Presentation on theme: "Reigate Grammar School ACP 34 V1 – Airmanship I Learning Objectives"— Presentation transcript:
1Reigate Grammar School ACP 34 V1 – Airmanship I Learning Objectives Chapter 1 - AirfieldsIdentify the features and facilities found on an AirfieldList and compare the 3 main airfield typesState how airfield runways are alignedState the significance of the two digit numbers found on the ends of runwayName the main features of a modern “Main Instrument Runway” type airfieldState the main function of a RHAG and what the abbreviation stands forIdentify and state the functions of the following facilities:Overrun AreasArrester BarriersORPsASPsTaxiwayDispersalsWindsocksAirfield identifying lettersExplain how hazards such as specialist vehicles are identified on an airfieldState the function of Approach Lighting
2Airmanship 1AirfieldsAirfield- an area including buildings and support installations used for the accommodation, take-off and landing of aircraft.Airport – an airfields with added facilities for freight and passengersAircraft manoeuvring areas – parts of the airfield which have specially prepared for the movement of aircraft on the ground ( taxiways, runways, aircraft servicing platforms.
3Layout of an Airfield 3 types or Airfields Basic Grass Airfield The wind direction and length of runway are importantPresent trend – one long runway or at most 2, with longer one being designated the ‘main instrument runway’ (in line with prevailing wind, lighting, radio installations and safety equipment)3 types or AirfieldsBasic Grass AirfieldTriangular patterned runwayModern main instrument runway
5Runways Construction – concrete or layers of asphalt Dimensions – vary according to roleTypical RAF airfield – 45 m wide and 1.8 km long or more)Subsidiary runways – same width but not as longFor Transport aircraft to operate60 m wide2.7 km long
7Runways – white markings ColourTaxiways–yellow markingsRunway NumbersThe number indicates the magnetic headings of the runway direction (nearest 10 )Examples238– runway No. 24058 – runway no. 06The magnetic heading is taken from the direction of approach. Therefore the heading for one end of the runway is 180 different from the otherRunways – white markings
9Centre-Line and Side-Stripe markings Threshold MarkingsRunway threshold- longitudinal white lines painted symmetrically about the runway centre-lineChevrons and a bar are added when threshold is moved up runway because of obstruction. Therefore aircraft are at safe height when it crosses obstructionBeginning of runway before the threshold markings is known as the ‘sterile area’Centre-Line and Side-Stripe markingsIndicated as a broken white line (arrowheads in the sterile area)Side-stripe markings are added to runways which have little contrast between the runway and the surrounding area
10Over-Run Areas and Arrester Barriers Arrester GearBrings aircraft to a stop in a short distanceAircraft needs a hook to engage cablesRAF use RHAG – Rotary Hydraulic Arrester Gear – large paddles rotating in liquidOver-Run Areas and Arrester BarriersWhere space permitsOver-run areas, clear of obstacles and with a reasonably even surfaceCan also have barriers consisting of large strong nets made of nylon rope which can be raised and lowered
11Operational Readiness Platforms Specially prepared areas (for fighters and strike aircraft) built alongside the end of a runwayUsed for parking aircraft for rapid take-off (‘scramble’)or for final flight preparationDispersal HardstandingsThe aim is to spread the aircraft around the airfield, to make it more difficult for enemy aircraft to damage or destroy all the parked aircraft during an attack
12Aircraft Servicing Platforms (ASPs) Large paved areas for the servicing and turn-around of aircraft.TaxiwaysConnect all the various parts of the aircraft manoeuvring area and enable aircraft to move about easily (minimum of 15m wide)
13Taxiway markings Centre line- broken yellow line Edge marking – dashed yellow line - where there is little contrast between the taxiway and the surrounding areaHolding position- At a junction of a taxiway with a runway, taxiing aircraft are required to ‘hold’ until it is safe to move onto the runway. Indicated by two yellow lines, one solid and one broken. It is painted at right angles to the taxiways centre line and 70m from the nearest edge of the runway. The holding position sign displays the runway number in black on a yellow background (old) or white on a red background (new)
15WindsockNormally there are two or more windsocks on an airfield to provide a quick and easy way of indicating wind directionPositioned away from trees and buildings which may cause local wind turbulenceThe principle windsock has a white ring round its baseObstructionsMay be permanent (building) or temporary (mechanical digger)Clearly marked by day and nightVehicles may be painted with red and white squares and have yellow roofs or be equipped with a flashing amber or blue lights
16Airfield Identification Each airfield is identified by means of two letters. (i.e SY for Shawsbury)Displayed in a ‘signal square’ close to the ATC towerIdentification beacons flash the same letters in Morse CodeAirfield lightingLights are designed to assist pilots to taxi aircraft safely and to take-off and land on the runway in useMany of the lights will be hooded so that they can only be seen from a certain angle.
