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Page 1 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Integrated Science Payload for the Solar Orbiter Mission Final Review ESTEC– June 29 th.

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Presentation on theme: "Page 1 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Integrated Science Payload for the Solar Orbiter Mission Final Review ESTEC– June 29 th."— Presentation transcript:

1 Page 1 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Integrated Science Payload for the Solar Orbiter Mission Final Review ESTEC– June 29 th 2004

2 Page 2 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Study overview

3 Page 3SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Study challenges and main steps 1.To reduce the mass budget by 25% in order to recover the payload mass assumption made for the system assessment study.  Mass reassessment of instruments as described in PDD shows opposite conclusion!  Clarification/homogeneisation/relaxation of resolution requirements  1 arcsec spatial resolution / 150 km pixel targetted for all high resolution instruments  Allows to reduce instruments size from 1.5 m to 1 m length  Allows to come back within mass specification  Allows to better deal with solar flux 2.To deal with the SolO mission challenge of a complex suite of instruments for an ambitious journey toward the sun, at a cost in line with an ESA flexible mission.  First system level iterations indicates that S/C for shortest cruise missions were too heavy  Instrument size reduction  allows to design more compact spacecrat  Now mass compatible with shortest cruise mission, using SEP and direct Venus transfer  Remote sensing and in-situ Instrument I/F clarifications/consolidation  Allows to initiate system studies with consolidated data  Allows to promote I/F standardisation, to pave the way for an efficient development

4 Page 4SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Study team organisation Frederic FAYE Christian STELTER Omar EMAM

5 Page 5SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Study logic

6 Page 6SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Study schedule ISP forSolO WPAManagement & Expertise WP1Instrument Performance & System Assessment 110Mission & Spacecraft assessment 120Instruments performance & system assessment 130Radiation & EMC assessment WP2Instrument Resource Reduction 210Resource reduction synthesis 220Sensor architecture & technologies 230Mechanical-thermal architecture & technologies 240Electrical-functional architecture & technologies 250ISP support &Bepiheritage WP3Conceptual design ofRrsourceefficient payload 310ISP system engineering 320Sensor architecture & technologies 330Mechanical-thermal architecture & technologies 340Electrical-functional architecture & technologies WP4Payload technology planning & cost analysis WP5Shared payload subsystems planning & cost analysis 24/09/2003 M5M6M1M2M3M4 PM1PM2FP WM KO MTR ISP forSolO WPAManagement & Expertise WP1Instrument Performance & System Assessment 110Mission & Spacecraft assessment 120Instruments performance & system assessment 130Radiation & EMC assessment WP2Instrument Resource Reduction 210Resource reduction synthesis 220Sensor architecture & technologies 230Mechanical-thermal architecture & technologies 240Electrical-functional architecture & technologies 250ISP support &Bepiheritage WP3Conceptual design ofRrsourceefficient payload 310ISP system engineering 320Sensor architecture & technologies 330Mechanical-thermal architecture & technologies 340Electrical-functional architecture & technologies WP4Payload technology planning & cost analysis WP5Shared payload subsystems planning & cost analysis 24/09/2003 M5M6M1M2M3M4 PM1PM2FP WM KO MTR

7 Page 7 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Environment analyse Space enviromnent Contamination guidelines

8 Page 8SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Environment Analysis  Source Term: Mission Solar Proton Fluence

9 Page 9SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Environment Analysis  Total Dose (Cruise + Mission)

10 Page 10SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Environment Analysis  Source Term: Solar Wind –Solar wind carry considerable kinetic energy, typically ~1 keV for protons and ~4 keV for He++. This can result in sputtering from exposed surface materials –Flux ~ 1.3 E+9 particles/(cm² s) (average), Momentum flux ~  v² very high >1E+16!!

11 Page 11SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Environment Analysis Radiation Effects and Consequences on SOLAR ORBITER P/L  Degradation of electronic components, detectors due to ionising dose –No significant problem for shielded (4mm) electronics and sensors (14 krad)  Non ionising absorbed dose (displacement) due to protons –Displacement in bipolar devices is an issue but generally negligible below about 3E+10 p/cm² (50 MeV) –Displacement on optical devices (optocoupler, APS, etc.) very critical => Solutions on parts level (hardening technology) and on system level (intelligent shielding is efficient), => APS remain problematic  Galactic Cosmic Ray induced effects (single event phenomena SEP) –no further problem for SOLO compared to missions at 1AU w/o geomag. Shielding  Solar event (proton and ion) induced upsets (single event phenomena SEP) –A factor of ~25 higher at 0.2 AU than in GEO –Measures in order to cover the problem: mainly on electronic design level (filtering, EDAC, TMR, etc.)  Interference with detector operation (background produced by secondary nuclear reactions) –Thorough analysis on proton interaction with materials (surface material, shielding structure) and evaluation of activation effects (spallation, neutron, gamma emission)  Radiation induced outgassing (radiolysis) and following contamination –Selection of non polymeric with non-halogenic content materials  Solar Wind Effects –Evaluation of solar wind degradation effects (sputtering) on surface materials (change of , surface roughness, etc.)

12 Page 12SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Environment Analysis  Meteroid fluence on Solar Orbiter –Design parameters: v=45 km/s,  =2 g/cm³, impact angle 45°

13 Page 13SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Environment Analysis  Solar Dust exposure

14 Page 14SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Cleanliness Analysis EMC  EMC Control requires „normal“EMC measures on S/C level  EMC program/working group requested by RPW

15 Page 15SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Cleanliness Analysis Magnetic Cleanliness  MAG requires magnetic cleanliness plan (TBD), but according to Science Teams response (Sci- A/2004/069/AO, 9/6/2004) no anticipated problems stated.

16 Page 16SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Cleanliness Analysis Particulate/Organic Cleanliness  Cleanliness and Contamination Control follow ECSS-Q-70-01A Particulates:  Cleanroom conditions, e.g. CLASS 10 000 for PWA at all times Organic Cleanliness:  Materials not to be used: –polymeric materials with high outgassing potential –polymeric materials with low particle radiation stability (radiolysis) –Halogenated polymeric materials

17 Page 17SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Conclusions on environment and cleanliness  Environment assessement –Major care shall be taken against: ·Displacement due to Proton (in particular with APS systems) ·Solar events (protons and ions) induced upset ·Solar wind effects (sputtering on thin layers) ·Material selection (radiolysis) –No major concerns arise from total radiation dose and GCR  Contamination assessement –Cleanliness plan are needed for all payloads, covering ·EMC cleanliness ·Magnetic cleanliness ·Particulate organic cleanliness (outgassing) –This will drive the allowable material list  At system level, an evaluation of Suitability of an Integrated Shielding System (Thermal, MM Dust, Radiation) deserves consideration

