Presentation on theme: "TRANSPORTING CHILDREN SAFELY IN CHILD CARE"— Presentation transcript:
1TRANSPORTING CHILDREN SAFELY IN CHILD CARE Passenger SafetyTexas AgriLife Extension Servicein cooperation withTexas Department of TransportationEducational programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin.The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating
2The ProblemMotor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among children ages 3 and up.Nationally, over half of the children who died in crashes were unrestrained (NHTSA).Motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children. The biggest tragedy is that so many of the fatalities could have been prevented if the children had been properly restrained.We cannot prevent crashes, but education on the proper use of child safety seats can help to reduce these needless tragedies.
3The Law in Texas NEW LAW EFFECTIVE 9/1/09 Children under 8 years of age UNLESS taller than 4’9” must be restrained in a child restraint system according to the manufacturer’s instructions.All passengers in any seating position must be secured by a seat belt.12 and 15 passenger vans are included.Texas is proud to have a new child safety seat law that includes booster age children. It is much better than our previous law that only included children up to age 5 unless taller than 36”, BUT it is still not best practice. Best practice is for children to be in a booster seat until the seat belt fits properly – usually at 4’9” tall and 8-12 years old.Note that 12 and 15 passenger vans are now included in the law and ALL passengers in any position in the vehicle that has a seat belt must be buckled.
4Misuse Rates Are High 99% Misuse Passenger Safety Project 1% FY 99 - FY 091%99% MisuseMisuse is still very high! The Texas AgriLife Extension Service Passenger Safety Project which keeps records on the more than 12,000 inspections they have overseen since 1999 sees a misuse rate of 99%.12,000 seats checkedMore than 99% misuse
5Crash DynamicsWhen we travel in a car, we are moving at the same speed as the car.Law of physics: An object in motion stays in motion until it is stopped by an outside force.In a crash, the car might be stopped by another vehicle, a tree, or another object.It is not the speed that kills and injures. It is the stopping!
6More on Crash DynamicsUnbuckled passengers will be stopped by the windshield, a hard surface in the vehicle, another person, or the pavement if ejected.Restrained occupants will be stopped by the harnesses of the child safety seat or a seat belt.You get to choose what will stop you!Seat belts and child restraints help prevent ejection. They also help to manage crash forces and secure the occupant to the vehicle. If you are secured to the vehicle you are able to come to a more gradual stop with the vehicle. If ejected from the vehicle, you are 4 times more likely to be killed.
7How Seat Belts and Child Restraints Protect Prevents people from being thrown from the vehicleContacts body at strongest placesSpreads crash forces over a wide area of the bodyHelps the body slow downProtects the head, neck, and spinal cordThe primary reason for seat belts and child restraints is to prevent ejection. They also help to manage crash forces by contacting the body at the strongest parts (hips and shoulders) and spreading crash forces over a larger area.A passenger that is securely buckled into the vehicle is able to take advantage of the vehicle slowing down at a more gradual rate and absorbing some of the crash forces.Being secured to the vehicle helps prevent forward movement and protects the head, neck and spinal cord.
8Effectiveness of Child Restraints 71% effective in reducing infant deaths54% effective in reducing toddler deaths69% effective in reducing hospitalization needChildren 37% less likely to be fatally injured riding in the rear seatChild restraints have proven to be very effective in preventing injuries and deaths. But to be effective they must be used and used properly!
9Child Safety Seats – The 4 Steps The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) promotes the 4 Steps to Growing Up SafeStep 1 – Rear facing seats - Keep babies rear facing as long as possible to the maximum weight and height limit of their seat. At a minimum keep babies rear-facing to one year AND 20 pounds. New research shows that children who are kept rear-facing up until the second year of life will be five times safer.Step 2 – Forward-Facing Seats - When children outgrow their rear-facing seats, they can be forward facing. Children should stay in a harness until they outgrow their seat – usually age four and 40 pounds.Step 3 – Booster Seats – Once children outgrow their forward-facing seats, usually at age four and 40 pounds, they can move to a booster seat. Children should ride in the back seat in a booster until the lap and shoulder belt fit correctly – usually at 4’9” and 8-12 years old.Step 4 – Seat Belts – When children outgrow their booster seats – usually at age 8-12 and 4’9” tall they can fit into the lap/shoulder belt system of the vehicle. The lap belt should fit properly across the upper thighs and the shoulder belt across the chest.CHIILDREN 12 and UNDER SHOULD RIDE IN THE BACK SEAT!