17Location and Types of Lighting The main types of lighting are:Airfield Identification Beacon- flashed the airfield identification letters in Morse code using a high intensity red light.Obstruction Lights – All high buildings, towers, hangers, both on and in the vicinity of the airfield, are marked by red obstruction lightsFlood lighting- ASPs are often lit by powerful flood lights set on pylonsHolding position – these signs are illuminated at night by their own internal lightingTaxiway Lights – less than 18m wide, marked by blue edge lights along each side- 18m or more are marked only along the centre line and the lights are green
19Location and Types of Lighting Approach lighting- installed outside the airfield boundary and often set on poles, to form a special pattern (see picture) This pattern helps the pilot judge the aircraft’s height and to line up with the runway on the approach to land. In poor visibility or a night it helps the pilot to find the approach path visually towards the end of a radio or radar-controlled approach.Threshold lights- marked by a row of green lights across the runway at the touchdown end. Plus ‘wings’ of three green lights on each side of the runway. ‘wings’ are omitted if the threshold is displaced up the runway.Runway lights- Main runway have high-intensity unidirectional edge lights. Plus come omnidirectional edge lights to help pilots in the circuit judge their position.
23Chapter 2 – The Tutor2.1 Name the units which operate the Grob Tutor aircraft for Air Cadet2.2 Describe the Tutor’s basic configuration2.3 Describe the materials covering the surfaces2.4 Name the engine and the type and amount of the fuel used in the Tutor2.5 Explain the starting method used with this engine2.6 Explain the need for entering the aircraft using the walking strips2.7 Name the 6 basic aircraft instruments2.8 Identify and explain the function of the aircraft primary flying controls2.9 Name the 3 basic engine instruments2.10 Identify and explain the function of the engine controls
24The Tutor We fly at 6AEF – air experience flight at RAF Benson AEFs are equipped with GROB Tutor aircraftThey are single engined, low winged monoplanes.They hold 33 gallons of aviation gasoline in two tanks in the wings (2 ½ flying hours) (some fast jets use this amount of fuel taxiing to the end of the runway)They are equipped with a 180 hp Lycoming engine and can fly at a maximum of 185 kts
26Other featuresSteerable nose wheel – brakes are on the two main wheelsSide-by side seating with dual controls- pilot/cadet can have full control – cadets are in the left seatBody made of carbon reinforced plastic- must walk of the marked ‘walking strip’ provided (on wing)
27Other features 2 radios - air- to - ground - air- to - air One UHF and one VHF bandDO NOT INTERFERE WITH ANY SETTINGSTOUCH NOTHING IN THE COCKPIT
30‘Instruments’ – indicate what the aircraft is doing Atitude Indicator-Nose up/ down-Banked left/rightAirspeed Indicator-Calibrated in knotsAltimeter-Aircrafts height above preset datum-3 hands – one hundreds, one thousands, one 10 thousands-Read carefullyRate of Climb & Descent Indicator-Vertical Speed Indicator-Rate of Climbing or descendingTurn & Slip Indicator-Rate at which aircraft is turning-The direction of turn- if skidding or slippingHorizontal Situation IndicatorSynchronised with compassTells heading
34‘Controls’ – used to manoeuvre the aircraft Control Column ‘stick’AileronsAilerons on wings‘Rolling Plane’-Move left (port) and right (starboard)ElevatorsElevator on tail‘Pitching Plane’-Move up and downRudder Pedals-at pilot’s feet-causes aircraft to ‘Yaw’-Used to turn without banking-Used during aerobatics or to maintain balanced flight
36Engine Instruments RPM Manifold Pressure Temperature and Pressures Revolutions per second20 gives 2,000 rpmManifold PressureHow much power is being supplied by the engine(responds to throttle movements)Temperature and PressuresOf engine
38Engine Controls Throttle RPM Control Mixture Control Pushed forward increases engine outputRPM ControlBlue lever to right of throttle- rpm of engine- efficiency of propellerMixture ControlRed lever next to RPM-fuel/air ratio
40Other Controls Wheel Brakes Flaps Elevator Trimmer Left of right to control steering on ground while taxiing in confined areas-both used to brakeFlapsUsed on approach to landingTo lower approach speed (safety)- To lower nose attitude- better visionLocated on rear inner edge of each wingElevator TrimmerTo make fine adjustments to elevator so that aircraft can be flown at selected pitch attitude with pressure on the stick
45Chapter 3 – Pre-flight briefing – Air Experience Flying in Tutors 3.1 Understand the purpose and importance of the pre-flight briefing3.2 Understand the importance of awareness and lookout on the airfield3.3 State the initial aim of Air Experience Flying (AEF)3.4 Describe how to fit adjust and release the parachute3.5 Describe the Life Preserver and its contents3.6 Describe how to operate the Aircraft safety harness3.7 State the actions to be taken in an emergency3.8 State the actions to be taken when the order “JUMP JUMP” is given3.9 Understand the importance of checking for foreign object3.10 State when a cadet is permitted to touch/operate any controls or equipment in the aircraft3.11 Understand the dangers associated with aircraft propellers3.12 State the actions to be taken if a cadet has any cold or flu like symptoms
46Pre-flight BriefingA successful flight is dependent on preparation by the captain and crew before take-off.They must understand the objective of the flight in order to make it safe and efficient.A Nimrod brief many take many hours, whereas a short flight in a simple aircraft in a local area, would only require a short brief.