18 Page 18 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments VIM

19 Page 19SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Visible-light Imager and Magnetograph (VIM) Overview  Measurement of: –velocity fields using Doppler effect –magnetic fields using Zeeman effect  Magnetograph : imagery in narrow (5 pm FWHM ) spectral bands around a visible spectral line at different polarisation states  line of sight (LOS) velocity  magnetic field vector  Time resolution : 1 minute (5 x 4 polarisations)  Spatial resolution : –0.5 arc-sec with 0.25 arc-sec sampling :  250 mm (PDD) –1 arc-sec with 0.5 arc-sec sampling :  125 mm (new baseline)  Field : 2.7° (angular diameter of sun at 0.21 AU)  Split in 2 instruments : HRT for resolution and FDT for field  Stringent LOS stability: 0.02 arc-sec over 10 s (differential photometry)  internal Image Stabilisation System

20 Page 20SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Visible-light Imager and Magnetograph (VIM) Functional block diagram detector front end electronics back end electronics HRT: High Resolution Telescope FDT: Full Disk Telescope FO: Filtergraph Optics Fabry Perot in collimated beam 28 V aperture door mechanism visible filter PMP : Polarisation Module Package collimator camera selection mirror limb sensor mechanism drive electronics focus and image stabilisation mechanism

21 Page 21SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 VIM configuration, volume and mass PDDnew design HRT resolution sampling field diameter 0.5 arc-sec 0.25 arc-sec 8.5 arc-min 250 mm 1 arc-sec 0.5 arc-sec 8.5 arc-min 125 mm FDT resolution sampling field diameter 9.5 arc-sec 4.75 arc-sec 2.7° 26 mm 19 arc-sec 9.5 arc-sec 2.7° 13 mm focal planes2k x 2k1k x 1k volume1300 x 400 x 300800 x 400 x 300 mass* 30 kg (PDD) 35.4 kg (Astrium) 30 kg (Astrium) (with 20% margin) * excluding window, enclosure & radiators resolution relaxation  volume and mass reduction

22 Page 22SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Critical items and proposed alternatives  Critical technologies and alternatives –Polarisation Modulation Package : 10 -3 polarisation accuracy, tuning  1s · Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders: behaviour under radiations ·alternative: wheel mechanism with polarisers –Fabry Perot: FWHM = 5 pm, FSR = 150 pm,  1s ·LiNbO 3 solid state etalons with spectral tuning achieved by high voltages: behaviour under radiations ·alternatives: vacuum with piezo or thermal deformation, gaz with pressure control –proposed demonstrators in technological plan  Proposed VIM design modifications : –Narrow band entrance filter to minimize heat –Off-axis optical configuration for HRT ( to avoid strong obturation by heat stop) or refractive system

23 Page 23 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments EUS

24 Page 24SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager and Spectrometer (EUS) Overview  High resolution slit spectrometry of sun disk  Three spectral bands –17 – 22 nm –58 – 63 nm –91.2 – tbd nm  Spatial resolution = sampling = 0.5 arc-sec (PDD)  1 arc-sec (new)  Diameter = 120 mm (  60 mm) not driven by diffraction effects but by flux  optics transmission is a key parameter (2 telescope options)  Spectral resolution = 1 pm/pixel (PDD)  2 pm/pixel (new)  Spectrometer concept: single element : toroidal varied line-space (TVLS) grating  Field of view = 34 arc-min driven by detector array size (4k  2k)  Spectral range = 4-5 nm driven by detector array size (4k  2k)  Internal raster mode  Internal LOS control system from VIM data (tbc)

25 Page 25SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager and Spectrometer (EUS) Functional block diagram shutter detector front end electronics back end electronics 28 V proposed EUV filter telescope single mirror or Wolter II slit as field stop relay optics with disperser raster mode & LOS control by mirror tilting mechanism drive electronics

26 Page 26SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager and Spectrometer (EUS) Recommandations  Normal Incidence System (NIS) for the telescope  EUS requires a large diameter entrance aperture (120 mm), leading to large solar heat loads, above 400 W at 0.21 AU  Entrance EUV filter with radiative grid recommended  Al foil filter well adapted for two bands

27 Page 27SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager and Spectrometer (EUS) Radiative grid on Al foil  A radiative grille (black painted) parallel to Sun flux is conductively coupled to the metal filter, and allow to radiate the absorbed flux. The global emissivity of the filter assembly is highly increased. 4.5 mm 0.5 mm Alu foil 0.3 micron Alu radiator 240 mm sunshiel d Satellite structure VDA for absorption limit EUV is transmitted Visible and UV are mainly reflected High coupling with cold space 0.3 mm substrat

28 Page 28SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUS configuration, volume, mass PDDnew design sampling field diameter spectral 0.5 arc-sec 34 arc-min 120 mm 1 pm / pixel 1 arc-sec 34 arc-min 60 mm 2 pm / pixel focal plane 4k x 4k2k x 2k volume1600 x 400 x 300800 x 140 x 150 * Mass (1) (2) 25 kg (PDD) 31.8 kg (Astrium) 15.2 kg (with 20% margin) resolution relaxation  volume and mass reduction (1) : increase pixel to 8 µm would lead to a volume of about 960 x 240 x 180 (2) : ancillary equipment, thermal cover not yet accounted for

29 Page 29SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUS with relaxed resolution Thermal issue  Proposed EUS design with relaxed resolution  60 mm pupil diameter  re-opening of entrance filter trade-off  Option 1 : pupil on mirror 700 mm pupil on mirror diameter 60 mm entrance diameter 67 mm 114 W 33.6 W on baffle 80.4 W on mirror mirror radiator 8 to 16 W to be rejected 10% to 20% absorbed 80% to 90% reflected 59 to 67 W absorbed by heat stop heat stop radiator 59 to 67 W to be rejected 5 W inside spectro

30 Page 30SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUS with relaxed resolution Thermal issue  Option 2 : pupil at instrument entrance  Advantage: reduced heat load on baffle  Drawback: oversized primary mirror, optical design to be reassessed entrance diameter 60 mm 91.7 W heat stop radiator 59 to 67 W to be rejected 700 mm mirror diameter 67 mm 11.3 W on baffle 80.4 W on mirror mirror radiator 8 to 16 W to be rejected 10% to 20% absorbed 80% to 90% reflected 59 to 67 W absorbed by heat stop 5 W inside spectro pupil at entrance diameter 60 mm

31 Page 31SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager and Spectrometer (EUS) Critical points and open issues  Option with entrance filter –obturation of filter radiator : impact on throughput –EUV filter  thermal issue is solved –breadboard in technological plan  Option without entrance filter (with reduced pupil) –thermal control critical: heat rejection of heat stop; thermo-elastic deformations typical tolerance 10µm / 100µrad  5°C on SiC structure, some tenths of °C on mirror gradients –primary mirror multilayer coating behaviour with high thermal flux to be assessed  EUV Detectors –2 k x 2 k format back-thinned CMOS with 5 µm (tbc) pixels –breadboard in technological plan  Toroidal varied-line gratings: studies in US and Italy; maturity of technology ?  Coatings from 17 to 100 nm: multilayer, gold, SiC ; 2 or 3 bands ?

