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Application of Iron-Gallium Alloy - Energy Harvester and Sensors

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Presentation on theme: "Application of Iron-Gallium Alloy - Energy Harvester and Sensors"— Presentation transcript:

1 Application of Iron-Gallium Alloy - Energy Harvester and Sensors
Seminar topic 1 Application of Iron-Gallium Alloy - Energy Harvester and Sensors Jin-Hyeong Yoo University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

2 Contents Iron-Gallium Alloy – A New Magnetostrictive Material
Energy Harvester Sensor Applications Possible Applications for Soldier System

3 Energy Harvester: Solar Cell
Efficiencies Crystalline silicon devices: 29% Max. GaAs multi-junction devices: 42.3 % Drawbacks High cost Needs large amount of space Heavy weight - portability It needs sun light K. Sangani, Eng. Technol., vol

4

5 Thermoelectric Generator
Average electric power of up to hundreds of milliwatts Application tailoring achieved simply by varying number of thermocouples, deposition parameters, and substrate dimensions Projected life longer than equivalent batteries Provides power for the lifetime of the application Adaptable to wide range of ambient conditions Small temperature differences for miniature size scale Poor thermodynamic efficiency This is a conceptual illustration of typical applications in representative environments where natural temperature differences exist. (Pacific Northwest National Lab.)

6 Ambient RF Issues Power level Distance from source
Mantiply et al. Pervasive Comput., vol. 4, 2005

7 Piezoelectric - Vibratory
Macro-Fiber Composites Energy Harvesting Running Shoes Nathan S. Shenck, et al. IEEE Micro, Vol. 21, No. 3 (2001) Shoulder Strap Energy Harvesting Granstrom, et al. Smart Materials and Structures. 16 (2007)

8 Electromagnetic nPowerPEG.com
Size: 9" tall, Top & Bottom Cylinders: 1'" diameter, Center Cylinder: 1.5" diameter Weight: 12 oz. (340 gram) Energy Storage Capacity: 1000mAh lithium Polymer battery Voltage: 5V DC, 500mA output range Watts: 2.5 Watts Faraday Flashlights Amazon.com

9 Power Shirt (GIT) Image courtesy Zhong Lin Wang and Xudong Wang, GIT
Regents professor Zhong Lin Wang holds a prototype microfiber nanogenerator composed of two fibers that rub together to produce a small electrical current. Many pairs of these fibers could be woven into a garment to produce a "power shirt.“ (2008)

10 What is Magnetostriction?
“A change in dimensions exhibited by ferromagnetic materials when subjected to a magnetic field.” (Random House Dictionary) Documented by James Joule in 1842 Curie temperature quite high (~750°C for Fe81-Ga19) Effect will not “de-pole” Domain ordering returns without the need for poling after exceeding Curie temperature.

11 Actuation modeled by the “direct effect”:
1-D Linearized Eqns Actuation modeled by the “direct effect”: Sensing modeled by the “inverse effect”: where H=nI

12 Magnetostrictive Actuation
The Direct Effect: The change in the dimensions of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of magnetization. DC or AC Magnetic Field l l + D l H=nI

13 Magnetostrictive Sensing
The Inverse Effect: The change in the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of stress. DC Magnetic Field l DB A B A H0=110 Oe B

14 Comparison of active materials
Smaller magnetizing coil Smaller size Higher power density Ability to withstand shock loads Bending structure

15 Magnetostrictive Electric Harvesting
The Inverse Effect: The change in the magnetic state of a ferromagnetic body caused by a change in its state of stress.

16 Galfenol as Energy Harvester
Galfenol has high permeability and high saturation magnetization  We expect high energy output! High Magnetic Efficiency ~2500 Gauss/ppm High Saturation Magnetization ~1.6 Tesla Strain

17 Galfenol Energy Harvester
Pickup Coil Conceptual diagram On a vibration stage Al beam Pickup coils Galfenol beam Magnet

18 Mechanical Response of Beam
Galfenol Harvester 2” Aluminum (t=0.05”) 1.5” Pickup Coil Mode Shape at 223Hz Galfenol (t=0.03”) Property Symbol Value Modulus of beam Beam dimension Lumped mass Damping Coefficient E L x b x t M+meff z 69 GPa 1.5x0.25x0.085 in3 10.34 g 0.0087

