2History of splintsExternal splinting has been understood for many years as a means of preventing and correcting burn contractures. As early as 1607, Fabricius Hildanus writes of a six-month-old child who developed a dorsal hand contracture as the result of a mismanaged burn. Following the release of the contracted scar, he splinted the hand in a dynamic flexion splint very similar in principle to those used today
3Splints of various materials have been used to support burned extremities, maintain joint position following surgery and correct and prevent deformities. Leather, wood, and metal have been replaced by thermoplastic material. Splinting protocol was first developed by Willis in 1969 which is still used as the basis of therapeutic intervention today.
4Significance of splinting techniques The treatment of sever burn cases focuses on:--Patient survival-The end cosmetic appearance-Functional outcomes which depends on :-Early intervention and prevent further damage-The loss of R.O.M-Disruption of joint integritySplinting techniques plays important role in preserving functional out come in combination with different treatment available
6Acute phase-In acute phase of burn injury, splinting required only when damage of tendons and joints is suspected, splinting will immobilize, provide support of affected body parts.-If it is used, it should be non conforming and non constrictive securing should be provided due to fluctuation of edema during this phase.
7Wound healing phase-Splint may prevent development of contracture and disruption of newly skin graft-Care must be taken to avoid interfere the splint with healing as the result of improper fit or placement as splint has appropriate length of leverage and edge rolled away from skin
8rehabilitation phase -Splinting is used to reduce contracture non surgically, prevent deformity, and maintain natural body contours -The combined treatment of splints, exercise, and pressure is required; The ongoing process of scar development and contracture is managed by maintaining sustained stretch to scar tissue. Exercise may Achieve normal ROM and splinting can maintain the range gained.
9Reconstructive phase-Splints applied following the release of contractures or reconstructive procedures for restoring function and .cosmoses-Splints are molded directly to the site and should be monitored for evidence of wound maceration or break down.
11Protection of anatomic structures -The goal of early splinting is to stabilize the joints so that all external forces are eliminated or reduced. -The joint should be splinted in function position as well as the tendon should be splinted in a slack position to prevent rupture of the tendons. -Special attention for moisten dressing to exposed tendon to prevent drying as well as padding splints to prevent more rupture.
12Prevention of deformity -splints maintain position opposite to anticipated deformity -splints prevent deformity through maintain R.O.M gained through exercises. Preservation of skin graft integrity -As survival of skin graft depend on establishment of circulation between underlying wound bed and transplanted graft so splint used to prohibit motion of the joints which locate under or near the grafted area. .
13Restore of functionThe early non operative resolution of contractures provided by sustained stretch and pressure combine with serial splinting to maintain gained R.O.MSplints should be revised to accommodate any change in R.O.M.
15Proper fitA splint too loose and without adequate contour will not maintain proper position. A splint too tight will invite pressure necrosis or nerve compression.Secure applicationA splint loosely secured with dressings or straps will slide, resulting in poor positioning and possible wound maceration. If dressings or straps are too tight, they will restrict vascular flow and encourage edema.
16Avoidance of pressure over a bony prominence If possible, a splint should not be molded over a bony prominence. When such application cannot be avoided, construction should avoid direct contact by doming the splint section over the prominencePeriodic removalSplints protecting and positioning an exposed joint or tendon should be removed for wound care only. Prolonged static immobilization can cause joint stiffness, muscle atrophy, or a contracture opposite to the position expected
17Daily checking and re-evaluation Changes in edema and changes in the bulk or type of dressings may require daily splint correction in the early stages of treatment. Splint effectiveness also changes as the patient's status changes. A careful daily check will help to avoid splinting problemsCleansing with each re-applicationEvery time a splint is removed for wound care, exercise or for any other purpose, it should be properly cleansed with an antibacterial agent before re-application in order to prevent possible wound contamination
19Usage of static or dynamic splinting depends upon the stage of tissue healing. During the early inflammatory stage, static splints are useful, while both dynamic and serial static splints may be indicated during the proliferative stage of tissue healing. Although static and dynamic splints can be beneficial during the stage of scar maturation, serial static splints often prove superior.
21-A static splint supports one or more joints in a specific position for the purpose of immobilization. -A conforming static splint is formed directly on the patient in complete contact with the contour of the body distribute pressure a long the length of splints. -Non conforming static splint can immobilize the extremities but accompanied with pressure problem and slippage. -Thermoplastic material is heated and draped directly on the patient, keeping in consideration that the material is safe and comfortable in temperature for patient .
23-Dynamic splint applies a specific force in specific plane of motion through elastic traction. -It should be considered for these joint demonstrate the most resistance to passive stretch and don't respond to positioning or intermittent stretching techniques. -Prefabricated dynamic splint are used widely in burn rehabilitation, it is available for different body regions, it is worn in the presence of open area, exposed tendons. -For the best result, dynamic splint can be worn continuously with gradual increase tension at level where the patient can tolerate , and only removed for short period of time for wound care.
25-The patient's most painful period is usually prior to grafting, due to exposed nerve endings. If the splint is fabricated during partial anesthesia, joints can be positioned more easily and painlessly. -Following grafting of deep partial or full thickness burns, immobilization is essential to prevent displacement or shearing of the graft while maintaining the graft at its fullest excursion. All joints above and below the graft should be immobilized until the graft is stable.
26-A location adjacent to the operating room should then be designated and approved for the therapist's use, splinting must be done quickly and efficiently. -Needed information, charted by the surgeon, includes the procedure to be done, the area to be grafted, the donor site, and whether the patient will require splints. Using this information, the therapist can then determine whether the patient will be prone or supine on the operating table, and what type of splints will be required.
27-As soon as the reversal of anesthesia begins, splint application should begin. To make the best use of the time before the patient is alert, contour molding can be done in segments and secured with light gauze wrap. Splints applied in the operating room should be of simple design for rapid molding so as not to extend the operating room or anesthesia time.-A small portable water heating source, such as an electric skillet, should be set up about a half-hour before splinting time to allow water to reach proper working temperature. Splint heating should begin as final dressings are being applied to the patient.
29Anterior neck regionAnticipated deformity: Flexion with possible lateral flexion. Secondary problems: Disturbance in mastication; distortion of facial units; difficult or hazardous intubation in subsequent reconstructive procedures.
62Wrist and Hand regionAnticipated deformity: Extension or hyperextension of the MCP joints; flexion of the IP joints; boutonniere deformity; adduction and flexion of the thumb; flexion or extension of the wrist Secondary problems: Radial/ulnar deviation; abduction of the little finger;. flattening of the palmar arches; finger adduction with syndactyle extension of the IP joint of thumb