32 Page 32 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments EUI

33 Page 33SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager (EUI) Overview  Imaging of the sun disk in EUV  Resolution/sampling = 0.5 arc-sec (PDD)  1 arc-sec (new)  Field of view = 2.7° (sun angular diameter at 0.21 AU)  Field/resolution = 20 000 (  10 000)  split in 2 instruments –HRI for resolution: 0.5 arc-sec (  1 arc-sec) in 34 arc-min field (4k x 4k  2k x 2k detector array) –FSI for field: 4.75 arc-sec (  9.5 arc-sec) in 5.4° field (4k x 4k  2k x 2k detector array); field of FSI is twice the sun angular diameter to account for HRI depointing  HRI spectral bands: 13.3 nm, 17.4 nm, 30.4 nm  3 different HRI telescopes optimised for each spectral band  FSI spectral bands: tbd in 17.1 – 30.4 nm  single telescope  Diameter of HRIs and FSI = 20 mm driven by radiometry and not diffraction  could be reduced to 10 mm with relaxed resolution  Internal LOS control system from VIM data (tbc)

34 Page 34SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager (EUI) Functional block diagram aperture door mechanism detector front end electronics back end electronics 28 V EUV filter telescope field stop relay optics LOS control by mirror tilting mechanism drive electronics baffle

35 Page 35SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager (EUI) Bafflage and EUV filter HRI FSI entrance pupil diameter = 20 mm foil filter diameter = 35 mm 10 W 7 W absorbed directly by baffle 2.7 W absorbed after reflection on foil 3 W reach foil filter 0.3 W absorbed by foil 2.7 W reflected back towards baffle 1500 mm 0.3° field entrance pupil diameter = 20 mm foil filter diameter = 133 mm 10 W 10 W reach the foil filter spread on 66 mm 1 W absorbed by foil 9 W reflected back towards baffle 1190 mm 2.7° field 9 W absorbed by baffle after reflection on foil filter

36 Page 36SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager (EUI) HRI and FSI configurations  HRI : –single structure ("optical bench") for all 3 telescopes –baffles thermally decoupled from the "optical bench" to minimise heat-flux and thermoelastic distortion  FSI : –baffle decoupled from optical bench –filter supported by baffle

37 Page 37SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager (EUI) Evolution of design PDDnew design HRI sampling field diameter 0.5 arc-sec 34 arc-min 20 mm 1 arc-sec 34 arc-min 10 mm FSI sampling field diameter 4.75 arc-sec 5.4° 20 mm 9.5 arc-sec 5.4° 10 mm focal plane4k x 4k2k x 2k volume 3 x 1800 x 450 x 150 1800 x 440 x 250 900 x 110 x 130 940 x 250 x 190 mass* 42.6 kg (PDD) 42.5 kg (Astrium) 14.6 kg * excluding window, enclosure & radiators& other ancillary equipment resolution relaxation  volume and mass reduction

38 Page 38SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV Imager (EUI) Critical points and open issues  Heat rejection of EUV filters and baffles  EUV Detectors ( as EUS) –back-thinned CMOS –4 k x 4 k  2 k x 2 k format with 9 µm pixels –alternative detectors : Diamond or GaN/AlGaN  credible in large format ?  Cooling of CMOS detectors at – 80°C  Telemetry: huge compression or data selection required

39 Page 39 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments COR

40 Page 40SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Coronograph (COR) Overview  Observation of sun corona between 1.2 and 3.5 radii  Coronograph –needs of occulters to mask the sun disk –optical design with field stop and Lyot stop  Spectral bands –450 – 600 nm –121.6  10 nm –30.4  5 nm (optional)  Field of view = 9.2° (corona angular diameter at 0.21 AU)  Spatial resolution = spatial sampling = 8 arc-sec driven by 4 k x 4 k detector array  16 arc-sec with 2 k x 2 k

41 Page 41SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Coronograph (COR) Functional block diagram EUV/VIS dichroic EUV detector front end electronics back end electronics VIS detector external occulter entrance pupil telescope image internal occulter relay optics pupil Lyot stop UV filter wheel mechanism sun disk rejection mirror aperture door mechanism mechanism drive electronics COR pointing mechanism 28 V achromatic polarimeter

42 Page 42SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Coronograph (COR) Overall configuration PDDnew design(*) sampling field diameter 8 arc-sec 9.2 ° 33 mm 16 arc-sec 9.2° 16.5 mm focal plane 4k x 4k2k x 2k volume 1200 x 400 x 300 (PDD) 1400 x700 x 370 (Astrium) 800 x 400 x 250 mass* 21.8 kg (PDD) 40.7 kg (Astrium) 20 kg COR volume not in line with other remote sensing instruments  recommandation : decrease distance external occulter to pupil with related decrease of pupil diameter (at constant vignetting) * To be assessed on science grounds

43 Page 43SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Coronograph (COR) Critical points and open issues  Recommandations: –Mass and volume not in line with other remote sensing instruments recommandation : reduction of sampling distance  shrinkage of instrument by factor 2 –removal of pointing mechanism  COR off during offset pointing)  duty cycle –whole design to be worked out further  Critical points and open issues –Heat rejection of external occulter –Design of sun disk rejection mirror –EUV coating of mirrors compatible with visible light –Feasibility of the EUV/VIS dichroic (visible light reflected, EUV get through) –EUV detectors : see EUS & EUI

44 Page 44 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments STIX

45 Page 45SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) Overview  Imagery of sun disk in X-rays  Spectral bands: hard X-rays = 4 – 150 keV ; 8 - 310 pm  Use of X-rays techniques: –pseudo imaging by grids –X-ray position/energy detectors : CdZnTe  Spatial resolution = sampling = 2.5 arc-sec  Field of view –FWHM imaging field of view = 24 arc-min –Spatially integrated spectroscopy field of view = 3°  Energy resolution = 2 to 4 keV in 16 energy levels PDDReduction objective volume1500 x 70 x 701000 x 70 x 70 mass5 kg

46 Page 46SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) Functional block diagram X-ray detector front end electronics back end electronics 28 V VIS detector aspect system front grid rear grid Fresnel lens filter

47 Page 47SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) Critical points and open issues  Good level of maturity in general  Becomes the longest remote sensing instrument following reduction exercise on all other instruments –Length reduction down to 1 m should be investigated, in line with dimensions of all other remote sensing instruments. –This may require to reduce the grid pitch if resolution needs to be kept –Will avoid to constrain the S/C design snowball impact on structure mass at S/C structure level, on orbiter and on propulsion module  Aspect system design to be investigated further  Detector CdZnTe : space qualified prototype but design to be adapted to STIX

48 Page 48 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Synthesis for remote sensing instruments

49 Page 49SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Why integration of payloads is not practical for Solar Orbiter ? Common telescope with shared focal plane : ex Hubble, JWST, Herschell astronomy of faint objects + very high resolution  large pupil reduced spectral range ; Hubble = visible, JWST = IR, Hershell = submillimeter small instruments with respect to collector inst 1 inst 3 inst 2 inst 4 flux collector Solar orbiter : reduced collector diameter (sun at 0.2 AU) large instrument dimensions ; from visible to X-rays very specific instruments: coronograph no possibility and no interest to share optics  conclusion : no suite  only individal instruments

