FACTORIES AND ASSEMBLY LINES Made manufacturing more efficient and thus increased profits Created jobs for people but these jobs were often very labor intensive and done in poor conditions Women and children worked alongside men –Women had to do double duty as moms and workers –Children as young as five worked 16 hour days in deplorable conditions
London- Artist Representation Source: The Lancet, British medical journal, founded and edited by Thomas Wakley, medical reformer, 1843. AVERAGE AGE AT DEATH Gentry/Profession al Farmer/Trader Labor/Artisan Rural Districts Rutland 52 41 38 Bath553725 Industrial Distracts Leeds442719 Manchester382017
Evidence of Textile Workers in Wilson's Mill, Nottingham "I work at Mr. Wilson's mill. I think the youngest child is about 7. I daresay there are 20 under 9 years. It is about half past five by our clock at home when we go in....We come out at seven by the mill. We never stop to take our meals, except at dinner.
Evidence of Textile Workers in Wilson's Mill, Nottingham William Crookes is overlooker in our room. He is cross- tempered sometimes. He does not beat me; he beats the little children if they do not do their work right....I have sometimes seen the little children drop asleep or so, but not lately. If they are catched asleep they get the strap. They are always very tired at night....I can read a little; I can't write. I used to go to school before I went to the mill; I have since I am sixteen."
Punishment Robert Blincoe was interviewed by John Brown in 1828. “The blacksmith had the task of riveting irons upon any of the apprentices, whom the master ordered. These irons were very much like the irons usually put upon felons. Even young women, if they suspected of intending to run away, had irons riveted on their ankles, and reaching by long links and rings up to the hips, and in these they were compelled to walk to and fro from the mill to work and to sleep.”
Table 1 Age Distribution in Cotton Factories (Manchester and Stockport Cotton Factories, 1818-9) Starting Age in Factories Age Group% under 1049..9 10-1327..9 14-1710..3 18-204.1 21 & over7.8 sample size7142
Factory Food (3) Sarah Carpenter was interviewed by The Ashton Chronicle on 23rd June, 1849. Our common food was oatcake. It was thick and coarse. This oatcake was put into cans. Boiled milk and water was poured into it. This was our breakfast and supper. Our dinner was potato pie with boiled bacon it, a bit here and a bit there, so thick with fat we could scarce eat it, though we were hungry enough to eat anything. Tea we never saw, nor butter. We had cheese and brown bread once a year. We were only allowed three meals a day though we got up at five in the morning and worked till nine at night.
Accidents Happen! A report commissioned by the House of Commons in 1832 said that: "there are factories, no means few in number, nor confined to the smaller mills, in which serious accidents are continually occurring, and in which, notwithstanding, dangerous parts of the machinery are allowed to remain unfenced."
Evidence of Textile Workers in Wilson's Mill, Nottingham: "I have three children working in Wilson's mill; one 11, one 13, and the other 14. They work regular hours there. We don't complain. If they go to drop the hours, I don't know what poor people will do. We have hard work to live as it is....My husband is of the same mind about it...last summer my husband was 6 weeks ill; we pledged almost all our things to live; the things are not all out of pawn yet....We complain of nothing but short wages...My children have been in the mill three years. I have no complaint to make of their being beaten...I would rather they were beaten than fined."
GENDER ISSUES CHANGES Poor women had to work in factories and still take care of family needs Wealthy women stayed home and had less power outside the home in industrial age Middle Class women became involved in reform movements (abolition, suffrage) CONTINUITIES Women still had family responsibilities Society still very patriarchal
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION Rapid urbanization (factory jobs were in cities) –Rough living conditions in crowded cities Industrialized nations were the strongest and took advantage of non-industrialized nations Middle class is born and even more specialization of labor develops
The Need for Reform…. What happened to Laissez Faire??