6Calculating Total Fall Distance Freefall = 6 feet maximumDeceleration Distance = 3.5 feet maximumLifeline elongation = 2 feet maximumTotal fall before stopping = 11.5 feetPortion of body landing below attachment point approximately 5 feet minimumHarness effect = 1 ftTotal clearance below attachment point required to avoid contacting lower level may be as great as 18.5 feet or more!
7When Utilizing Vertical Lifelines Anchorage DevicesConnected to a structure capable of supporting 5,000 poundsProtected against damage from sharp edgesVertical LifelinesShall never be wrapped around itself, or secured with knotsShall be long enough to reach the lowest level and protected against sharp edgesRegular 5/8” rope is not a lifeline, use lifeline rope with a 5,000 lbs. Minimum breaking strengthRope GrabsSize and construction shall be compatible with lifelineShall be positioned over head to minimize free fall distance (maximum of six feet)Shall be positioned in the proper direction – they only work in one directionLanyardsShall have built-in shock absorber limiting force to 900 lbs.Should be limited to 3 feet in lengthFull-body HarnessProperly adjusted to the individual
8Sloped Roofing – Roofing Brackets & Slide Guards SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingSteep Slope Roofs (Greater than 4 and 12)Sloped Roofing – Roofing Brackets & Slide GuardsTrainer’s Notes:
9Steep Slope Commercial Roofing GuardrailsScaffold Catch PlatformsFall Arrest System
10Scaffold Catch Platform Scaffolding erected at the perimeter of the roof to limit a fall to less than six feetAddition fall protection may be required at the rake or gable end of the buildingGuardrails would be required to prevent an employee from rolling off of the scaffoldingScaffolding must be erected under a trained supervisor and inspected daily by a competent person.
11Sloped Roof - Guardrail Systems Protection Before You Start SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingSloped Roof - Guardrail Systems Protection Before You StartTrainer’s Notes:Fascia RailPlatform Rail
12Sloped Roof – Guardrail Systems SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingSloped Roof – Guardrail SystemsAnother version - Guardrail installed after roof edge is finished.Trainer’s Notes:
13Standing Seam Roof Anchors Pictured above are standing seam roof anchors. There are now many types of anchors available for difficult applications. Should you come across a situation where you feel the fall protection provided will not work, or have difficulty locating a suitable anchor location, notify your foreman who should contact Management or the Safety Department immediately.
14Requirements for PFAS (1926.502(d)) SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingRequirements for PFAS ( (d))Maximum “Free Fall” distance- 6 feet.Interps allow larger fall distance as long as other criteria are met.Maximum force on your body when you come to a stop is 1800 pounds.Force depends on your weight, fall distance, and deceleration device (e.g., shock absorbing lanyard).The shorter the fall the better.Maximum deceleration distance is 3.5 feet.Stopping distance after your lanyard becomes tight & the shock absorber begins to stretch. (one reason why you can’t tie two lanyards together)No impacting of objects during fallPrompt rescue (10 min. max)Trainer’s Notes:
15Making the PFAS Work for You SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingMaking the PFAS Work for YouThink before you tie! Will you stop?What are you attached to?Making the connectionMake sure the lock on your hook is working.Do not wrap around & hook back to lanyard.Do not shorten the lanyard with a knot.If possible, always hook up at ‘D’ ring height or higher.Do not hook lanyards together.Take out of service any PFAS component previously loaded by a fallTrainer’s Notes:
16Making the PFAS Work for You SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingMaking the PFAS Work for YouOther requirements?Clearance distance – will you hit anything?Typically minimum of 10 ft- 6 ft for free fall ft for deceleration and 0.5 ft for clearance.Swing fall hazard - will you be a pendulum?Are you anchored directly overhead?Extremely important for retractable lanyard due to ratcheting effectRESCUE!If PFAS is your protection, then your employer’s fall protection program must have a way to promptly get you down (typically 10 minutes max).Trainer’s Notes:Clearance Distance: If you are tied off at the height of your harness D-ring with a 6 foot lanyard which has a shock absorber built in and then you fall:1) You will fall 6 feet before the lanyardbecomes tight.2) The shock absorber can pull out 3.5 feet.3) The harness will stretch a foot or more.4) At this point the original D-ring location ismore than 10 feet below where it started.5) Add the approximate 5 feet distance from thefloor to the D-ring and the total is more than14 feet (Dalloz-Miller, one of the manufacturers says 17feet) for total clearance, that is, free suspension withoutyour shoes touching anything.This distance can be greatly reduced by finding a higher anchorage (above your D-ring) or using a retractable lifeline (18” max. fall, no shock absorber).
17Warning Lines Must be functional, not just visual. M SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingWarning LinesMust be functional, not just visual.Minimum 500 pounds tensile strength.Stanchions resist 16 lbs. tipping force.Must be 34” to 39” above the roof surface.Safety monitor or PFAS if outside lines.Secured at each stanchion so linedoesn’t pull through when contacted.Install line and stanchions accordingto the manufacturer.Adjust as necessary – lines may stretchas the day gets hotter.Trainer’s Notes:Stress the importance and function of a warning line and monitoring system.