50 Page 50SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments geometrical IRD  From the mechanical configuration, IRD are updated –Overall volume including bipodes –Electronic not included. Sizing based on DE boards –Volume for connectors, closure box not included PDDUpdated LengthWidthHeightLengthWidthHeight VIM1300400300800400300 EUS1600400300800140150 3 x HRI1800450150900110130 FSI1800440250940250190 COR1200400300800400250 STIX150070 100070

51 Page 51SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments mass budget initial PDD design design with relaxed resolution PDD Astrium estimate STIX5.0 VIM30.035.430.0 EUS25.031.815.2 EUI42.642.514.6 COR21.840.720.1 Total124.4155.4107.5 Hypotheses for remote sensing intruments mass estimate  Filter outside instruments not included  Enclosures for protection against pollution/contamination not included  Aperture doors for LEOP and may be SEP phases  Instrument internal covers or enclosures for AIT, LEOP and outgassing phases  Electronic masses not challenged Note: Ancillary equipment / instrument enclosures not yet accounted for

52 Page 52SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments data rate raw data and processing needsallocation VIM Raw data rate: Frame 1k x 1k, 3.2 s, 12 bits = 3.75 Mbit/s After processing by FPGA: computation of 5 parameters max: 1k x 1k, 3 parameters, 300 s, 4 bits  40 kbit/s peak: 1k x 1k, 3 parameters, 60 s, 4 bits  200 kbit/s 20 kbit/s EUS Raw data: frame 2k x 2k, 1.27s frame, 12 bits: 38 Mbit/s After selection and processing: 6 lines, 3 line profile parameters, length 1000 pixels, 1.27 s frame, 12 bits, compression 1/10: 17 kbit/s 17 kbit/s EUI HRI raw data: 3 HRI, frame 2kx2k, 10 s, 12 bits = 14.4 Mbit/s Wavelet compression with factor 48  300 kbit/s (baseline); compression / selection scheme to TBD FSI raw data: frame 2k x 2k, 4800 s, 12 bits = 10 kbit/s 20 kbit/s COR Raw data: frame 2k x 2k, occultation 0.5, 600 s, 16 bits, factor 1.5 (UV=1, vis=0.5) = 80 kbit/s Lossless compression with factor 3: 26.7 kbit/s; additional lossy compression of 5 required 5 kbit/s STIX raw data: 64 pixels, 16 energy channels, 8 Hz, 16 bits = 130 kbit/s  1 hour storage in a 64 Mbyte rotating buffer after processing: total count on 8 bits + 64 relative values on 4 bits + 56 bits miscellaneous = 320 bits/image x 1800 images/h (6 mn flare, 0.5 Hz, 10 energies) + 25% other data = 720 kbit/hour = 0.2 kbit/s 0.2 kbit/s

53 Page 53SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments thermal aspects PDDend of ISP study VIM 2 options : with and without window heat stop in optical beam narrow band filtering entrance window M1 radiator with radiative coupling suggested off axis optical configuration for heat stop + heat stop radiator M2 screenwith radiative coupling optical bench thermal control EUS heat stop at primay focal plane possibility of adaptive optics Al foil with radiative grid proposed at instrument entrance Open instrument back in the picture thanks to reduced aperture surface EUIlong baffles with vanes + EUV filterunchanged COR sun-disk rejection mirror thermal washers to decouple external occulter from structure low emissivity conical shapes on external occulter radiator coupled to sun-disk rejection mirror by fluid loop STIX opaque sunshade: 1 mm of carbon or 3 mm of Beryllium thin reflective coating on grids unchanged

54 Page 54SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments review outcomes  All instruments appear feasible –Alternative solutions have been identified for all identified critical items –Potential science impact of alternative solutions to be assessed by science teams  Limiting the thermal flux inside instrument was a driver for our assessement: Open issue limited to EUS entrance filter, for which TDA are deemed mandatory + impact on science  PDD mass estimates are rather optimistic and not exhaustive (ancillary equipment), resolution relaxation (to be accepted by science tyeam) is proposed: –to reduce volumes and masses –As a side effect, to limit the solar heat flow to deal with  No show stopper for the mission, however payload mass/volume plays a critical role in the context of Solar Orbiter Assessment, as larger mass allocations imply longer cruise or mission profiles not in line with ESA flexi budget

55 Page 55SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Solar Orbiter Remote Sensing instruments Technology plan  EUV detector –design and realisation of the basic technological elements for a large array, small pixel operating in visible and EUV –performance and environment tests  Radiative grid for EUV filter –trade-off on material –manufacturing and integration of EUV filter and grid –thermal test  Polarisation modulation package –trade-off on technologies –design of the package –breadboard manufacturing –environment tests  Fabry Perot package –trade-off on technologies –design of the package –breadboard manufacturing –environment tests

56 Page 56SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Solar Orbiter visible and EUV focal planes vis Si CMOS EUV Si CMOS GaN/diamond CMOS vis Si CMOS MCP vis APS monolithic EUV APS monolithic visible detectors not blind EUV detectors blind EUV detectors vis APS monolithic MCP or CMOS C3PO standard CMOS planned R&T ESA R&T ESA hybrid 18 µm CMOS existing technology to be promoted all detectors of Solar Orbiter require CMOS

57 Page 57SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Solar Orbiter visible and EUV focal planes Today status  Visible detector –hybrid CMOS as baseline to optimise quantum efficiency x fill factor –monolithic CMOS as back-up –C3PO : requested ?  Not blind EUV detector –hybrid CMOS as baseline to make EUV optimisation easier –EUV monolithic CMOS as back-up  Blind EUV detector –GaN hybridised on CMOS read-out circuit as baseline if technological development successful –Otherwise MCP with visible detector  Assumptions for technology plan –GaN / diamond ESA R&T is confirmed –C3PO ESA R&T is confirmed

58 Page 58SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Solar Orbiter visible and EUV focal planes Technology approach  Statement for Solar Orbiter –CCD not suitable because of irradiations –CMOS is mandatory for all detectors of Solar Orbiter –format : 2k x 2k or 1k x 1k with 10µm pitch  CMOS development must be secured and commonalised (cost reduction) –selection of one CMOS technology (design rule, founders, CIS if monolithic) according to performances and irradiations hardening – evaluation and qualification of this CMOS technology for Solar Orbiter – develop guidelines for design of CMOS function with respect to irradiation hardening  Transfer ESA R&T « hybrid CMOS » from 18 to 10 µm pitch  breadboard  Optimisation of hybrid CMOS technology from visible to EUV  breadboard  In parallel, development of EUV monolithic APS (RAL development)

