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HEALTH CARE. The Healthy Horse Signs of Disease sTemp. - Pyrexia sAnorexia sDehydration sBehavior Change sTears sDiarrhea, constipation.

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Presentation on theme: "HEALTH CARE. The Healthy Horse Signs of Disease sTemp. - Pyrexia sAnorexia sDehydration sBehavior Change sTears sDiarrhea, constipation."— Presentation transcript:

1 HEALTH CARE

2 The Healthy Horse

3 Signs of Disease sTemp. - Pyrexia sAnorexia sDehydration sBehavior Change sTears sDiarrhea, constipation

4 Signs of Disease sFloppy ears or lips, outstretched nose sDry coat sDelay in change of coat sNasal discharge sCough sLameness sShaking or trembling sRolling or thrashing

5 EQUINE EMERGENCIES Acute Fever Lacerations Acute swelling of legs & body Founder Colic Acute Eye

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7 COLIC MOST COMMON SYMPTOMS  Lying down more than usual  Getting up & lying down repeatedly  Standing stretched out  Standing frequently as if to urinate  Turning the head towards the flank  Repeatedly curling lip  Pawing at ground  Kicking at abdomen  Rolling

8 COLIC PREVENTION  24-hr ACCESS TO WATER  MULTIPLE MEALS  REGULAR FEEDING SCHEDULE  ADAPT TO NEW DIETS, NEW ROUTINES  GOOD QUALITY ROUGHAGE  KEEP FEED, CHEMICALS LOCKED UP  EXERCISE PROGRAM  TPR  What has his appetite been?  Consistency & frequency of defecation?  Water intake normal?  Gums normal color?  Access to any unusual feedstuffs?  Change in management?

9 COLIC PREVENTION  CHECK HORSES AT NIGHT  CRIBBING STRAP  TEETH CARE  DO NOT LET HORSES BOLT FEED  WORMING PROGRAM  DON’T WATER A HOT HORSE

10 TETANUS (Lockjaw) DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Tetanus Bacteria Clostridium tetani Contaminated Wounds

11 TETANUS (Lock Jaw) sMuscle spasms sSound & tactile stimuli sLockjaw sErect ears, flare nostrils sSalivation sSaw horse stance sSweat sRecumbent sDeath

12 EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (Sleeping Sickness) DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Eastern (EEE), Western (WEE) Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE), Japanese B, St. Louis, West Nile (WNV), Virus Biting Insects

13 EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (Sleeping Sickness) SYMPTOMS sPyrexia sAnorexia sAcute depression sDemented-behavior changes sSleeping posture sCrash through stall sBlindness sCircling sPhotophobia

14 Influenza DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Influenza Virus Direct contact or contamination of utensils, water, etc. with infected secretion

15 INFLUENZA SYMPTOMS sSudden sCough up to 3 wks. sPyrexia sWatery nasal discharge. sDepressed sWeakness, stiffness sAnorexia

16 EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPHEUMONITIS DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Rhinopneumonitis abortion (EHV- 1)virus Virus direct contact or contamination of utensils, water, etc. with infected secretion EHV-1 infection extend beyond the respiratory tract. Rhinopneumonitis respiratory (EHV- 4)virus EHV-4 - replication restricted to URT mucosal epithelium and regional lymphoid tissue

17 EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPHEUMONITIS

18 Respiratory form (EHV-1 & 4) Bilateral nasal discharge Pyrexia Swollen eyelids Dry Cough Anorexia Constipation or diarrhea

19 EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPHEUMONITIS EHV-1 lPREGNANT MARES lAsymptomatic lAbortion 4-5 mo later lLast trimester (7-11 mo) lFULL TERM FOALS lGeneral weakness lPneumonia lDeath lNeurological lIncoordination lLower leg swelling lInability to pass urine or manure

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21 Clinical Signs of West Nile Virus Ataxia or stumbling and incoordination Depression or apprehension Weakness of limbs, partial paralysis, or the inability to stand Muscle twitching Death

