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GCSE Shortcourse Product Design

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1 GCSE Shortcourse Product Design
By Matthew Kielan

2 Introduction For my GCSE CDT Product Design Unit I am aiming to design a complete set of snowboarding gear. This will include a snowboard, boots, bindings and possibly a bag. I think there is a need for this as most snowboarders get their board from one company, boots from the other and unbranded bindings and a bag which is not designed to carry snowboards. As a snowboarder I know a lot about how the weight of the boarder spreads on the board and how the natural “spring mechanism” can be used to achieve higher ollies (ollie is a word used in snowboarding/skating to describe a jump which is achieved by springing off the back foot, or as one might say “popping the tail”). My second concern is the binding, I never had my snowboard break on the slope, but I had my binding doing it. It usually happens when the screw of the strap is slowly becoming loose due to movement of the strap (about 15 degrees), which is essential for fitting with the boot during riding (also the strap would break if it couldn’t move). This mostly happens with the front leg’s largest binding strap, because when the boarder leans back he/she pulls back the boot along with the binding and the strap. If you think there is no difference in boots that you ride in, you are wrong. I noticed the difference when I got my Salomon Symbio boots, I felt the difference as soon as I got on the board. Salomon Symbio boots made it easier to manage the balance, gaining more control over some tricks that require precision and good balance like rails (those pipes you slide along). Lastly every boarder needs a bag to put his/hers boots in when he/she is going off the slope and taking the average 1 mile walk back to the hotel, also strapping the board to the bag would help.

3 Introduction Because walking a mile with a 8 lbs snowboard in one hand that additionally has a sharp edge, hurt your fingers even with gloves on. For this purpose I have always used a skating bag which unfortunately cannot support the weight of my board (board + boots = 1stone 4lbs) an ideal bag would have a bag hung down to support the board by the nose or tail. Bag with straps to regulate how low it hangs

4 Introduction - Snowboarding
Snowboarding dates back to 1960s, but a snowboard that looks like today's snowboards has been developed in the late 1970s. Snowboarding is a very young sport comparing to skiing, some sources claim that even Vikings used skis. Once in a village of Muskegon, Sherman Poppen was outside his house one day sledding with his daughters, when his 11 year old was going down the hill, standing on her old sled. Mr. Poppen then ran to his house and screwed two skis together. Then he put a rope in the nose, this board was impossible to ride backwards just like a ski because it would dig into snow. This innovation was called Snurfer by Poppen's family, also because of it's similarity to surfing (the “snu” prefix came from “snow”). Poppen then held competitions for snurfers, then in 1979 Jake Burton showed up with a custom built board that had prototype bindings to strap his feet to the board. Jake Burton established Burton Snowboards in 1977. In late 1980s there was animosity between snowboarders and skiers, and that led to banning of snowboarding in ski resorts.

5 Introduction - Snowboard
So what is the Snowboard made of? Top Usually a layer of acrylic with a printed graphic. Core Made of laminated wood then sandwiched between multiple layers of fibreglass. Underside “Base” Different compositions of plastic, it is then regularly waxed for smooth sliding. Edge Strap of metal around the edges of the board, although I have seen a board with a metal plate inside it. Acting as both core and edge. The hourglass structure of the board makes it easier to perform turns, because when one of the edges is being pressed against the slope the board is flexed into a curve.

6 Snowboard More Detail Top
Usually a layer of acrylic with a printed graphic. Core Beech and poplar are very common woods, but other woods are used such as bamboo (salomon's new production line) and birch. Many manufacturers are trying to make aluminum, composite honeycomb and other cores. I have seen an aluminium hybrid of a core and an edge. Desired properties of the core are dampening, rebound, strength, flex and reduced weight. Underside “Base” It is mostly made of a porous, plastic (polyethylene) material, that is later waxed to make the underside a smooth, hydrophobic surface (not saturating water). Bases are made to have amorphous areas that are porous to wax. Wax is an important finishing product for all base materials. It allow the snowboard to have a smoother glide, it also allows to change the characteristics of the base and adjust the board to the snow conditions. Different base waxes are used for different temperatures. Although people who can ride, not only show off with snowboards use a simple candle to wax their board. If a base is left without wax for too long, it will begin to oxidise and it wont saturate with wax. A stonegrind can remove layers of oxidation from the board and open up its amorphous areas too more readily accept wax. If the base is damaged it will create friction and will become oxidized unreversibly.