59 Page 59SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EUV filter with radiative grid  Phase 1: 9 months –trade-off on material for grid: major criterion: manufacturing+ polishing capability (optical surface for thin foil contact  SiC good candidate –manufacturing of the radiative grid –assembly with foil (procurement)  Phase 2: 12 months with 3 months overlap –thermal test on solar vacuum facility –challenge: simulate 25 solar constants  afocal telescope to be developped with cooling of secondary mirror –cold space simulated by shrouds –temperature of thinn foil monitored with infrared camera –test objectives: check foil temperature + correlate thermal model –facility can be used to test other Solar Orbiter units solar constant  1m 25 solar constant  0.2m

60 Page 60SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Polarisation Modulation and Fabry Perot packages  Polarisation modulation package: 18 to 24 months –trade-off on technologies (tests on Lyquid Crystal to Solar Orbiter environment already performed) –design of the package: ·2 retarders + linear polariser ·oven with active thermal control –breadboard manufacturing –fonctionnal, optical and environment tests  Fabry Perot package: 18 to 24 months –trade-off on technologies (tests on Lithium Niobate to Solar Orbiter environment already performed) –design of the package ·2 Fabry Perots + 1 interference filter ·oven with active thermal control –breadboard manufacturing –fonctionnal, optical and environment tests

61 Page 61 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 In situ instruments Plasma package

62 Page 62SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 SWA  Composed of three types of sensors –Electron Analyser Sensor (EAS), –Proton Alpha particle Sensor (PAS) –Heavy Ions Sensor (HIS).  They are characterised by: –Their large field of view requirements, ·EAS: Electrons coming from every directions ·PAS & HIS: Particle incidence driven by magnetic field –The need to operate below 40°C  PAS and HIS have to Sun pointed –Accommodated directly behind the Sunshield –With a collector in direct Sun light  Main issues –EAS accommodation: on P/F, boom or body mounted –HIS and PAS collector in Sunlight  Should be decoupled from rest of instrument,  Should be coupled to S/C structure for thermal control  Should «reasonably» not exceed 10 cm 2 (i.e. 30 W load per head) SWEA on Stereo (EAS) Triplet on Interball (PAS) SWICS on Ulysses (HIS)

63 Page 63SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 SWA EAS  2 heads body mounted provides a quasi 4  Sr coverage

64 Page 64SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 SWA HIS and PAS in Sunlight High conductance device candidates  Several type of light high conductance devices are possible candidates for coupling heat loaded zone to cold radiators : Evaporator (  25 mm x 19 mm) Condensor (mounted on a radiator) 1. Mini fluid loop Total mass = 80 g Global conductance = 1 W/K for up to 30 W Distance Heat source / radiator = up to 50 cm Flight tested in 2003 and 2004 (COM2PLEX, Ariane5 ECA in summer 2004) 2. Conductive strap Graphite fiber thermal straps Copper or aluminium straps

65 Page 65 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 In Situ instruments Field package  RPW  CRS  MAG

66 Page 66SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 RPW  Interface accommodation requirements mainly characterised by: –The three 5 m long electric antennas, to be accommodated possibly in Sunlight and orthogonal to each others, ·What is the material considered for the antennas? –The loop magnetometers and the search coil magnetometers, to be accommodated away from the spacecraft on deployable boom, –The need to operate magnetometer sensors below 50°C, i.e. protected from the direct Sun flux, –A clean EMC environment although not yet quantified for operations.

67 Page 67SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 CRS  Makes use of the spacecraft communication system, –X band uplink –Dual band X / Ka downlink  Possibly complemented by a lightweight Ultra Stable Oscillator  The physical accommodation constraints will then be limited to define a proper compromise for the USO location between –minimum harness length, thus close to TRSP –clean and stable environment (thermal, EMC), thus far from TRSP.  Main issues –Found a suitable location inside location for USO –Define USO thermal control stability requirement –The reference mission profile does not provide actual solar conjunctions –Open question: radio science compliance with simultaneous TM downlink?

68 Page 68SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 CRS Sun – spacecraft – Earth angle over the mission Launch: Cruise: Nominal mission: Extended mission:

69 Page 69SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 MAG  Interface accommodation requirements characterised by: –The need to implement the sensors away from the spacecraft body on long deployable boom, –The need to maintain the sensors below 57°C, i.e. protected from the direct Sun flux, –A clean EMC environment although not yet quantified for operations, ·Rosetta approach -characterisation only- seems not sufficient ·Cluster approach is too demanding and not compatible with Bepi euse –The need to slew the spacecraft at several deg/s about the Sun direction to regularly calibrate the fluxgate magnetometer.

70 Page 70 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 In Situ instruments Particle package  EPD  DUD  NGD

71 Page 71SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 EPD  Includes five sets of sensors: –Supra-Thermal Electron detector (STE), –Electron and Proton Telescope (EPT), –Supra-thermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS), –Low Energy Telescope (LET) –High Energy Telescope (HET).  Interface accommodation requirements: –The large FOV requirements, requiring either ·rotating platform ·multiple sensor option, –The need to operate below 30°C, i.e protected from the direct Sun flux,  Main issue –FOV blockage by S/C body in case of scan P/F

72 Page 72SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 DUD  Interface accommodation requirements characterised by: –the need to hard mount two small units on the spacecraft side –and provide them with wide +/- 80° free FOV:  One unit to be mounted in the orbital plane 90° off the S/C-Sun line  The other perpendicular to the orbit plane

73 Page 73SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 NGD  Interfaces accommodation requirements characterised by: –Sun pointed instrument, below a shield window no thicker than 3g/cm2 –Sensors kept below 30°C, i.e. protected from the direct Sun flux.

74 Page 74 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 In Situ instruments Main issues

75 Page 75SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 In situ instruments Main issues  Instrument design –Low resources demands,excepted FOV –Sensors rather well defined –Sharing of electonics widely suggested  Instruments accommodation –All sensors but RPW electrical antennas and SWA PAS/HIS collectors to be placed behind sun shield  Instrument environments –Most instruments deemed EMC sensitive, but no cleanliness specification (apart RPW sensitivity) on the table to date –« Good design practices » claimed to be sufficient

76 Page 76 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Instrument accommodation Trade off overview

77 Page 77SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Expected effects of resources reduction options Resourcereduction option Resource Communalisation of functions Technology improvements Standardisation Development centralisation Mass   =  ? Power consumption   =  Volume   =  Data storage and data rate  = = = Development cost     Development time    =

78 Page 78 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Architecture options & trade off Mechanical-thermal design

79 Page 79SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Opto mechanical alternatives  No clear advantages of integrated design  Preferred solution depends on relative weighting between mass and integration  Considering the major configuration differences between instruments  Individual instrument design kept as baseline

80 Page 80SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Accommodation at spacecraft level Accommodation onspacecraft Polygonalshape Centralcylinder Planeassembly Pro’s Stiffness Alignment Con’s Launchaxis constraint Weight Pro’s Stiffness Alignment Con’s Launchaxis constraint Structure driver Pro’s Flexible geometry Con’s Stiffness Alignment inter planes Sun direction Launch direction Launch directions Mechanical accommodation to be addressed at spacecraft level No reason to impose a payload module in the frame of ISP study Payload module favoured Integrated design

81 Page 81SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Trade offs for steerable platform  Need for steerable platform  At ISP level, platform is the preferred solution  Compatibility with pointing stability requiremnts to be confirmed at spacecraft level.