47Your ResponsibilityTo learn about Airfields and Instruments/Controls in the TutorTo listen carefully to the film before your flightStay in party and keep a look out.
48Your Briefing at AEF The aim of the exercise Fitting and operation of parachutesFitting and operation of protective helmetFitting and operation of aircraft safety harnessChecking for loose articlesAction to be taken in an emergency – abandoning aircraftCan/Cannot touch in AircraftBasic Operation of aircraft radioThe local flying areaWeather conditionsPrecaution of the ground in aircraft manoeuvring areaMedical aspects of flying
49Aim of the exerciseInitially - to introduce you to the aircraft and familiarise you with the cockpit environmentEffect of some of the aircraft controlsMay have a chance to fly the aircraftAs experience is gained – other aspects will be introduced, such as turning and aerobatics
51ParachuteBack type – parachute, 2 leg straps, chest strap connecting the shoulder straps and rip chord and handleFittingConnect chest strap firstLeg straps individually- between legs and clip fasteners to rings situated at waist level outside hip joints
53Parachute Adjustment – lengthen and shortening 4 adjuster straps. Method of release – Quick releaseRelease chest strap firstSlide metal cover sideways using the thumb catches to unlock the two halvesThen release leg straps
55Aircraft Safety Harness Attached to air craftIt is to ensure that you stay in seat of aircraft when inverted, plus it provides crash protection!5 adjustable straps – 2 shoulder, 2 lap and 1 from centre of seat with quick release box at free end.Fitting – loosen adjustable flap straps and insert 4 adjustable harness lugs
56Aircraft Safety Harness Adjustment –Pull on free ends of lap strap tightly at possiblePull down shoulder strapsFinally the 5th strap is tightened – negative G strapMethod of release – depress yellow thumb catch then turn knob 60 left or right
58Loose Article CheckLoose articles – if dropped in cockpit could lead to dangerous situation if not recoveredNumerous accidents are blamed on foreign objects left by careless peopleThey foul flying controls and cause serious accidentsRemove all objects from pockets beforeIf you drop something report it!
59Action in an Emergency DO NOT PANIC DO AS YOU ARE TOLD You must know what to do if the decision is made to abandon the aircraftThey will give the warning order ‘Check Parachutes’They will jettison the canopy- if not pull back handle- push release – canopy may need to be pushed off with handsThey will give the order ‘JUMP JUMP’
60JUMP JUMP On given the order to ‘JUMP LUMP’ Release the Aircraft Safety Harness Not your parachute!– Turn it 90 degrees either way -Stand up in the cockpit and dive head first over the trailing edge of the wingWhen clear of the aircraft pull the metal ‘D Ring’ attached to the rip cord – (it comes out a long so be sure to pull it to its fullest extent)Bend your legs and roll on landing
62Precautions on the ground Keep alert with your eyes and ears open when walking aboutBeware of propeller discsKeep a good look out for moving aircraft at all times and move only where you are told you may go
63Medical Aspects As altitude increases the air pressure reduces The human body normally adjusts without difficultyHowever, with a cold, discomfort may well be experienced in the ears and sinusesBlocked tubes can prevent pressures form equalising or your ears form clearing, sometimes with painful resultsRAF aircrew do not fly in these circumstances and you must not do so either
67Chapter 4 – VGS and Gliding 4.1 State the medical and physical requirements before being allowed to glide4.2 State the age requirements for solo cadet flying4.3 Describe how team work is fundamental to cadet gliding4.4 State the location of gliders airbrakes and explain their function4.5 Name the instruments in a glider cockpit4.6 State the glider launch orders and explain their meaning4.7 Describe in simple terms soaring flight
68VGS and Gliding We glide at 615 VGS in Kenley It provides glider training for cadetsThe Viking glider has tandem seating for the crew with dual controls, the instructor occupying the rear seat
69Medical/Physical Requirement Physical limitationsMinimum weight for gliding is 48kgMaximum weight for gliding is 103 kg
70Solo at 16You begin to gliding with a gliding induction course (GIC) or air experience gliding (AEG)Opportunities for pilot training will follow on the gliding scholarship (GS) course, and cadets who show an aptitude for gliding are able to fly solo at or above the age of 16 yearsAfter flying solo there are opportunities to carry out your advanced gliding training (AGT) and some may eventually become Flight Staff Cadets and gliding instructors
71Team Work WinsWhen you go gliding at 615 VGS, individuals are given clearly defined duties, which they must carry out responsibly!This is so that gliders can be launched safely and, after landing, brought back to the launch point.