7 Snowboard More Detail Edge Strap of metal around the edges of the board. Sharp edge can make riding on ice possible, but can result in a crash on a rail because it would digg into it. Laminate The snowboard's core is sandwiched by at least two layers of fiberglass. The fiberglass adds stiffness and torsional strength to the board. The fiberglass laminate may be: biaxial fibers running the length of the board and more fibers 90 degrees perpendicular to it triax fibers running the length of the board with 45 degree fibers running across it quadrax biax and triax joined together Some snowboards also add carbon and aramid (also known as Twaron or Kevlar) stringers for additional elasticity and strength.

8 The Boot Snowboard Boots have a similar construction to that of ski boots, they consist of the inside boot which is like a 1 inch thick sock and an outer shell. The difference is that a ski boot shell is made of plastic and has three plates, that disable any movement of the ankle. The sole on a snowboard boot provides more grip and makes walking up slopes easier than walking up slopes in ski boots. Also it is worth mentioning that snowboard boots use laces. Boots' function is to transfer the rider's energy into the board, to support the ankle (if you tried snowboarding in similar looking boots but not snowboarding ones, you would end up with your ankles broken), and keep the rider's feet warm. Boots can have different features like lacing styles (speed lace - salomon), heat molding liners (thermofit – this technology makes the inside of the boot mould around your feet to make it more comfortable), and gel padding. There are snowboard boots that are made for most bindings and some that are made for "step in" style bindings, but I will not discuss those. Snowboard boots differ from other types of boots in that they provide internal support to transfer the rider's movements to the board. Some boots that look like snowboard boots, but are not real snowboard boots, are unsuitable for snowboarding and will break your ankles.

9 Difference Between Freestyle and Freeride
Most people don't realise the difference between Freeride and Freestyle. The technical difference between those two is basically that a Freeride board is more stiff and firm to withstand high speeds (40mph-80mph), so its like a ram and nothing will disturb it's trail. If a Freeride board would be too flexible (like the Freestyle board) it would fit the shape of any lump and start to make turns on its own. Of course this would only happen if there were large forces acting on the board (like when speeding at 40mph).A Freeride board is more flexible, and there are reasons behind it. Well first of all the boards need to be flexible because ollies require a board to be flexible. The way it works is that the board is being flexed, by leaning back and lifting the nose then jumping off the tail. Now the more elastic the board is the more force it gives back, while returning to the original shape and therefore acting almost like a spring in the tail. Nose/Tail rolls on a Freestyle board is way easier than on a Freeride. This is because the board can flex to the point only the nose/tail is touching the ground, so you can rotate yourself and the board. The nose/tail is the centre of rotation as it is the only point on the ground

10 Other Snowboarding Terms
Twin Tipped Board- this means that the distance from the bindings to both ends of the board is the same. This makes it easier to ride backwards. Half Pipe- A half pipe (or "pipe") is a trench-like half-tube made of snow. Jibbing- Riding or grinding anything that is not snow. Radii The sidecut (edge) is a part of a circle set on a radius of 9-18 metres, a bigger radium results in a smoother curve and a smaller radius results in sharp turns, because the shape of the curve. Sidecut The cut out part in the side of the snowboard which makes it look like an hourglass.

11 Main Snowboarding Brands

12 Salomon Snowboards The board is the most important., it's the actual thing that you ride on. This one is a member of the versatile family, so it's useful both for fast rides in virgin snow and snowparks. Is certainly my favourite make of snowboarding gear. It’s because I got the first professional boots made by Salomon last christmas and I fell in love with them. Why? Because those boots gave me incredible precision and balance. Force is not a breathtaking technology, but the strengthened straps (its tucked between the back plate and the ankle cap) give excellent control over turns.

13 Rossignol K2 Snowboarding
Most of ski rentals, especially Xscape own Rossignol equipment to rent out. I cannot say all rental Rossignol equipment is poor quality however the bindings and the boots at Xscape look like recycled. The rental bindings are manufactured entirely out of aluminium (because if it was anyother metal they would be very heavy) and look as if they are made of recycled cans. This look might have been a result of excessive use. The rental board however if very flexible, it’s almost as if it was designed for Xscape. I think so because this kind of board would snap on black and red tracks, also Xscape has no rocks on the slope however real mountains do and the forces acting on the board are more severe*. The boards rented at Xscape lack a layer of acrylic on the top. However the boards perform very well on ramps and rails. The boots’ shells are very soft so they do not provide ankle support, this can lead to injuries to the foot area. K2 Snowboarding On this one I had to aid myself with a review posted on the internet. According to it, K2 Snowboards are very manoeuvrable considering it is very short. Keep in mind that short snowboards make very sharp turns because of the radius of the edge (or curve) is smaller. Quoted From an On-Line shop, about K2’s bindings: “The magnesium base, aluminium heelcup, plus the plasma highback exude durability. The buckles are sturdy, the straps are comfortable; the ankle strap length can be adjusted by hand, tool-free. “