82 Page 82SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Platform geometry options and trade off

83 Page 83SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 General thermal control principle Remote sensing instruments 1. Instruments are thermally controlled independently 2.A maximum of Sun flux is stopped at the entrance of each instruments thanks to : customised filters, (EUV, visible…), heat stops (at intermediate focus point), radiating baffles, rejection mirror (for coronograph), 3.Once the totality of the main part of Sun flux is stopped, telescopes and optical bench require classical thermal control (several lines of heaters, thermistors, ON/OFF or PID law). They benefit of radiators shadowed by the Sunshield (very stable environment). 4.Detectors are independently thermally controlled. A dedicated radiator with a good thermal coupling (flexible strap or fluid loop) is foreseen 5.Location of instruments and their radiators (detectors, telescope, heat loaded areas) is to be coupled with satellite configuration study (possible view factor with solar arrays and/or back side if the sunshield). In situ instruments 1.When possible protected by thermal shield 2.Minimise surfaces in direct Sunlight 3.Ecouple Sun illumintaed surface from the rest of the instrument

84 Page 84SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instuments: PDD status for filters Thermal shieldS/C structure Instrument entranceBefore optics After primary mirror 123456 VIM (*)XX(*) Preferred option EUIHRIXAfter baffle and vanes => limited flux FSIXAfter baffle and vanes => limited flux EUSX CORXX STIXX No filter described Remark Outside instrumentInside instument

85 Page 85SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Remote sensing instruments Thermal issue recommendation  Recommendation is to try systematically to minimise unneeded heat load inside instruments  Implement filters –Outside instruments, –Coupled to S/C wall or sunshield  Develop large EUV filters, in particular because EUV bandwidth is marginal wrt heat flux  Thermal control becomes no more a critical –For instruments –For instruments/SC interfaces  To be dealt with in dedicated instrument assessement studies  This statement is reinforced with the smaller apertures resulting from the revised resolution

86 Page 86SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Recommended filter implementation summary (1): depending whether an adequate filter material can be found for EUS

87 Page 87SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Instruments cover  Covers needed –To avoid contamination deposits and risk of polymerisation under UV flux ·Launch, LEOP, propulsion phases –To avoid solar flux entry during slight offpointing (COR)

88 Page 88SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Need and possible location for Sun pointed instruments covers

89 Page 89 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 WP 200: Architecture options & trade off Pointing & pointing stability for remote sensing P/L

90 Page 90SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Pointing constraints  Pointing direction –EUI/FSI, EUS, VIM/HRT and STIX need spacecraft off pointing to cover Sun disk  VIM FDT off when VIM HRT operates  EUI/FSI « oversized » to cope with off pointing  COR needs:  Option 1: mechanism  Option 2: switch off and cover during off pointing  Pointing stability –VIM requires a very high pointing stability –EUI/EUS call for 0.1 arcsec/s class performance  Not achievable using standard S/C systems  Option 1: Instruments image stabilisation system  Close loop system as VIM complex but OK  Open loop system (EUI/EUS) questionable (S/C behaviour) => Option 2: Post processing on ground  To be investigated

91 Page 91SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Alternatives to meet pointing stability requirements Pointingstabilisation options Eachremote sensing Instrumentdetects pointing errors and compensates with its ownimage stabilisation system One instrument (VIM) provides error stabilitysignal tootherinstruments equipped with their ownimage stabilisation system One instrument (VIM) provides error stabilitysignal tospacecraftAOCS which controls attitudeaccordingly Spacecraft provides pointing errorsignal asrequiredby all instruments exceptedVIM Spacecraft guarantees high pointing stability asrequiredby all instruments includingVIM 1 2 3 4 5 Spacecraft with lowperformance AOCSand simple DMS Complexinstruments with error detection & Image stabilisation systems Spacecraft with lowperformance AOCSand inter P/L DMS OnlyVIMwith with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout Image stabilisation systems only Spacecraft with highperformance AOCSwith P/L inthe loop OnlyVIMwith with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout mechanism Spacecraft with highperformance AOCSand simple DMS OnlyVIMwith with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout mechanism Spacecraft with very highperformance AOCSand simple DMS Simple instruments without pointing systems 6 Twoinstruments (VIM + STIX) provides error stabilitysignal tootherinstruments equipped with their ownimage stabilisation system Spacecraft with lowperformance AOCSand interP/L DMS Twoinstruments with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout mechanism Imagereconstructed onground Afterpostprocessing Spacecraft with highperformance AOCSand simple DMS Simple instruments without pointing systems 7 Pointingstabilisation options Eachremote sensing Instrumentdetects pointing errors and compensates with its ownimage stabilisation system One instrument (VIM) provides error stabilitysignal tootherinstruments equipped with their ownimage stabilisation system One instrument (VIM) provides error stabilitysignal tospacecraftAOCS which controls attitudeaccordingly Spacecraft provides pointing errorsignal asrequiredby all instruments exceptedVIM Spacecraft guarantees high pointing stability asrequiredby all instruments includingVIM 1 2 3 4 5 Spacecraft with lowperformance AOCSand simple DMS Complexinstruments with error detection & Image stabilisation systems Spacecraft with lowperformance AOCSand inter P/L DMS OnlyVIMwith with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout Image stabilisation systems only Spacecraft with highperformance AOCSwith P/L inthe loop OnlyVIMwith with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout mechanism Spacecraft with highperformance AOCSand simple DMS OnlyVIMwith with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout mechanism Spacecraft with very highperformance AOCSand simple DMS Simple instruments without pointing systems 6 Twoinstruments (VIM + STIX) provides error stabilitysignal tootherinstruments equipped with their ownimage stabilisation system Spacecraft with lowperformance AOCSand interP/L DMS Twoinstruments with error detection & Image stabilisation systems;other Instrumentswithout mechanism Imagereconstructed onground Afterpostprocessing Spacecraft with highperformance AOCSand simple DMS Simple instruments without pointing Systems (but VIM) 7 Apart VIM provided with its own closed loop stabilisation system

92 Page 92 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 WP 200: Architecture options & trade off Instrument data management

93 Page 93SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Partitionning drivers  Very high raw data rate –Limited use of dedicated Gbps point-to-point links –First stage of data reduction in the instrument front-end  Instrument-specific high performance computation –Hardwired implementation, not shareable, possibly expandable for size reasons  Compression –Discrepancy between raw data volume achievable and downlink capability requires to clarify compression schemes, duty cycles, or even instrument concepts –Standard implementation of a (multiple) data flow processing chain –Flexible algorithms –Communalised algorithms to be find out  Thermal Control –Instrument led fine thermal control of inner hardware parts –Best at front-end level for AIV reasons  Specific processing –Case by case analysis –High degree of flexibility, at least during the implementation phase

94 Page 94SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Partitionning baseline (remote sensing instruments)

95 Page 95SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Partitionning baseline (in-situ instruments and augmentation)