72The GliderGlider’s controls and control surfaces are like those of a conventional aircraft.In addition, winch gliders haveA yellow toggle which the pilot pulls to release the cable when the glider has reached the top of the launchA lever to operate the air brakes
73Air BrakesWhen extended they increase the drag and reduce the lift, allowing the glider to descend more quickly without increasing the speed.This allows the pilot to land in a much smaller space than would otherwise be possible
74Seat HarnessA five point harness fitted to each seatOccupants can strap themselves securely to the seat
75Flight Instruments 4. Variometer Specific to gliders A glider is normally flown by visual reference to the horizonHowever, four flight instruments are fitted for accuracy1. Airspeed indicator2. Altimeter3. Turn and slip indicator4. VariometerSpecific to glidersPurpose is to indicate whether the glider is losing or gaining height.It is invaluable in helping the pilot find rising air, and to stay in it to prolong the flight
77LaunchingA glider has no engine and must be accelerated to its flying speed some other wayThe most common method is the winch launchRarely aero-towing is usedThe winchA drum on which is wound about 1500m of strong flexible steel cableThe drum is turned by a powerful engine which the winch driver controls through an automatic gearbox
78‘ALL OUT’ for Take OffWinch is located close to the upwind boundary of the airfieldCable is attached to the rear of a motor vehicle and drawn out to the launch pointWhen the pilot is ready the cable it attached to the gliderThe pilot checks there is no hazard from behind, by asking the wing tip holders (YOU!) ‘ALL CLEAR ABOVE AND BEHIND’Then Calls ‘TAKE UP SLACK’
79The winch driver is signalled using either lamp signals or radio On receiving the signal the winch driver slowly reels in the cable until it is tautWhen the pilot is ready he will order ‘ALL OUT’The signaller signals the winch driver who opens the winch throttle to wind the cable inThe cable pulls the glider forward and after a short distance it become airborneInitially the glider climbs gently, but the attitude quickly steepensWhen the cable is about 70 to the horizontal, the pilot releases it and is then free to commence the gliding exercise
81When released the cable falls to earth, steadied by a small parachute It is then reeled in by the winch driver for the next launchThe height gained by the glider depends on wind speed, speed at which the cable is being wound and the length of the cable being usedA rough estimate - 1,000m cable gives a 1,000m launch height and a launch last 4 to 10 minutes.
82Soaring and ThermalsSoaring is the art of finding rising air and , then using it to gain height, thus prolonging the flight.Thermals are caused by uneven heating of the earth on hot, sunny days.Green fields, woods and lakes do not heat up rapidlyConcrete or tarmac areas will become much hotter than the surrounding green fieldsThe air over the concrete will therefore rise (like a hot air balloon); this rising air is called a Thermal
84Thermals are not continuous- the warm air being released in the form of bubbles which rise at intervals like invisible air balloonsA cumulus clouds give pilots a good idea of where thermals are forming.If thermal activity is suspected the pilot will keep an eye on the variometer and when he finds rising air the pilot will try to circle in it and gain heightThis requires considerable skill and experience to get maximum use of thermals
85Rising air can also be found on the windward side of hills When the surface wind strikes the face of a hill or ridge it will be deflected upwards, becoming an up-current
91Chapter 5 – Gliding – Vigilant 5.1 Describe the characteristics of self launching gliders5.2 State the engine used to power5.3 State the type of fuel used and the tank capacity5.4 State what the abbreviation SSR stands for5.5 Identify the airbrakes, and the cockpit controls used to operate them5.6 Explain the need of pre-use checks5.7 Explain the need for using Flight Reference Cards (FRCs)5.8 State the need to carry out a prop check prior to engine start5.9 State the checks carried out during taxiing5.10 State the height at which exercises begins
93The vigilant differs from other gliders in that it has an engine and propeller so that it can be launched itself.It can be flown by allowing the engine to idle or by shutting down the engine.It is used to train cadets in the effect of controls, climbing, gliding, turning, stalling, circuit flying, approach and landing.The glider will soar with reasonable soaring conditions.The engine is not powerful enough for rapid climbing. (5 min to reach 2,000ft)Reduced ground handling time means more airborne time.