14 Burton Burton is probably the oldest snowboarding brand in the world. It has been established by Jake Burton, and made snowboards as we know them today. Burton was the first company to develop WORKING bindings for snowboards. Burton is a high quality manufacturer and usually I haven't seen beginners riding Burton equipment. Probably because most people learn to ride Freeride instead of Freestyle and most of equipment made by Burton is targeted at SnowPark/Freestyle riders. This company has the most experience in making snowboards in the world (over 35 years).

15 Logo This logo was the first one that came to my mind so I cannot show any questionnaire results and which logo people have chosen or refining process because there was only one idea. Here is a version with colour.

16 Questionnaire Q1) What Snowboard do you ride? Freeride 10 Freestyle 8
I think I will post this questionnaire on snowboarding in UK forums for people to tell me what features they would like to see in snowboards. SCUK Q1) What Snowboard do you ride? Freeride Freestyle 8 None Versatile (does almost both) 2 Q2) How Much Are You Willing To Pay For Snowboard+Boots? £175 / less 6 £ £ £ £ £ £ £636 / more 1

17 Q3) Would you like a board with a radii (The curve (edge) is a part of a circle set on a radius of 9-18 metres, a bigger radium results in a smoother curve and a smaller radius results in sharp turns, because the shape of the curve.)‏ a) 18 metres 1 b) 15 metres 9 c) 12 metres 8 d) 9 metres 3 Q4) Have you heard of any of these materials used for snowboards ? (multiple answer)‏ a) Aluminium 12 b) Kevlar 3 c) Twaron 1 d) Bamboo 16 e) Oak 3 f) Birch 14 g) Pine 17 h) Any of evergreens 21 Q5) What is your Shoe Size (EUR)‏ a) b) c) d) e)

18 Q6) What boots do you ride?
a) Standard (soft boots) b) the ones that work with those weird bindings (hard boots) 1 Q7) Have you heard of a technology that fits the inside of the boot to your feet according to your feet’s temperature? a) Yes 14 b) No 7 Q8) What lacing system would you like ? a) normal (haves to tie shoe laces like in a a normal shoe)‏ 5 b) with a wheel to quickly fasten it Q9) What Type of Bindings would you like to see on the board? a) step-in b) strap in (toe cap)‏ 11 c) strap in (without the toe cap)‏ 7 Q10) Judge your level of experience IN RIDING Beginner 6 Intermediate 10 Advanced 5

19 Questionnaire Results - Price
This Graph shows what amount of money people are willing to pay. So I should keep the costs of manufacture within the range of £ I could possibly make another model for the price range £ This way I could satisfy 66% with the regular model and 24% with the premium model.

20 Questionnaire Results
Most people own Freeride board, this is mainly because when riders start snowboarding they usually purchase a Freeride board. However more advanced users are willing to purchase Freestyle boards at a higher price with a smaller radius of the sidecut. I think I should produce a snowboard with a 13 metre radius sidecut.

21 Questionnaire Results
Number of people who heard about the material This shows that not many people know about using oak as a core for a snowboard, and kevlar or twaron used instead of fibre glass.

22 Questionnaire Results
When I questioned people, it was mainly women that gave me the low shoe sizes. So I think I should produce boots separately for men (37-45) and women (35-43).

23 Questionnaire Results
When I questioned people, it was mainly women that gave me the low shoe sizes. So I think I should produce boots separately for men (37-45) and women (35-43).

24 Questionnaire Results
In this situation I don’t think I should bother designing a hard shell boot.

25 Questionnaire Results
This means that if my boot had the thermal fitting technology, and it manifested that in the advert it would sell better.

26 Questionnaire Results
I think I should design a boot with a wheel to tighten the laces that can be takes off easily and replaced by conventional laces. While analysing those results, I have had an idea to supply a strap-in binding with a additional toe strap with a toe cap. This is so that if one prefers a toe cap, they can replace the toe strap with a toe strap that has a toe cap.