96 Page 96SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Architectural design drivers Payload interface  Guideline –One interface per instrument electronic module (FEE or MDE), –Merging of science and control command data –No SPF impacting more than one instrument  High rate links concentrators close to instruments to reduce harness  Science interface –Standard Spacewire links (even if one way high rate only required) –Bepi Colombo solutions promoted  Control command interface –Based on SpW micro-remote terminal unit derived from ESA TDA

97 Page 97SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Traded solutions and recommended one HICDS + PDPU + generalised µRTU + sensor bus HICDS with P/F I/Os + PDPU with CAN HICDS with P/F I/Os + multi-purpose PDPU HICDS with P/F I/Os + Generic PDPU + P/L RTU HICDS + PDPU + RTU for all I/Os Fully centralized HICDS with I/Os + monobus PDPU HICDS with I/Os+ bi- bus PDPU HICDS with P/F I/Os + SpW-only PDPU + µRTU for P/L HICDS with P/F I/Os + bi-bus PDPU + µRTU for P/L

98 Page 98 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 WP 200: Architecture options & trade off Instruments power distribution

99 Page 99SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Instrument power needs

100 Page 100SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Alternative power design solutions Power distribution alternatives Distribution of regulated primary power Centralised distribution of Primary and secondary power Distributed standard converters

101 Page 101SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Traded power distribution solutions Power bus from PDU to switchable instruments Power bus from PDPU to switchable instruments Individual protected lines from PDU to switchable instrument Individual protected lines from PDU to non switchable instruments Individual protected lines from PDPU to switchable instrument Individual protected lines from PDPU to non switchable instruments Individual protected lines from PDU to switchable instruments grouped per suite and location Individual protected lines from CPPS to non switchable instruments

102 Page 102 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Instrument accommodation Recommended baseline

103 Page 103SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Possible accommodation for in situ payloads

104 Page 104SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Baseline electrical interface PCDU PDPU Standardconverter LCL CV Micro RTU LCL Space Wire 28 Vregulated On/Off command I/O, TM/TC PCDU P/L or P/L suite PDPU Standardconverter LCL CV Micro RTU LCL Space Wire 28 Vregulated On/Off command I/O, TM/TC Data management Power distribution Standard electrical interface

105 Page 105SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 The scan platform for EPD sensors  Characteristics –Mass about 2 kg –Power about 1 W –2 Mrpm over 6 years –Encoder 1 deg accuracy –2 DE boards electronics  Development –1 QLTM 1 PFM –28 months incl 6 months  B

106 Page 106SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Overall payload mass budget

107 Page 107 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Instrument assessment The Unionics assessment

108 Page 108SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 WHY UNIONICS?  Modular Design –Can utilise a common modular design approach – replicated across nodes. –Semi-mass production – reducing cost and schedule. –One type of module – one type of test set-up. –Seemless transfer of functions across nodes without having to shutdown.  Simple High Speed Interconnect –High speed “Space wire” – currently 200Mbit/s projected 3.5Gbit/s. –A number or off the shelf “Space Wire” routers are now available. –Can form redundant connections – and easily isolate faults. –Can by pass faulty nodes and re-route data and commands. –Well established protocols and routing software.  DSP21020 (software option) –DSP MCM mature space qualified design – used on INM4 –Current MCM can operate at speeds of 14MHz achieving 20MIPs –Built in “space wire” interfaces. –Mature software – for multi-tasking across a network of DSPs. –Software able to reconfigure network of DSPs and redistribute run time programs as necessary.  FPGA (hardware option) –Large (1Mgate) – very high speed space qualified FPGAs are now available. –Can be used as a pre-processor and dedicated interface to DSP21020 MCM. –Proven IPs are now available: “Space Wire”, 1553,...etc)

109 Page 109SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 How Can UNIONICS Apply to SOP?  SOP – Multiple instruments –Potentially similar front end electronics interfaces. –Distributed system with instruments spread over the platform.  SOP – Very high throughput of raw data –Requiring data processing and compression, closely related to the front end node. –Need for high speed links between node (including Mass Memory).  SOP – Require accurate pointing information – Observation and attitude control are closely inter-related. –Can use UNIONICS concept to extend the payload data processing and. overlap with attitude monitoring and control by including them as additional nodes.  SOP – Requiring Mass Memory (MM) –Space qualified MM of up to 800Gbits are being manufactured by ASTRIUM. –MM access speed of up to 400Mbit/s can be achieved. –Interface to MM can be easily adapted to be compatible with “Space Wire” –MM can effectively appear as a UNIONICS node in the system.

110 Page 110SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Assumptions for SOP payload DPU (Cont.)  Centralised Box  Advantages: –Can be specified prior to completion of payload instruments definition. –Independent of payload instruments’ design, manufacture and test. –Oversized generic design which could be reused on other platforms. –Internal modular design so that DPU can be down sized if necessary. –Standard multiple but duplicate SpW I/Fs. –Integrated power conditioning (reduced packaging and power losses). –Integrated mass memory (reduced packaging and interconnect requirements).  Disadvantages / Problems: –Harness and connectors’ mass may be large. –Harness routing may be problematic. –Accommodating a large mass and volume unit on a small platform. –Maintaining low temperatures for a small unit volume dissipating high power. –Existing mass memory module mechanical design may have to be modified. –Existing power conditioning module mechanical design may have to be modified. –NOTE: A distributed system where data processing and compression is done at the payload level may reduce the interconnect data rate requirements, but it will not have any of the advantages of the centralised DPU unit approach listed above.

111 Page 111SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Assumptions for SOP payload DPU  Space Wire (SpW) Interconnect  Advantages: –Industry standard interface, approved and supported by ESA. –SpW is an inherently reliable and fault tolerant interconnect architecture. –Already base lined for SOP and Bepi-Columbo. –Availability of Space qualified ASICs, IPs and other building blocks. –Availability of generic routing software. –Availability of UNIONICS software which utilises SpW. –Availability of of the shelf prototyping and test equipment and software. –Good EMC performance. –High data throughput, >200Mbit/s.  Disadvantages / Problems: –Four-core differential interconnect, higher g/m than some other alternatives. –Not as efficient in terms of Bitrate/MHz/W as some alternative dedicated links. –Continuos token and clock required on active interfaces. –Point-to-point interconnect requiring the overhead of: –“Switching Matrix(s)” –Complete set of redundant interconnects (doubling the required number of cables and connectors).