18Warning Lines M Fall Protection for Roofing SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingWarning LinesManual work: place line >6’ from edge.Trainer’s Notes:Use OSHA interpretation on use of mechanical equipment on roofs to help participants understand the loss of awareness of the fall hazard that occurs while turning or backing a machine at the end of its run toward the edge.Mechanical work: place line >6’ from edge parallel to equipment direction and >10’ from edge perpendicular to equipment direction.
19Safety Monitor• Competent in recognizing fall hazards• Able to see, communicate orally with, and be on the same roof as, the employee monitored• Avoid responsibilities which could distract their attention• Must wear an orange vest• A safety monitor is a competent person who monitors the safety of employees working outside thewarning lines• Can be used for edge Fall Protection when applying a hot asphalt roof, spraying acrylic, or foamapplications. Hose attendant must serve as Safety Monitor for trigger man only!NOTE: Roofs smaller than fifty feet in their least dimension can use just a safety monitor.Trainer’s Notes:Everyone should be made to understand the importance of the relationship between the Monitor and the crew in order to make the system work.
20What are OSHA’s requirements? The Safety Monitor shall be competent to recognize fall hazardsThe Safety Monitor shall warn the employees when it appears that the employee is unaware of a fall hazard or is acting in an unsafe mannerThe Safety Monitor shall be on the same working/walking surface and be within visual sighting distance of the employees being monitoredThe Safety Monitor shall be close enough to communicate orally with all the employees.
21What are the fall hazards I should be warning employees about? Backing up to close to the edgeAny unprotected roof openingTangled extension cordsAirborne debrisBees, Wasps, HornetsWater, ice, or other slippery conditionsAny change in walking/working conditions
22Low-Slope Roofs M Barrier tape is not an adequate warning line as it SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingLow-Slope RoofsBarrier tape isnot an adequatewarning line as itprovides noresistance to aperson contactingit.Trainer’s Notes:
23Low-Slope Roofs – Perimeter Guarding SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingLow-Slope Roofs – Perimeter GuardingTrainer’s Notes:Low parapet walls do not provide fall protection but may provide a false sense of safety.Parapet Walls less than 39”
24Low-Slope Roofs – Perimeter Guarding SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingLow-Slope Roofs – Perimeter GuardingTrainer’s Notes:This and two following slides are just some of the systems on the market that can easily be used to quickly and easily install guard rails as protection.Extending the parapet wall
25Low-Slope Roofs – Perimeter Guarding SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingLow-Slope Roofs – Perimeter GuardingTrainer’s Notes:Guardrail for parapet walls
26Low-Slope Roofs – Perimeter Guarding SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingLow-Slope Roofs – Perimeter GuardingTrainer’s Notes:Wall-Mounted Guardrail Systems
27SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingResidential Construction- alternative procedures based on feasibility/greater hazard of using conventional fall protectionMay follow the alternative procedures in STD (formerly 3-0.1A) provided the structure meets its definition of “residential construction”. “Residential construction” means same materials and methods as a typical single family homeIncludes ‘discrete parts” of commercial buildings, such as shingled entrancewaysOtherwise employer must demonstrate infeasibility or greater hazard to follow alternative procedures developed in a written alternative fall protection plan (502(k)) maintained on siteTrainer’s Notes:
28STD 03-00-001- Alternative procedures for residential roofing SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingSTD Alternative procedures for residential roofingAllowed only for areas where slope is < 8:12 and < 25 ft eave to ground heightSpecially trained workers onlyInspect roof surface for slip hazards and eliminate such hazards or take other effective measures. Have workers wear appropriate footwear.Suspend work when hazardous conditions exist due to adverse weatherHoles/openings effectively guarded or coveredLadders/scaffolds meet Subparts X and L.No ascending/descending roof within 6 ft of the rake edgeLocate supplies/materials more than 6 ft from rake edge or 3 ft for tile roof installationsNo impalement hazards below the eaves/rakesTrainer’s Notes:Relate eave height and roof pitch to perceived risk of fall and possible causes.
29STD 03-00-001- Alternative procedures for residential roofing SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingSTD Alternative procedures for residential roofingLow slope roofs (< 4:12) safety monitor or slide guards>4:12 and < 8:12 (not tile or metal roof) slide guardstile or metal roof < 8:12 safety monitor or slide guardsTrainer’s Notes:
31STD 03-00-001- Alternative procedures for residential roofing SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingSTD Alternative procedures for residential roofingSlide guard requirements2”x6” nominal stock minimum (90 degrees)No more than 3 rows of roofing material installed before installing slide guardInstalled continuously along eaveFor >6:12, install additional slide guards at intervals of 8 ft maximumRemove guards on way down the slopeTrainer’s Notes:Begin discussing sloped roofing with some questions: Why do we so seldom see fall protection utilized during installation of and (especially) replacement sloped roofing, particularly on homes?Discuss OSHA acknowledgement that, in certain respects, residential work is different than industrial/commercial.
32Q & A M Fall Protection for Roofing SUBPARTMFall Protection for RoofingQ & AWhat are the fall protection requirements when installing fall protection systems, including guardrails?Can a roofing contractor use warning lines to demarcate a roof opening, specifically a skylight or series of skylights? Isn’t the goal to prevent employees from going within 6 ft of the skylight?What is the minimum height of a warning line?What do I have to consider before tying myself off, or allowing an employee to tie off?