27 Material Research – SideCut
I need to use a material with high tensile strength so its does not permanently deform or snap after a snowboarder performing a noseroll. But it must not resist bending, because then it wouldn’t flex. Carbon Steel Carbon steel is the hardest kind of steel available. (From Wikipedia) As carbon content rises the metal becomes harder and stronger but less ductile and more difficult to weld. Higher carbon content lowers steel's melting point and its temperature resistance in general. If its not temperature resistant then it will deform due to long exposure to frost and then it usually gets put in a heated hardware room at ski centers. This all happens in a short amount of time. Therefore the `rim’ will deform and come off the board. It also rusts. Titanal Titanal is an alloy of aluminium and titanium, and it would be worth consideration to use it for the rim. But I haven’t heard of titanal or titanium used for snowboard edges.

28 Material Research – SideCut
Steel The most widely used material for edges. In fact I haven't heard of any other being used for the edge of snowboard. It has a downside, it rusts. I had experienced that painfully while going to the Italian Alps. During the almost 24 hour drive the snowboard on the top of the roof has been exposed to water and air, and my edges have rusted. Therefore to make the snowboard more durable I could use Stainless Steel. Conclusion Both normal steel and high carbon steel rust, so I would depreciate using any of these for the edge of the snowboard. I prefer stainless steel, which has about the same properties as normal steel. No one has ever used titanal in a snowboard edge so I wouldn't like to experiment.

29 Material Research – Carbon Fibre
£6-7 per KG this makes it very competitive with steel (£0.25/kg). It’s UV resistant so it does not loose strength due to exposure to sunlight or visible light. It is 50% more elastic than Kevlar. It is a material made of extremely thin fibres about 0.005–0.010 mm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in microscopic crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment makes the fiber incredibly strong for its size. Several thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. The carbon can become further enhanced, as high modulus, or high strength carbon, by heat treatment processes. Carbon fiber heated from 2500 to °C (graphitizing) exhibits a high modulus of elasticity (531 kN/mm²). I need my snowboard to be to be elastic and take to take pressure when the board falls down from heights of 5 metres with the snowboarder on it. Carbon fiber composites are anisotropic, meaning the high strength and modulus only apply in the direction of the fiber's axis. Most parts are three dimensional so a CF is woven impart X, Y, and Z directional strength. This makes Carbon Fibre a good material to use instead of fibre glass in the construction of the snowboard. Carbon Fibre is already used in snowboards to make what is called “carbon stringers” which add more pop (springs back) to the board. Tensile Strenght Ultimate 5650 MPa But I should lower that to 5000MPa. This is equal to PSI.

30 Material Research – Glass Fibre
Glass fibre has the same strength length wise as width wise. This is because of the structure. There are 4 atoms of oxygen and 1 of silicon and the oxygen atoms all surround the silicon atom. This is the reason why the glass fibre has the same strength along x and y axis. Glass Fibre is a very good insulator and it has a very high ratio of surface area to weight. Glass Fibre is commonly used in the construction of the snowboard, it is used by most manufacturers of snowboards to sandwich the core. Tensile Ultimate Strenght of S-Glass 3450 MPa, E-Glass 4710 MPa but I should lower that to 4250MPa. This is equal to PSI.

31 Fibres that were not used
I think of using Carbon fibre because it can take a lot more pressure. I only considered the two fibres (carbon fibre and glass fibre) because other options are unsuitable. If in the course of design carbon fibre will be unsuitable for using it First option was zylon. It’s very stiff so it would limit the flexibility of the board. However it was much stronger than carbon fibre. It degrades and looses a lot of that strenght within 30 months (bullet-proof vests are known to have a warranty of 30 months, and then they are not bullet-proof anymore), this is disqualifying for use with snowboards. It also degrades but UV and visible light. That’s also why I’m not using aramid fibres. They degrade by UV light. I wont use Kevlar and Twaron because they are not resistant to UV light. That is why I won’t use any materials that are not resistant to UV.

32 Material Research – Wood
Bamboo, Yew, Willow, Elm, Juniper, Hazel, oak, ash, birch & hemlock.

33 Material Research – Boot
Sole will be made out of rubber as always, although it will have metal spokes designed to produce extra grip on ice.