10What Is the Best Child Safety Seat? Fits child - appropriate for child’s height, weight, and ageFits in the vehicleSeat that will be used correctly all the timeThe best seat for a child is the one that fits the child, fits the vehicle and the parent/care giver will use properly on every trip.
11What to Avoid Seat involved in crash Missing labels More than 5 years oldCracks or rustParts missingOn recall listSecond-hand seatsThere are many things to avoid when considering a used seat. Second-hand seats where the history is unknown should be avoided. It may have been in a crash and have hairline cracks.If the seat belonged to a friend or family member and has never been in a crash, it may be safe to use if it has no damages, has all its parts and is in good condition.
12Recalls Recall lists on NHTSA Web site NHTSA: AUTO SAFETY HOTLINE1-888-DASH-2-DOTChild Safety Seat ManufacturerThere are many recalls on child safety seats for many different reasons. Some recalls involve dangerous issues, some may be just for mistakes in labeling. Always make sure you will be notified if a seat is on recall by sending in the registration card when the seat is purchased new.If you are using a seat that was previously used by a friend or family member check the Auto Safety Hotline to make sure it has not been recalled.
13Important COSCO Read the instruction book that comes with the seat. Most parents do not take time to carefully read the instruction book that comes with every child safety seat. Simply reading the manual would help to avoid lots of the misuse we see with child safety seats.Rear Facing Infant SeatINSTRUCTIONSREAD AND KEEP FOR FUTURE REFERENCE
14Types of Child Restraint Systems Infant onlyConvertible seatsForward-facing onlyBoosterSafety beltsThere are four basic types of child safety seats:- Infant only seats- Convertibles- Forward-facing only seats (includes booster seats with removable harnesses)- Booster Seats
15Infant-only Seats Rear-facing Birth/5 lbs. to 20/22 lbs. Supports head and spine in crashRear-facing infant only seats usually fit a newborn best. They generally go from 5 pounds to 20/22 pounds. There are some that start at birth or 4 pounds for preemies and low birth weight infants. There are also higher harness weight infant only seats that go to 30 and 32 pounds.Most infant only seats come with a separate base and a removable carrier.
16Aftermarket ProductsThick padding added under or behind child or harnessPads on harness strapsAftermarket products are add-ons that have not been crash tested with the seat. If the padding came with the seat it has been crash-tested and is safe to use. Graco makes padding that can be purchased separately from the seat. It is crash-tested and okay to use with the model of seat specified.Do not use head-rolls or other padding that did not come with the seat. They can interfere with the harness and cause slack in the system. It can also slip down behind the baby’s head and cause the baby’s head to bend forward possibly cutting off the air supply.
17Acceptable PaddingReceiving blankets/cloth diapers that don’t interfere with harness and/or shell contact may be used.To position a small infant in a seat, it is acceptable to use rolled receiving blankets on each side of the infant. Do not place the receiving blanket behind the infant’s head. Sometimes, a rolled receiving blanket or cloth diaper can be placed in the crotch area to keep the baby from slipping down in the harness.
18Convertible Seats 5-Point Harness Tray Shield T-Shield Convertible seats can go rear-facing and then forward-facing later on. Although T-Shields and Tray Shields are no longer made, you may see them still in use. A 5-point harness provides a better fit for most children.
19Rear-facing Convertibles Rear-facing until at least 20 lbs. and oneyear oldSafer to leave child rear-facing longer (to wt. and ht. limit of seat) UP TO AGE 2 or MORECurrent rear-facing convertible seats go to 30/35 lbs. rear-facingKeep children rear-facing as long as possible to the maximum limit of the seat. Rear-facing convertibles go to 30 or 35 pounds. Recently there are three convertibles available that go to 40 pounds rear-facing.Keeping children rear-facing to age two or more will help to keep them up to five times safer!In addition to the weight and height limit of the rear-facing convertible. Make sure there is at least 1” between the top of the child’s head and the top of the shell of the seat.5-Point Harness
20Transition to Forward-facing Convertible Child must be at least one year and 20 lbs.Child’s weight exceeds limits of rear- facing seat – 30/35 lbs.Child’s height exceeds limits of seat (need 1” from top of child’s head to top of shell)A child should be at least one year AND 20 pounds before considering forward facing. Some convertibles do not allow children to be forward-facing until at least 22 pounds.Most forward-facing convertibles go to 40 pounds. However, there are several higher harness weight convertibles now available that go to 50, 60, 65 or 80 pounds.
