell EfficienciesCrystalline silicon devices: 29% Max.GaAs multi-junction devices: 42.3 %DrawbacksHigh costNeeds large amount of spaceHeavy weight - portabilityIt needs sun lightK. Sangani, Eng. Technol., vol
5Thermoelectric Generator Average electric power of up to hundreds of milliwattsApplication tailoring achieved simply by varying number of thermocouples, deposition parameters, and substrate dimensionsProjected life longer than equivalent batteriesProvides power for the lifetime of the applicationAdaptable to wide range of ambient conditionsSmall temperature differences for miniature size scalePoor thermodynamic efficiencyThis is a conceptual illustration of typical applications in representative environments where natural temperature differences exist. (Pacific Northwest National Lab.)
6Ambient RF Issues Power level Distance from source Mantiply et al. Pervasive Comput., vol. 4, 2005
7Piezoelectric - Vibratory Macro-Fiber CompositesEnergy Harvesting Running ShoesNathan S. Shenck, et al. IEEE Micro, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2001)Shoulder Strap Energy HarvestingGranstrom, et al. Smart Materials and Structures. 16 (2007)
8Electromagnetic nPowerPEG.com Size: 9" tall, Top & Bottom Cylinders: 1'" diameter, Center Cylinder: 1.5" diameter Weight: 12 oz. (340 gram) Energy Storage Capacity: 1000mAh lithium Polymer battery Voltage: 5V DC, 500mA output range Watts: 2.5 WattsFaraday FlashlightsAmazon.com
9Power Shirt (GIT) Image courtesy Zhong Lin Wang and Xudong Wang, GIT Regents professor Zhong Lin Wang holds a prototype microfiber nanogenerator composed of two fibers that rub together to produce a small electrical current. Many pairs of these fibers could be woven into a garment to produce a "power shirt.“ (2008)
10What is Magnetostriction? “A change in dimensions exhibited by ferromagnetic materials when subjected to a magnetic field.” (Random House Dictionary)Documented by James Joule in 1842Curie temperature quite high (~750°C for Fe81-Ga19)Effect will not “de-pole”Domain ordering returns without the need for poling after exceeding Curie temperature.
11Actuation modeled by the “direct effect”: 1-D Linearized EqnsActuation modeled by the “direct effect”:Sensing modeled by the “inverse effect”:where H=nI
12Magnetostrictive Actuation The Direct Effect: The change in the dimensions of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of magnetization.DC or AC Magnetic Fieldll + D lH=nI
13Magnetostrictive Sensing The Inverse Effect: The change in the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of stress.DC Magnetic FieldlDBABAH0=110 OeB
14Comparison of active materials Smaller magnetizing coilSmaller sizeHigher power densityAbility to withstand shock loadsBending structure
15Magnetostrictive Electric Harvesting The Inverse Effect: The change in the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of stress.
16Galfenol as Energy Harvester Galfenol has high permeability and high saturation magnetization We expect high energy output!High Magnetic Efficiency~2500 Gauss/ppmHigh SaturationMagnetization~1.6 TeslaStrain
17Galfenol Energy Harvester Pickup CoilConceptual diagramOn a vibration stageAl beamPickup coilsGalfenol beamMagnet
18Mechanical Response of Beam Galfenol Harvester2”Aluminum(t=0.05”)1.5”Pickup CoilMode Shape at 223HzGalfenol (t=0.03”)PropertySymbolValueModulus of beamBeam dimensionLumped massDamping CoefficientEL x b x tM+meffz69 GPa1.5x0.25x0.085 in310.34 g0.0087
19Magnetic Efficiency of Galfenol Piezomagnetic Constitutive EquationSensor Coil ResponsePiezomagnetic Coupling Coefficientn= 1000 turns, A =b x t
22Output Power Test Setup Shaker ControllerVibration CommandFFT analyzerAccelerometerShakerResistance Box
23Output Power Test Results VOutput volt and current at given resistance load (n=1000)RGalfenol-Al beamR = 1, 10, 36, 50, 100, 1000, inf Wa = 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 g
24Max. Output and Efficiency Sensor CoilVibration HarvesterMmeffPin
25Applications for soldier system One early change by the US Army was to put multi-functional, low power, lightweight electronics on the wrist as shown in the picture and later work extensively employs energy harvesting.Manpack Antennas(Hascall-Denke)
27Gyro Sensor Configuration Permanent MagnetActuator prongΩ(t)VDxFe79Ga21 StripsyGMR Magnetic sensorSensing prongPermanent MagnetActuator prongΩ(t)VDxySensing prongVSOriginal DesignModified DesignModified thickness of prongs and sensor coil measurement
28Tuning Fork Gyro Sensor Basic PrincipleCoriolis ForceExcite one tuning fork leg to inducesympathetic vibration of second legCoriolis force will induce orthogonaldeflectionPermeability will be changed bydeflection of the Galfenol stripMaximize Dx to maximize F(t)zΩ(t)GMR sensorDxGalfenol StripsVSVDyx(a) Drive mode(b) Sensing mode
29Gyro Sensor Structure Driving Coil GMR Sensor GMR Sensor Holder Magnet This slide shows a proto type of the Gyro sensor, so at this time its somewhat bulky, but eventually we will make small scale gyro.This design is for just concept verification.GMR sensor (NVE AA002-02)15 Oe max.0.9828Oe/VAdapterSensor AssemblyGMR sensor AssemblyJH Yoo, U Marschner and AB Flatau, Proceedings of SPIE, , 2005.
31It has high sensitivity at low frequency! 1 Hz moment input0.2 Hz moment inputIt has high sensitivity at low frequency!
32Applications for Soldier System Indoor GPS compensationHand Shaking CompensationGarmin Foretrex Lightweight Wrist Mounted GPS Navigation
33Wide Band Accelerometer Shaft &washersSensorcoilSprungMassHallsensorGalfenolCylindersBaseAlloy 79 – high permeable material as a flux return path.20 g of sprung mass, 0.3 Tesla permanent magnet3 Galfenol cylinders were tested (1/8”, 1/16”, and 1/32” wall thickness, ¼” long)
34Non-Contact Torque Measurement using Galfenol Single Crystal-Like Galfenol Patch placed on the surface of Aluminum Shaft at 45 ° with bias magnetHall effect voltage vs. strain measured from strain gage at 45° on shaftGalfenol PatchHall SensorBias MagnetD. Douglas, SM Na, JH Yoo and AB Flatau, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, 2010
35Rotational Test Setup Rotational Test 1/8 HP 30 rpm geared driving motor 220 inch-lbs torque1/10 HP brake motor 1.8 inch-lbs torqueBrakeMotorHallSensorCommercialTorqueSensorDrivingMotorD. Douglas, SM Na, JH Yoo and AB Flatau, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, 2010Patch bonded to shaft
36Rotational Test Results Bias magnet mounted with hall sensorBias MagnetHall SensorGalfenol Patch corner 1corner 2RotationGalfenol patch corner 1 passing under hall sensorGalfenol patch corner 2 passing under hall sensor
37Summary: Advantage of Galfenol Sensor Shock tolerable structural sensorNo energy input needed withsensor coil (Green)Easy to designHigh high frequencyHarsh condition application