19 Magnetic Efficiency of Galfenol
Piezomagnetic Constitutive Equation Sensor Coil Response Piezomagnetic Coupling Coefficient n= 1000 turns, A =b x t

20 Numerical Simulation H~50 Oe Strain range

21 Output Volts: Measured and Predicted

22 Output Power Test Setup
Shaker Controller Vibration Command FFT analyzer Accelerometer Shaker Resistance Box

23 Output Power Test Results
V Output volt and current at given resistance load (n=1000) R Galfenol-Al beam R = 1, 10, 36, 50, 100, 1000, inf W a = 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 g

24 Max. Output and Efficiency
Sensor Coil Vibration Harvester M meff Pin

25 Applications for soldier system
One early change by the US Army was to put multi-functional, low power, lightweight electronics on the wrist as shown in the picture and later work extensively employs energy harvesting. Manpack Antennas (Hascall-Denke)

26 Micro Gyro Sensor Development

27 Gyro Sensor Configuration
Permanent Magnet Actuator prong Ω(t) VD x Fe79Ga21 Strips y GMR Magnetic sensor Sensing prong Permanent Magnet Actuator prong Ω(t) VD x y Sensing prong VS Original Design Modified Design Modified thickness of prongs and sensor coil measurement

28 Tuning Fork Gyro Sensor
Basic Principle Coriolis Force Excite one tuning fork leg to induce sympathetic vibration of second leg Coriolis force will induce orthogonal deflection Permeability will be changed by deflection of the Galfenol strip Maximize Dx to maximize F(t) z Ω(t) GMR sensor Dx Galfenol Strips VS VD y x (a) Drive mode (b) Sensing mode

29 Gyro Sensor Structure Driving Coil GMR Sensor GMR Sensor Holder Magnet
This slide shows a proto type of the Gyro sensor, so at this time its somewhat bulky, but eventually we will make small scale gyro. This design is for just concept verification. GMR sensor (NVE AA002-02) 15 Oe max. 0.9828Oe/V Adapter Sensor Assembly GMR sensor Assembly JH Yoo, U Marschner and AB Flatau, Proceedings of SPIE, , 2005.

30 Sensor Coil Output Spectrum
Permanent Magnet Actuator prong Ω(t) VD x y Sensing prong VS Vibration Mode Test 0Hz 5Hz 20Hz

31 It has high sensitivity at low frequency!
1 Hz moment input 0.2 Hz moment input It has high sensitivity at low frequency!

32 Applications for Soldier System
Indoor GPS compensation Hand Shaking Compensation Garmin Foretrex Lightweight Wrist Mounted GPS Navigation

33 Wide Band Accelerometer
Shaft & washers Sensor coil Sprung Mass Hall sensor Galfenol Cylinders Base Alloy 79 – high permeable material as a flux return path. 20 g of sprung mass, 0.3 Tesla permanent magnet 3 Galfenol cylinders were tested (1/8”, 1/16”, and 1/32” wall thickness, ¼” long)

34 Non-Contact Torque Measurement using Galfenol
Single Crystal-Like Galfenol Patch placed on the surface of Aluminum Shaft at 45 ° with bias magnet Hall effect voltage vs. strain measured from strain gage at 45° on shaft Galfenol Patch Hall Sensor Bias Magnet D. Douglas, SM Na, JH Yoo and AB Flatau, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, 2010

35 Rotational Test Setup Rotational Test
1/8 HP 30 rpm geared driving motor 220 inch-lbs torque 1/10 HP brake motor 1.8 inch-lbs torque Brake Motor Hall Sensor Commercial Torque Sensor Driving Motor D. Douglas, SM Na, JH Yoo and AB Flatau, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials, 2010 Patch bonded to shaft

36 Rotational Test Results
Bias magnet mounted with hall sensor Bias Magnet Hall Sensor Galfenol Patch corner 1 corner 2 Rotation Galfenol patch corner 1 passing under hall sensor Galfenol patch corner 2 passing under hall sensor

37 Summary: Advantage of Galfenol Sensor
Shock tolerable structural sensor No energy input needed with sensor coil (Green) Easy to design High high frequency Harsh condition application


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