21Harness Strap Slots Rear-facing Harness straps at or below shoulders Forward-facingHarness straps at or above shouldersHarness SlotsFollow the rule for correct harness placement:Rear-facing – at or below the shouldersForward-facing – at or above the shoulders
22Harness Strap Slots Convertible Seat Some convertible seats only have top harness slots reinforced for forward-facing use. READ INSTUCTIONS!Harness SlotsWith convertible seats, be careful when choosing what forward-facing harness slot to use. Read the instructions carefully to see which slots are reinforced for forward-facing use. If in doubt, use the top slots.
23Harness Strap SlotsHarness straps in wrong slot for forward- facing childHarness straps ripped through lower slots2 yr. old child died of a spinal cord injuryHere is an example of what can happen if the harnesses are placed in a slot that is not reinforced. It can be a very dangerous and sometimes fatal mistake!
24Harness Straps Snug Straps must be snug Not able to pinch any of webbing on harnessFor all types of child safety seats, make sure the harness straps are snug. The straps should lay flat and you should not be able to pinch any of the webbing.
25Retainer Clip Retainer Clip Place at level armpit to armpit Holds straps in positionRetainer ClipThe retainer clip in all child safety seats always goes across the chest from armpit to armpit. The purpose of the retainer clip is to keep the harness straps from slipping off the child’s shoulders.
26Transition to Forward-Facing Only Combination SeatForward-facing only (higher top harness slot)After 40 lbs.* harness is removed; use as belt- positioning boosterA combination seat combines a removable 5-point harness with a high back booster seat. In the stores, it is usually referred to as a booster seat with a harness. ALL of the harness slots are reinforced on this type of seat. Choose the one that is at or slightly above the child’s shoulders.Most combination seats go to 40 pounds, but there are several available that go to 50, 60, 65 or 80 pounds.Best practice is to keep children in a harness until 40 pounds as long as they are not too tall for the seat.*Some newer seatshave higher harnessweights.
27Boosters Boosters are for children: Mature enough to sit still in lap/shoulder beltUsually 4 years of age and over 40 lbs.Booster seats should only be used for children mature enough to sit still for the entire ride. This is usually four years old and over 40 pounds.
28Alternatives for Boosters for Children over 40 Pounds Convertible seats that go to lbs. forward-facingCombination seats that go to lbs. and then become booster seatsForward-facing seats that go up to lbs. but do not become boostersVests that go to 168 lbs.See handout on higher weight seatsChildren who weigh over 40 pounds, but are not mature enough for a booster should be in a higher harness weight seat.There are several higher harness weight seats to choose from as well as vests. See handout with a list of seats available.Graco Nautilus
29Transition to Booster Seat Choice: booster or safety belt?Safety belts do not fitShort height and legsRounded hipsBooster helps child fit the adult safety beltSafety belts were designed for an adult at least 4’9” tall. Boosters are needed to raise the child up so the lap/shoulder belt will fit correctly.
30Boosters 4 - 8+ years old and under 4’9” Types: High back belt-positioningBackless belt-positioningBoosters must be used with a lap and shoulder belt!Booster seats must be used with a lap and shoulder belt!There are two types of boosters – high back and backless
31High Back Belt-Positioning Booster Maximum weight – 80/100* lbs.Provides head supportMost high-back boosters start at 30 lbs.BEST PRACTICE is to keep child in a 5-point harness until 40 lbs.A high back booster can provide head support when the vehicle has no headrest. Although most high back boosters start at 30 pounds, remember that best practice is to keep a child in a 5-point harness until 40 pounds.* Some go to more than 100 lbs.
32Backless Belt-positioning Booster Used when head restraint is presentFits 40 lbs. up to 80/100 lbs.A few go over 100 lbs.Most backless boosters start at 40 pounds. Make sure there is a headrest available in the vehicle. The headrest should provide support behind the mid-point of the child’s head (the top of the ears).