112 Page 112SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Assumptions for SOP payload DPU (Cont.)  Centralised 300Gbits SDRAM Mass Memory  Advantages: –Based on 100Gbit (2 x 50Gbits independent banks) Module, a DC/DC converter and a Chip Set for Mass Memory control with high fault coverage. –Already manufactured for Pleiades. –File management capability. –No software required for SSR control. –Design can withstand cosmic radiation dose of up to a 100Krad. –High latchup LET threshold (TBC – awaiting final test). –Low SEU susceptibility (TBC – awaiting final test). –At the maximum scrubbing rate a LEO SEU rate as low as 10^-17 error/bit/24h (TBC). –Small volume per module (13x250x250 mm) and Low mass (1.2kg). –Dual power rail design, requiring 2.5 and 3.3V +-10% regulated supply –Low power consumption: –Standby (scrubbing and refreshing only): 1.5W per bank. –Simultaneous write and read at 16MHz: 3W per bank. –Simultaneous write and read at 40MHz: 5W per bank.  Disadvantages: –Works as a "tape recorder" storing and retrieving data serially, no random access. –The chip set for MM control require modification to include random data access capabilities. –Current design does not have a SpW interface. –Uses commercial 64Mx 8bit SDRAMs in non-hermetically sealed plastic packages. (The above two-die per package SDRAMs have only been space qualified for LEO)

113 Page 113SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Assumptions for SOP payload DPU (Cont.)  DSP21020 MCM building blocks  Advantages: –At least two different types of compact space qualified MCMs are available. –MCM designed with modular architecture in mind. –The Astrium MCM has built in three SpW I/Fs. –The 3Dplus MCM built in all the necessary program PROM. –UNIONICS software developed and based on DSP21020. –Space flight heritage on ESA space programs. –Low mass.  Disadvantages: –MIPs/W is not as high as other more recently available processors. –MIPs/g may not be as high as other more recently available processors. –Astrium MCM require external boot and program ROM. –3Dplus MCM require external SpW I/Fs adapter (can be modified – NRE cost).

114 Page 114SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 DS21020 MCM Options  Astrium DSP21020 MCM  Advantages: –Uses TSC21020F DSP, fully compatible with the Analogue Devices ADSP21020. –Two memory banks for program and data (128k x 32-bit SRAM each). –A processor peripheral controller ASIC. –A 1355 protocol controller ASIC, driving 3xSpW I/Fs through a 8k x 32 DPRAM. –Compact packaging design, 65g, 100 x 61 x 6mm. –Solder-less (Interposer) interface between MCM and host assembly. –A module design which can be populated with up to 8 x MCMs is available. –A module populated with 4xMCM and 8 way SWM is used within Inmarsat4 DSP.  Disadvantages: –Operating speed limited to 14MHz. –Require external boot ROM and program EEPROM. –Require external glue logic for boot and program load. –May require external shared RAM.

115 Page 115SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Astrium DSP 21020 MCM and Module Generic 8 MCM Module (4 MCMs on each side) DSP MCM

116 Page 116SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 DSP21020 MCM Options  3D-Plus DSP21020 MCM Cube  Advantages: –Uses TSC21020F DSP, fully compatible with the Analogue Devices ADSP21020. –Two memory banks for program and data (128k x 32-bit SRAM each) –Three shared memory banks (512k x 32-bit SRAM each). –4Mbit FLASH and 2K x 48-bit PROM. –A processor peripheral controller ASIC. –Compact packaging design, 200g, 52 x 52 x 33 mm. –Incorporated into ROSETTA, Mars’Epress and SMART-1.  Disadvantages: –Operating speed limited to 20MHz. –Require external external SpW I/Fs adapter (can be modified – NRE cost). –Pin Grid array connection to host board, may requiring mechanical support. –Require a heat-sink arrangements.

117 Page 117SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 3D-Plus DSP 21020 MCM Cube DSP MCM Cube Typical implementation of a single cube module

118 Page 118SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Overview of Payload DPU Architecture  DSP Array  Connection to 16 DSP MCMs. – Z=16 x DSP21020 MCMs. – Each Each DSP has at least two SpW I/Fs. – DSP MCM is can be individually switched on/off. – Any DSP can be assigned as master controller. – Payload processing requirements can be met using Y<15 DSPs. – Z for Y redundancy arrangement, with N= Z-Y cold spared.  SpW I/F Nodes’ Array  Connection to 36 prime and 36 redundant SpW I/Fs nodes. –34 prime and 34 (cold) redundant external Payload Instrument nodes. –1 prime and 1 (cold) redundant external Spacecraft nodes. –1 prime and 1 (cold) redundant mass memory nodes. –No single SpW I/F failure will reduce interconnect capacity.  Mass Memory Array  6 x 50Gbits Independent SDRAM blocks. – Blocks connected together using proprietary internal reliable bus. – Common external SpW I/Fs, one prime and one redundant. – Each block can be individually switched on / off. – Only one block is required to be in active mode while others can be in standby. (This reduces the estimated total power as it assume a worst case of all blocks active)

119 Page 119SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Overview of Payload DPU Architecture (Cont.)  SpW Switching Matrix Array  Implemented using 22 x 8 way SMX devices, split into four sections. –8 x SMXs for prime SpW I/Fs nodes’ Array. –8 x SMXs for redundant SpW I/F nodes’ Array. –4 x SMXs for DSP array. –2 x SMXs for interllink between SpW I/F nodes Array and DSP array. –Each SMX device can be individually switched on/off.  DSP Array SpW interconnect. –DSPs grouped into 4 groups each of which is associated with a single SMX. –4 additional liks are provided directly between 8 of the DSPs to improve reliability. –Reliability of DSP SWM network is such that failure of any one SMX will not lose more than 50% of the SpW link capacity to no more than two DSP nodes.  SpW I/F Nodes’ Array SpW interconnect. –SpW Nodes’ I/Fs grouped into 6 groups of 6 I/Fs each associcated with one SMX. –The 6 SWM connect to 2 SWMs which provide 4 SpW links. –An Identical SMX array is used to connect the redundant SpW I/F nodes.  Interlink SpW SMX. –Two (one prime and one redundant) SMX. –The prime and redundant SWMs connects to the prime and redundant SpW I/F nodes’ SWMs respectively. –Each SWM connects to all four DSP SWM.

120 Page 120SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Data Processing Unit (DPU) S M X 68 Ports SpW Switching Matrix Payload 1 Payload 2 Payload 34 DSP 1 DSP 2 DSP 16 Spacecraft Mass Memory (MM)APS 3 meters Overview of Payload DPU Architecture

121 Page 121SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 SMX for Data Processing Unit

122 Page 122SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 SOP DPU Mass and Power Budget

123 Page 123SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 SOP DPU Mass and Power Budget (continued)

124 Page 124 SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Study conclusions

125 Page 125SolO ISP Study – FR - ESTEC – 29 June 2004SOP-HO-ASF-023 Conclusion  Study demonstrates that 150 kg payload can be achieved –Pending size reduction of remote sensing instruments and key effect on mass & thermal –Thanks to relaxation of resolution to 150 km @ 0.21 AU –Size reduction and mass containment pave the way for the shortest cruise «ESA Flexible» mission  The main system issue is the management of the data volume –Manageable at spacecraft level –Critical at system level due to space to ground telemetry bottleneck  Study allows to clearly highlight and recommend –Instruments interfaces for accommodation on spacecraft –Instruments issues resulting from overall system environment  Study should be seen as a way –To get a common understanding ESA/science team/industry of ·Instruments requirements ·Mission, environment constraints –To better prepare spacecraft and system design ·Avoid overdesign ·Issue required level of interface information


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