34 Design – Bag Outside Snowboarders always take their a drink and food as well as their screwdrivers, pen knifes, spare boots. So here I have a couple of sketches of how the bag is going to look like. The chest strap is optional, so I will make a questionnaire about whether people want the bag with the chest strap or not. The main idea is simple, the pieces of coated nylon polyester are sewn onto the carbon fibre `frame' on which the snowboard is suspended. The frame is a rectangle with two semicircles coming out of the top-right, bottom-right corner and top-left, bottom-left corners to produce the shoulder straps. On the other side of the rectangle there will be a semicircular length of carbon fibre which will be attached to the middle of the top side of the rectangle and the middle of the bottom. There will be loops coming out of each corner of the rectangle, to tie the bindings of the board to it (two loops per binding). When the fabric is sewn onto the frame the bag will look like a triangle looking from the top. It will have two zips on either side of the single semicircle carbon fibre thread. The zips will have two zip sliders ( just in case one wears out). So there will be a lot of free access to the bag, and you can take out the items at the bottom without turning your bag upside down, so this prevents the tools falling out of tool pockets.

35 Design – Bag Outside The carbon fibre threads of which the frame is composed will have a diameter of 5mm. This gives rather a large overhead, so the bag is not going to fall apart when the weight of the snowboard starts pulling it. Carbon fibre has a tensile strength of kg/cm^2 (850000PSI) and the area of the cross section of the thread would be 0.25cm^2. This means that I could suspend a maximum of just below tonnes from one of the loops if tied in an Eskimo bowline ( remember my design includes 4 loops). This is the questionnaire that will determine whether my bag has the chest straps. Chest straps in between shoulder straps on a bag help to keep the shoulder straps together, and therefore prevent the bag sliding off your shoulders. However others consider chest straps ugly and claim that they grip their chest too much. Would you like a snowboarding bag with or without a chest strap: a) YES b) NO

36 Design – Bag Outside The bindings of the board will be tied to the bag by the loops. You can tie the snowboard to the bag using: farmer's loop Artillery Loop Miller's knot After the free end of the loop thread would be tied around the heelcup of the binding, then it would be secured using a buckle to the shoulder straps and in case of the bottom two threads, the top of the bag. Eskimo bowline And obviously the most basic one

37 Design – Bag Outside Sketches

38 Design – Bag Improvements
First of all I thought about how improve the waterproof propriety of the bag, and I thought about the zips. The zips are not waterproof and snow easily gets to them and then melts. I decided to introduce a flap over the zips that would prevent the snow reaching the zip to some extent. The buckles were not in my original design, because I was still debating over which fastening system I should use. I am sure that metal buckles will manage to hold the weight. Because the buckles are metal and are around the neck area (shoulders) they should be sanded to ensure there are no sharp edges.

39 Design – Bag Manufacture
1)Then the sides of the bag are cut out from a nylon sheet. 2)The tool pockets and the inside of the bag are glued/sewn onto the inside of back side of the bag. 3)The two front sides have zips sewn into them. 4)Every stitch is reinforced with glue 5) Bag left to dry. 6)The carbon fibre threads are place on the table along a template and fixed into position temporarily. 7)the sides of the bag get sewn and glued to the `frame' 8) Bag left to dry 9) Padding on the back is added 10)Shoulder straps are constructed around the semicircular threads of carbon fibre and the buckles are fixed on the carbon fibre threads within the shoulder straps. 11) The buckles are added to each of the four loop threads. 12) The bag is then packed into a nylon sack (similar to the ones of the sleeping bags)‏

40 Design – Bag Outside Manufacture
Costs: Carbon Fibre (0.25xtotal_length): £0.00 This is since carbon fibre costs £?/kg and the density of carbon fibre is ?.?kg/m^2. Aluminium (40 buckle parts): £0.00 Manufacture: £3 I am going to have the bag sewn together in a third world country where people consider it very good to work for £0.75/hour. This makes me think that I would be able to sell the bag for about £?? .

41 Snowboard Manufacture Brief
The snowboard is made of: Topsheet with printed graphic Fiber glass or epoxy Wood or foam core Steel inserts Plastic base, (p-tex) Metal edges Those are my ideas for the top of the snowboard.

42 Snowboard Design This is a screen shot of the snowboard I made in blender (a free program available for Linux for 3D modelling). I could not do that in ProDesktop unfortunately.

43 Snowboard Design cross section
Idea 1 Thickness Weight Price Durability 3 Idea 2 1 Idea 3 2 Idea 4 After realising that idea one was both too heavy and to thick, I discarded idea 2 because it was also thick. This has left me with a less durable but lighten and thinner design.

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