33Solutions for Vehicles with Lap Belts Only Vests are available that can go upto 168 lbs.Many vests can be used with laponly belts (may also need tether)E-Z-On Travel VestRideSafer Travel VestE-Z-On VestMany older vehicles have only lap belts in the back seat. This poses a problem for children that need to ride in booster seats. In addition to higher harness weight seats, there are also vests available that can help keep children safe in these situations. Some may require a top tether be added to the vehicle.Some vehicles may be able to be retrofitted with lap/shoulder belts.RideSaferTravel Vest
34Transition to Lap/Shoulder Belt Child should not slouchLap portion should fit low on hipsShoulder portion should fit across chest and shoulderNever put shoulder portion behind back or under armFits children at least 4’9’’ tall - usually around 8-12 yrs. oldCheck to make sure a child is fitting properly in the lap/shoulder belt.Child should sit up straightThe knees should bend comfortably at the edge of the seat.The lap belt should fit correctly low over the hipsThe shoulder belt should fit correctly over the chestThe child should be able to sit comfortably for the entire rideThis is usually when the child is at least 4’9” tall and 8-12 years old.
35Safety in and around Vehicles Not all vehicle-related injuries and deaths to children are from motor vehicle crashes.Children are at risk in and around vehicles in non-crash incidents.Jacob’s Law – effective 9/1/09Children are at great risk in non-traffic incidents. It is important that care givers follow safety guidelines to keep children safe in and around vehicles.Jacob’s Law which became effective on September 1, 2009 is named in memory of four-year-old Jacob Fox who died in July 2006 after being accidentally left behind in a day care van on a day where the temperature in Dallas reached into the triple digitsNow, anyone in a licensed or registered child care program who transports a child whose chronological or developmental age is younger than nine years is required to complete at least two hours of annual training on transportation safety. This course meets this requirement.
36Children at Risk from Hyperthermia Never leave a child unattended in a vehicle.In just 10 minutes, temperatures can increase almost 20 degrees.A child’s body temperature rises 3-5 times faster than an adult’s.In more than half of the cases, the child was ‘forgotten’ by the care giver.Children are at great risk of hyperthermia from being left in hot vehicles. A child’s body temperature can rise 3-5 times faster than an adult. In just 10 minutes temperatures in a vehicle can rise almost 20 degrees.In most cases where a child dies after being left alone in a hot vehicle, the child was ‘forgotten’ by the care giver.At the end of a trip, always search the vehicle to make sure no child is left behind.
37Children at Risk in Cars with Engine Running Children left alone in a vehicle with the engine running can accidently or deliberately set the vehicle in motion.An unbelted child in a moving vehicle is also at great risk of injury.Power windows can be activated and pose a great danger for children.A vehicle with the motor running is a very dangerous place for an unattended child. Whether deliberately or accidently, a child can set the vehicle in motion.Power windows are also a great danger to children when left in a vehicle with the ignition turned on.
38Children at Risk for Backovers According to KidsandCars.org there are 50 children backed over each week – 48 are injured and 2 die.Blind spots are the main reasons for backovers.Backovers are very dangerous. As many as 50 children are involved in backovers each week. The main reason is blind spots.
39It is frightening to think that there can be as many as 62 children behind this vehicle and not one is visible to the driver! It is important to take a five second walk around the vehicle to make sure there are no children near the vehicle.
40Follow Safety TipsInjuries and death to children in and around vehicles can be prevented.Follow a routine of safety precautions.Help avoid needless injuries and deaths that bring tragedy to all involved.See the safety tips handout.Needless injuries and deaths can be avoided by following a routine of safety precautions. Please read the handout with safety tips and make this an everyday part of your routine.NEVER LEAVE CHILDREN ALONE IN AND AROUND VEHICLES!
41ResourcesOnline course available: Transporting Children Safely in Child Care at:2 clock hoursMeets new requirements for 2 additional hours of transportation safetyLocate a technicianTexas AgriLife Extension Passenger Safety Project offers an online version of this course. It meets the requirement of two clock hours in transportation safety.The course is available at: There is no charge for taking the course, but a $10 fee is required for printing out the certificate.To locate a Certified Child Passenger Safety Technician in your area for help with child safety seats go to:If you are interested in becoming a certified child passenger safety technician contact the Passenger Safety Project at
42Working TogetherLet’s help keep thechildren of Texassafe and healthy!