22 STRANGLES (Distemper) DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Strangles Bacteria Streptococcus equi direct contact or environmental contamination (individual horses can be carriers, maintaining the bacteria in the guttural pouches)

23 STRANGLES (Distemper) sSYMPTOMS sSudden onset sFever 2-6 d after exposure sSwelling & abscess sAnorexic sNasal discharge

24 RABIES DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Rabies Virus bite from an infected animal

25 RABIES SYMPTOMS sDysfunction of nerves & brain sBehavior changes sSalivate sFurious form sDumb form sParalytic form

26 POTOMAC HORSE FEVER sSymptoms sAcute colitis sDepression sDiarrhea – perfuse, watery sLaminitis sVaccinate DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Potomac Horse Fever Rickettsia unclear, but aquatic snails have been identified as an intermediary host

27 Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) Protozoa Sarcocystis neurona contamination of feed with opossum feces

28 Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) Incubation period: 2 wks to 2 yrs CSF tap

29 EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA (Swamp Fever) DiseaseAgent Major Means of Spread Equine infectious anemia (EIA) virusbiting insects, contamin ated needles

30 EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA SYMPTOMS Acute – Die within 3 wks Chronic – Recurring sIntermittent fever sBlood colored spots on mucous membranes sDepression sWt. loss sEdema sAnemia sInapparent

31 Disease Prevention Vaccinate –TETANUS –Influenza –EEE, WEE –VEE? –EHV 1 & EHV 4 –West Niles –Potomac Horse Fever? –Strangles? –EPM?

32 Disease Prevention Equine Infectious Anemia –Coggins Test

33 Some steps to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases: Limit people's access to brood mare and foaling barn(s). Separate breeding horses from others Limit people's access to barns housing horses returning from major shows or events Have a separate area for horses that are continually moving to and from the farm to shows, races and competitions.

34 Some steps to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases: Use new sterile needles and syringes for all medications. Use separate halters and lead shanks for each horse or, at least, limit their use to one group of horses. Keep horses coming to the farm for short periods of time separate from the resident horses

35 PARASITES Strongyles (bloodworms) Ascarids (roundworms) Bots Pinworms Strongyloides (threadworms

36 Signs of Parasitism Dull, rough haircoat Lethargy Wt. Loss Coughing &/or nasal discharge Tail rubbing Colic Summer sores

37 ASCARIDS (Parascaris equorum)

38 ASCARID Small Intestine Signs –Respiratory problems –Pot belly

39 PINWORM (Oxyuris equi) Large intestine Adults: gut contents Larvae: mucosa Hair loss on base of tail

40 LARGE STRONGYLE Adults: cecum & large colon –Suck blood –Ulcers Larvae: abdominal tissues & organs –Severe tissue damage

41 LARGE STRONGYLE

42 SMALL STRONGYLE Large intestine – cecum & colon Irritate intestinal wall causing thickening & nodules Dark or black manure, soft feces with foul odor

43 BOTS (Gastrophilus intestinalis, G. nasalis, G. hemorrhoidalsis)

44 BOTS Stomach, gums Inflammation, perforation of stomach wall, gum irritation

45 STOMACH WORM (Habronema muscae, H. microstoma, Drashia megastoma) Stomach, injured skin Signs –Gastritis –Summer sores Damage –Tumors of wall –Ulcers in skin

46 TAPEWORM (Anoplocephala magna) Small intestine, cecum Ulceration of ileocecal valve, intestine inflammation

47 THREADWORM (Strongyloides westeri) Small intestine Mare’s milk Erosion of intestinal mucosa, inflammation of intestines Worms disappear by 6 months of age

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49 MANAGEMENT FOR CONTROL OF INTERNAL PARASITES Proper manure disposal Pastures Feed Water

50 MANAGEMENT FOR CONTROL OF INTERNAL PARASITES Drug control Rotational Dewormers –Optimum – Every 6-8 wks –4X/year – Strongyles, ascarids, pinworms –2X/year – Above + bots Daily wormer


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